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Is It True That There Are No Da'eef Reports? What Is The Mutawaatir Hadeeth

Islamic Rulings - Living Shariah Verdicts

Islamic Questions & Answers

What is the number of ahaadeeth as compared to the number of narrators? Is it true that there are no weak (da'eef) reports although there are many weak narrators?.

Praise be to Allaah.

It is difficult to compare the number of reports and the number of narrators, because one hadeeth may have been transmitted by a number of narrators, just as one narrator may have transmitted a number of ahaadeeth.

The view that there are no da'eef (weak) reports is not correct, because the position of the narrator and his status with regard to his character, precision and memory, has a great impact on the ruling on his reports.

We will give you some examples of that.

1 – The hadeeth "Recite Ya-Seen over your dead." This was narrated by Abu Dawood and Ibn Maajah, via Sulaymaan al-Taymi from Abu ‘Uthmaan from his father from Ma'qil ibn Yassaar.

This hadeeth is da'eef because the identity of Abu ‘Uthmaan and his father are not known. See Irwa' al-Ghaleel, 3/150, no. 688.

2 – The hadeeth "No child should be separated from his mother." This was narrated by al-Bayhaqi, from the hadeeth of Husayn ibn ‘Abd-Allaah ibn Damrah from his father from his grandfather. Al-Nawawi (may Allaah have mercy on him) said: "This is a da'eef hadeeth, and there is consensus that Husayn ibn ‘Abd-Allaah is da'eef." (al-Majmoo', 9/445).

These ahaadeeth are da'eef because their narrators are da'eef.

It may also be the case that the isnaad is da'eef but the hadeeth itself is saheeh because it is narrated through another chain which is saheeh.

Or the isnaad may be saheeh, but the text is da'eef, because of some fault in it.

This is a vast field of knowledge which requires study and experience.

And Allaah knows best.

Mutawaatir Hadeeth

Islamic Rulings - Living Shariah Verdicts

Islamic Questions & Answers

What is the ruling on mutawaatir hadeeth in Islam?.

Praise be to Allaah.

Mutawaatir is an Arabic word that is derived from the word tawaatur, which means succession, one after the other. Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning):

"Then We sent Our Messengers in succession"

[al-Mu'minoon 23:44]

What this means in sharee'ah terminology is a report which was narrated by a group who could not possibly have agreed upon a lie, from a similar group, and which is based on what they saw or heard.

The scholars have mentioned four conditions for a hadeeth to be regarded as mutawaatir:

1 – It should have been narrated by a large number

2 – The number should be so large that it is impossible that they could have agreed upon a lie.

3 – There should be a large number of narrators at every stage of the chain of narration (isnaad), so it should have been narrated by a large number from a large number, all the way back to the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him).

4 – It should be based on what they saw or heard, so they should say, "We heard" or "We saw", because if it is not like that it is possible for error to creep in, so it is not mutawaatir.

With regard to the types of mutawaatir, these are:

1 – Mutawaatir in the wording –

For example:

"Whoever tells a lie against me deliberately, let him take his place in Hell."

Narrated by al-Bukhaari, 107; Muslim, 3; Abu Dawood, 3651; al-Tirmidhi, 2661; Ibn Maajah, 30, 37; and Ahmad, 2/159.

This hadeeth was narrated by more than seventy-two Sahaabah, and was narrated from them by a huge number of narrators whom it is impossible to list.

2 – Mutawaatir in the meaning – this is where the same meaning is narrated in mutawaatir hadeeth, but not necessarily in the same wording each time.

For example: the ahaadeeth about raising the hands when making du'aa'. Nearly one hundred ahaadeeth are narrated from the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) in each of which it says that he (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) raised his hands when making du'aa'. Al-Suyooti compiled them in a chapter which he entitled Fadd al-Wi'aa' fi Ahaadeeth Raf' al-Yadayn fi'l-Du'aa'.

With regard to the ruling on mutawaatir reports: a mutawaatir report must be accepted, because it is definitive and certain, even if there is no other corroborating evidence. And there is no need to examine the biographies of its narrators. This is a matter concerning which no wise man will have any doubts.

References:

- Nuzhat al-Nazr by al-Haafiz Ibn Hajar

- Al-Hadeeth al-Mutawaatir by Dr, Khaleel Mulla Khaatir

- Al-Hadeeth al-Da'eef wa Hukm al-Ihtijaaj bihi by Shaykh Dr ‘Abd al-Kareem ibn ‘Abd-Allaah al-Khudayr

Mu'jam Mustalahaat al-Hadeeth wa Lataa'if al-Asaaneed by Dr. Muhammad Diya' al-Rahmaan al-A'zami.

 

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