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The Concept of Peace in Islam: The Definition Of Peace And Peace-Making

30 January 2017

By Al-Ikhwah Al-Mujahidun

Staying distant from Islamic knowledge, abandoning Jihad, adopting a defeatist attitude, love of power, fear of death and constant bombardment by western propaganda have weakened the Muslims to an extent that they have twisted their principles. They now deem servitude as freedom, shame as honor, Jihad as corruption, struggling in self-defense as terrorism and surrendering to and aiding infidels as peace and accords.

There is a stark difference between ceasefire, peace and coalition with the infidels, with each holding a different status. Similarly the status of infidels who transgress against Muslim lands and those who do not transgress are also different.

Temporary, fixed term and permanent ceasefires and truces with infidels who have not attacked or transgressed against Muslim lands are permissible in the noble religion of Islam, an example is the Hudaybiyyah agreement signed between the Holy Prophet (peace be upon him) and the infidel Quraish stipulating a ten year ceasefire between both parties. Such accords do not end hostility and hatred between Muslims and infidels nor do they usher in a period of love, assistance and support to them rather enmity and hatred against the infidels remains in its own place. Similarly when the Holy Prophet (peace be upon him) entered the city of Medina, he made absolute truce with its Jewish inhabitants and the Muslims continued their trade and dealings with them. However then Banu Nadhir committed treason they were expelled and when Banu Qurayza broke the accord and aided infidels against the Muslims, the Holy Prophet (peace be upon him) accepted the judgment of Sa'ad bin Ma'az (may Allah be pleased with him) killing their adults and enslaving their children and womenfolk. Likewise when the Holy Prophet (peace be upon him) conquered Khaibar, he (peace be upon him) made peace with its resident Jews and declared that this agreement shall remain so long as we wish, hence lasting till the time of Umar (may Allah be pleased with him) when the Jews were finally expelled. And such peace accords have also been signed between the companions of the Holy Prophet (may Allah be pleased with them all) and the infidels.

However signing peace agreements has not stopped the Muslims from waging Jihad. Rather when the Muslims signed the Hudaybiyyah agreement, they conquered Khaibar. When the Holy Prophet (peace be upon him) agreed to peace with the Jews of Medina, he waged Ghazwas (expeditions) of Wadaan, Bawaat, 'Ashera, Badr, Banu Salim, Banu Qaynuqa, Suwaiq, Dho Amr, Bahran, Uhud and Hamra al-Asad. And after the conquest and subsequent peace agreement in Khaibar, he (peace be upon him) conquered Makkah and waged Ghazwas of Hunain, Taif and Tabuk. All in all, the peace agreements made by the Holy Prophet (peace be upon him) were in the interests of the Muslims and all the scholars are of an agreement that the Imam (leader) of the Muslims cannot make peace with the infidels if such an agreement is detrimental for the community (Muslims).

And Allah Almighty says:

(وَإِن جَنَحُوا لِلسَّلْمِ فَاجْنَحْ لَهَا وَتَوَكَّلْ عَلَى اللَّهِ ۚ إِنَّهُ هُوَ السَّمِيعُ الْعَلِيمُ (الانفال

And if they (infidels) incline towards peace, then you (also) incline to it and put your trust in Allah. Indeed, He (is) All-Hearer, All-Knower.

This verse commands that if the infidels incline towards peace then the Muslims should also incline towards it and halt fighting them. However this verse under no circumstance allows the Muslims to surrender to the infidels, or abandon Jihad, or aid them or participate in a government created by them.

Ibn Abbas, Mujahid, Hassan, Qatada (may Allah be pleased with them) and other scholars state that this verse was abrogated by this verse of Surah Taubah as Allah Almighty says:

فَإِذَا انسَلَخَ الْأَشْهُرُ الْحُرُمُ فَاقْتُلُوا الْمُشْرِكِينَ حَيْثُ وَجَدتُّمُوهُمْ وَخُذُوهُمْ وَاحْصُرُوهُمْ وَاقْعُدُوا لَهُمْ كُلَّ مَرْصَدٍ ۚ فَإِن تَابُوا وَأَقَامُوا الصَّلَاةَ وَآتَوُا الزَّكَاةَ فَخَلُّوا سَبِيلَهُمْ ۚ إِنَّ اللَّهَ غَفُورٌ رَّحِيمٌ

Then when the Sacred Months (Ist, 7th, 11th, and 12th months of the Islamic calendar) have passed, then kill the Mushrikun wherever you find them, and capture them and besiege them, and prepare for them each and every ambush. But if they repent and perform As-Salat, and give Zakat, then leave their way free. Verily, Allah is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful.

Exegesis by Ibn Kathir says that the noose around the infidels is tightened so they either prepare for war or accept Islam and if they repent, establish the prayers and give compulsory charity, then leave them alone, meaning do not kill them, and Allah is oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful.

And the scholars also say that the first ayah about peace have been abrogated by the following verses

قَاتِلُوا الَّذِينَ لَا يُؤْمِنُونَ بِاللَّهِ وَلَا بِالْيَوْمِ الْآخِرِالآية

Fight against those who do not believe in Allah, nor in the Last Day (until end of verse)

And

فَلَا تَهِنُوا وَتَدْعُوا إِلَى السَّلْمِ وَأَنتُمُ الْأَعْلَوْنَ وَاللَّهُ مَعَكُمْ وَلَن يَتِرَكُمْ أَعْمَالَكُمْ

So be not weak and ask not for peace (from the enemies of Islam), while you are having the upper hand. Allah is with you, and will never decrease the reward of your good deeds.

Scholars say regarding this verse that if the Muslims are powerful (have the capabilities of attacking and defending) then they should not make peace but if they are weak then they are allowed to make peace however this agreement must be in the framework of preparing themselves war. Peace does not mean surrender to the infidels and following their dictums.

Some scholars also say that even if the Muslims are powerful and the Imam sees benefit in a peace accord, they are allowed to sign ceasefires or peace agreements.

Kasani (may Allah have mercy on him) says: Conditions for a peace accord are that there must be a need for it, and this need is to prepare for war. The Muslims must be weak and the infidels powerful. And if there is no need, then peace is not allowed.

Ahnaf define peace as: الصلح علی ترک القتال موقتا meaning to agree to cease fighting temporarily

Malikiya define peace as: صلح الحربی مدة لیس هو فیها تحت حکم الاسلام meaning to make peace with a warring infidel for a period of time, where they are not under the law of Islam.

Shawafi' define peace as: مصالحة اهل الحرب علی ترک القتال مدة معينة بعوض او غیره سواء فيهم من یقرمنهم علی دینه و من لم یقر meaning to make peace with warring infidels for a known period of time, whether it is in exchange for something or not and whether or not any one of them proclaims his religion or not.

Hanabila define peace as: أن یعقد لأهل الحرب عقدا علی ترک القتال مدة عوض و بغیر عوض meaning to agree with the infidels on a ceasefire for a known period of time, whether in exchange for something or otherwise.

All the above rulings clearly state that peace agreements last for a fixed period of time and cannot be perpetual because if permanent deals are to be made then the obligations of Jihad and Jizyyah would cease to exist and such is not allowed. Historically agreements made by the Muslims with the infidels have been signed so the Muslims empower themselves and prepare people for Jihad, or if they resided in infidel lands, to access necessary resources, or they signed peace accords with infidel countries and groups to free themselves for another war. It is not allowed for the Muslims and their leader to sign peace accords with the infidels for worldly pleasures or to extend his time on the throne.

Now that it has been established that peace agreements and ceasefires are for a fixed period, the noble scholars have a difference in opinion about its length.

Imam Shafi'i (RA) says that if the Muslims possess power (balance in power is not a condition, either they can attack or defend) then peace or ceasefire must not last longer than four months but if there is a need, then one can extend this period to no longer than a year because the Imam must wage Jihad and collect Jizya in a year and this agreement will delay the stated ruling. And if the Muslims are weak then this period can be extended to more than a year but must be less than a ten year period because according to Imam Safi'i (RA), the period for any peace accord cannot last for more than 10 years.

The vast majority of scholars say that if it is in the interest and benefit of the Muslims whether they are powerful or weak an agreement lasting 10 years can be signed but cannot last any longer. Some scholars including Ahnaf however are of the opinion that peace agreements must have a fixed period, whether it is ten years or more while another group of scholars say that long or short periods of suspended peace accords (can be terminated anytime) can be signed and if it is in the benefit and interest of the Muslims, permanent peace is also allowed however it is not necessary. And when the Muslims see that it is in their interest to end the agreement, then they must end it.

Now these were the rulings about peace with infidels in general and not about those who have transgressed and attacked Muslim lands. Those infidels who have attacked a Muslim land or have occupied a piece of Muslim land, in such a case Jihad becomes an individual obligation on all inhabitants of the city, be they men, women or the old and anyone not performing this obligation will be a sinner. And if these inhabitants are unable to defend themselves, Jihad becomes obligatory on those Muslims adjacent to them and if they are unable, then those closest to them and so on and so forth. And if no one helped these oppressed Muslims then it is allowed for them to sign a peace accord in order to strengthen themselves and fulfill the obligation of preparation for Jihad. It is not allowed for these Muslims to sign permanent peace agreements and live under the rule of occupation. Such events have occurred in Islamic history where the Muslims due to their weakness have signed peace accords with the infidels in order to save their lives however they have utilized these opportunities to prepare for Jihad or migrate to another land of Jihad.

So this is the ruling of Islam about peace or ceasefires with the infidels. As for joining the infidels and creating coalitions, working in their administrative bodies and accepting their occupation, whether under the label of peace or bringing peace to the country, such cannot be justified Islamically. Allah Almighty says regarding such people:

يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا لَا تَتَّخِذُوا الْيَهُودَ وَالنَّصَارَىٰ أَوْلِيَاءَ ۘ بَعْضُهُمْ أَوْلِيَاءُ بَعْضٍ ۚ وَمَن يَتَوَلَّهُم مِّنكُمْ فَإِنَّهُ مِنْهُمْ ۗ إِنَّ اللَّهَ لَا يَهْدِي الْقَوْمَ الظَّالِمِينَ.


O you who believe! Take not the Jews and the Christians as Auliya (friends, protectors, helpers, etc.), they are but Auliya to one another. And if any amongst you takes them as Auliya, then surely he is one of them. Verily, Allah guides not those people who are the Zalimeen.

يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا لَا تَتَّخِذُوا عَدُوِّي وَعَدُوَّكُمْ أَوْلِيَاءَ تُلْقُونَ إِلَيْهِم بِالْمَوَدَّةِ وَقَدْ كَفَرُوا بِمَا جَاءَكُم مِّنَ الْحَقِّ يُخْرِجُونَ الرَّسُولَ وَإِيَّاكُمْ ۙ أَن تُؤْمِنُوا بِاللَّهِ رَبِّكُمْ إِن كُنتُمْ خَرَجْتُمْ جِهَادًا فِي سَبِيلِي وَابْتِغَاءَ مَرْضَاتِي ۚ تُسِرُّونَ إِلَيْهِم بِالْمَوَدَّةِ وَأَنَا أَعْلَمُ بِمَا أَخْفَيْتُمْ وَمَا أَعْلَنتُمْ ۚ وَمَن يَفْعَلْهُ مِنكُمْ فَقَدْ ضَلَّ سَوَاءَ السَّبِيلِ

O you who believe! Take not My enemies and your enemies (i.e. disbelievers and polytheists, etc.) as friends, showing affection towards them, while they have disbelieved in what has come to you of the truth, and have driven out the Messenger and yourselves (from your homeland) because you believe in Allah your Lord! If you have come forth to strive in My Cause and to seek My Pleasure, (then take not these disbelievers and polytheists, etc., as your friends). You show friendship to them in secret, while I am All-Aware of what you conceal and what you reveal. And whosoever of you (Muslims) does that, then indeed he has gone (far) astray, (away) from the Straight Path.

The above verses and many other verses in the Holy Quran forbid taking infidels as friends and protectors and the scholars unanimously agree that whoever aids the infidels against the Muslims, be it with the tongue only, this is clear Kufr (apostasy) and Nifaq (hypocrisy). Likewise any Muslim who stands with the infidels, then his ruling is the same as that of the infidel, his blood and wealth become lawful.

Now that the ruling between ceasefire and aiding the infidels has been cleared up, let's look at the issue of our country which has been under an occupation for the past 15 years and Jihad has become an individual obligation upon its inhabitants (like how they have been waging it till today). As everyone can see, the Afghans possess enough strength to defend themselves, have beaten the infidel invaders on the battlefields, control areas larger than the enemy and have the capabilities of attacking and taking areas from them. So in such a situation, if the leader of the Mujahideen or Mujahideen themselves see benefit in temporary ceasefire then this is permissible given that they prepare themselves for battle or due to some other Jihadi benefit. If there is no benefit then such an agreement is not allowed and a permanent ceasefire is likewise not allowed.

In such prevailing circumstances if a person calling himself a Mujahid throws himself into the lap of America under the name of peace (instead of ceasefire), then he has committed a major crime on top of earning the wrath of Allah as well as shame and humiliation (for those who abandon Jihad) as described in Prophetic traditions. As there can be no justification for aiding warring infidels under the misleading name of peace therefore if anyone says that this deal has been apparently made with the Kabul administration, then we ask, who has created this administration? And if the Americans leave, can this administration survive for a single day on its own? Over here power lies in the hands of America and the extent of Kabul administration's subjection has reached a level where they cannot even inquire about the killing of their own soldiers at the hands of America, let alone condemning such a felony! Moreover the Kabul administration seeks a prolonged US presence (occupation) by signing the security agreement and are asking for extended US support. Their survival is tied to the presence of America. Therefore accepting and working with this administration is the same as accepting the American occupation and working for them.

If such agreements with America were allowed, then why did these same people not sign a similar peace agreement with the Soviets? We would not have had 2 million Afghan martyrs, nor would we have had to face such calamities nor would we have had to witness a civil war. Better still, why was such an accord not allowed with the Americans during the past 15 years but all of a sudden became legal today? If working with the infidels was allowed then why did our forefathers defeat the British three times and why did they use their chests as shields against the scourge of Genghis? And why do we proudly celebrate their heroics till this very day?

Yes, it is an accepted reality that peace is the need of our time, but a question which begs asking is, who started this war? We are only defending ourselves and our land, an obligation placed upon us by Shariah and our own conscience. Thus true peace cannot be achieved until and unless the occupation is ended, our country is freed and a Shariah compliant government is established (because we are Muslims). And the Taliban have opened an office in Qatar for this very end.

If someone says that were the Mujahideen to lay down their weapons, the war would surely end and the Americans would leave, then say to them that the war started with the beginning of the invasion and will only come to an end with the end of occupation. Also tell them that America has over 800 military bases around the globe, mostly based in countries with prevailing peace and no war, however the Americans will not leave these nations. Thus we can conclude that US military presence has nothing to do with war or peace but is part of the broader agenda of America seeking to police the world and establishing a New World Order.

Some people say that Allah Almighty has preferred peace, we say to them yes, the Almighty Lord (SWT) has chosen peace and ordered peace among the Muslims, He the Almighty says:

وَإِن طَائِفَتَانِ مِنَ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ اقْتَتَلُوا فَأَصْلِحُوا بَيْنَهُمَا

And if two parties or groups among the believers fall to fighting, then make peace between them both

يَسْأَلُونَكَ عَنِ الْأَنفَالِ ۖ قُلِ الْأَنفَالُ لِلَّهِ وَالرَّسُولِ ۖ فَاتَّقُوا اللَّهَ وَأَصْلِحُوا ذَاتَ بَيْنِكُمْ ۖ وَأَطِيعُوا اللَّهَ وَرَسُولَهُ إِن كُنتُم مُّؤْمِنِينَ

They ask you (O Muhammad) about the spoils of war. Say: ''The spoils are for Allah and the Messenger.'' So fear Allah and adjust all matters of difference among you, and obey Allah and His Messenger, if you are believers.

إِنَّمَا الْمُؤْمِنُونَ إِخْوَةٌ فَأَصْلِحُوا بَيْنَ أَخَوَيْكُمْ وَاتَّقُوا اللَّهَ لَعَلَّكُمْ تُرْحَمُونَ

The believers are nothing else than brothers (in Islamic religion). So make reconciliation between your brothers, and fear Allah, that you may receive mercy.

Concerning the infidels however, Allah Almighty commands war instead of peace, as He the Almighty says:

وَاقْتُلُوهُمْ حَيْثُ ثَقِفْتُمُوهُمْ وَأَخْرِجُوهُم مِّنْ حَيْثُ أَخْرَجُوكُمْ الآية

And kill them wherever you find them, and turn them out from where they have turned you out (till end of verse)

فَاقْتُلُوا الْمُشْرِكِينَ حَيْثُ وَجَدتُّمُوهُمْ وَخُذُوهُمْ وَاحْصُرُوهُمْ وَاقْعُدُوا لَهُمْ كُلَّ مَرْصَدٍ ۚ

then kill the Mushrikeen wherever you find them, and capture them and besiege them, and prepare for them each and every ambush

وَقَاتِلُوهُمْ حَتَّىٰ لَا تَكُونَ فِتْنَةٌ وَيَكُونَ الدِّينُ كُلُّهُ لِلَّهِ

And fight them until there is no more Fitnah (disbelief) and (all and every kind of) worship is for Allah (Alone).

And He the Almighty describes the believers as:

أَشِدَّاءُ عَلَى الْكُفَّارِ رُحَمَاءُ بَيْنَهُمْ

Severe against the disbelievers and merciful among themselves

Reminder: Some people under false slogans of peace wish to distort the Holy Quran in their ecstasy and love for servitude of the infidels by stating the verse ''والصلح خیر'' (and making peace is better). We kindly urge them to read the first and last part of this Holy verse. This verse concerns a husband and his wife. This verse can never be taken as justification for making peace (surrendering) to the invaders and their lackeys.
 

  EsinIslam.Com

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