Intifada for Dummies: Why a Popular Uprising is Yet to Take Off?
24 May 2016
By Ramzy Baroud
The nature of the current uprising in the West Bank and East Jerusalem is a
testament to that claim. Previous uprisings were massive in their
mobilization, clear in their message and decisive in their delivery. Their
success or failure is not the point of this discussion, but the fact is that
they were willed by the people and, within days, they imprinted themselves on
the collective consciousness of Palestinians everywhere.
The current uprising is different; so different, in fact, that many are still
hesitating to call it an 'intifada'; as if intifadas are the outcome of some
clear-cut science, an exact formula of blood and popular participation that
must be fully satisfied before a eureka moment is announced by some political
It is different, nonetheless, for there is yet to be a clear sense of
direction, a leadership, a political platform, demands, expectations and short
and long term strategies. At least that is how the 1987-93 Intifada played out
and, to a lesser extent, the 2000-05 al-Aqsa Intifada as well. But is it not
possible that the outcomes of these previous intifadas is what is making the
current uprising different?
The first Intifada metamorphosed into a worthless peace process which
eventually led to the signing of the Oslo Accords in 1993. A year later, the
Palestinian leadership of the PLO was reproduced into the emasculated form of
the Palestinian Authority (PA). Since then, the latter has served largely as a
conduit for the Israeli Occupation.
The second Intifada had less success than the first. It quickly turned into an
armed rebellion, thus marginalizing the popular component of the revolt which
is required to cement the collective identity of Palestinians, forcing them to
overcome their division and unify behind a single flag and a distinct chant.
This Intifada was crushed by a brutal Israeli army; hundreds were assassinated
and thousands were killed in protests and clashes with Israeli soldiers. It
was a watershed moment in the relationship between the Israeli government and
the Palestinian leadership in Ramallah, and between the Palestinian factions
The late PLO leader, Yasser Arafat, was held hostage by the Israeli army in
his Ramallah headquarters. The soldiers taunted him in his office, while
blocking his movement for years. Finally, he was slowly poisoned and died in
Israel then went through the painstaking effort of revamping the PA
leadership, flushing out the nonconformists – through murder and imprisonment
– and allowing the so-called moderates to operate but, even then, under very
Mahmoud Abbas was elected President of the PA in 2005. His greatest
achievements include the cracking down on civil society organizations,
ensuring total loyalty towards him: personally, and towards his branch within
the Fatah faction. Under Abbas, there has been no revolutionary model for
change, no 'national project'; in fact, no clear definition of nationhood, to
The Palestinian nation became whatever Abbas wanted it to be. It consisted,
largely, of West Bank Palestinians, living mostly in Area A, loyal to Fatah
and hungry for international handouts. The more the Abbas nation agreed to
play along, the more money they were allowed to rake in.
In 2006, this fragmentation became absolute. Many will recall that period of
discord when Hamas was allocated majority of the seats in the Palestinian
Legislative Council (PLC); but the conflict, which resulted in the violent
summer of 2007, had little to do with democracy. The paradigm – of endless
'peace talks', generous donors' money, growing illegal Jewish settlements,
etc. – suited both Abbas and the Israelis very well. No one, Hamas especially,
were to be allowed to impose a paradigm shift.
Israel immediately besieged Gaza, launched successive wars, and committed
numerous war crimes with little criticism emanating from Gaza's brethren in
Ramallah. Bolivia and Venezuela seemed more furious by Israel's war crimes in
Gaza than Mahmoud Abbas' West Bank clique.
Until October of last year, when the current uprising slowly began building
momentum, the situation on the ground seemed at a standstill. In the West
Bank, Occupation was slowly normalized in accordance to the formula:
occupation and illegal settlements in exchange for money and silence.
Gaza, on the other hand, stood as a model for barbarity, regularly meted out
by Israel as a reminder to those in the West Bank that the price of revolt is
besiegement, hunger, destruction and death.
It is against this backdrop of misery, humiliation, fear, oppression and
corruption that Palestinians arose. They were mostly young people born after
Oslo, became politically conscious after the Fatah-Hamas clash, raised in the
conflicting worlds of their own leadership co-existing with the Occupation, on
one hand, and clashing with other Palestinians on the other.
These youth, however, never perceived Occupation to be normal; never came to
terms with the fact that the earth beneath their feet kept shrinking while
illegal, massive Jewish cities kept on being erected upon their land; true,
they learned to navigate their way across the checkpoints, but never assented
to the superiority of their occupier. They abhorred disunity; rejected
identity politics and factionalism; never understood why Gaza was being
disowned and slowly slaughtered.
This is a generation that is the most educated, yet; most politically savvy
and, thanks to the huge leaps in digital media technology, is the most
connected and informed of the world around it. The ambitions of these youth
are huge, but their opportunities are so limited; their earth has shrunk to
the size of a single-file queue before an Israeli military checkpoint, where
they are corralled on their way to school, to work and back home. And, like
the Israelis who shot at anyone who dared to protest, Abbas imprisons those
who attempted to do so.
It is a generation that simply cannot breathe.
The current Intifada is an expression of that dichotomy, of a generation that
is so eager to break free, to define itself, to liberate its land, yet
resisted by an Old Guard unremittingly holding on so tight to the few perks
and dollars they receive in the form of allotments every month.
History must remain in constant motion, and the last six months have been the
attempt of an entire generation to move the wheels of history forward, despite
a hundred obstacles and a thousand checkpoints.
This might be the most difficult Intifada yet; for never before did
Palestinians find themselves so leaderless, yet so ready to break free. The
outcome of this tension, will not only define this whole generation, as it
defined my generation of the 1987 Intifada, but it will define the future of
– Dr. Ramzy Baroud has been writing about the Middle East for over 20
years. He is an internationally-syndicated columnist, a media consultant, an
author of several books and the founder of PalestineChronicle.com. His books
include ‘Searching Jenin', ‘The Second Palestinian Intifada' and his latest
'My Father Was a Freedom Fighter: Gaza's Untold Story'. His website is: