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Did The Wives Of The Prophet (pbuh) Perform Hajj Without A Mahram?

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The wives of the holy Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) performed Hajj many times after his death. Can this be taken as a daleel that a woman may perform Hajj without a mahram but with a group of women who have their Mahrams with them.

Praise be to Allah.

The correct scholarly view is that that of the Hanafis and Hanbalis who say that it is not permissible for a woman to travel for Hajj or for any other purpose without a mahram, because the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) said: "No woman should travel except with a mahram." Narrated by al-Bukhaari (1862) and Muslim (1341).

This has already been discussed in the answers to questions no. 3098, 34380 and 47029.
But some scholars, such as the Shaafa'is and Maalikis, and some of the salaf, were of the view that it is permissible for a woman to travel for Hajj without a mahram, if she travels with a trustworthy group.

They quoted as evidence that which the questioner mentions, that the wives of the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) did Hajj without a mahram. That is mentioned in the report narrated by al-Bukhaari (1860), that 'Umar ibn al-Khattaab (may Allah be pleased with him) gave permission to the wives of the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) during the last Hajj that he performed, and he sent 'Uthmaan ibn 'Affaan and 'Abd al-Rahmaan ibn 'Awf with them.
The scholars who hold the first view quote a number of things as evidence, including the following:
1 - They said that it does not say in the hadith that they did not have a mahram with them. Perhaps their mahrams were with them in the caravan of Hajj itself, and 'Umar ibn al-Khattaab sent 'Uthmaan ibn 'Affaan and 'Abd al-Rahmaan ibn 'Awf with them as an additional sign of respect and for extra peace of mind. It cannot be thought that the Sahaabah would go against the Prophet's prohibition on women travelling without mahrams, especially since some reports - even though their isnaads are somewhat questionable - indicate that their mahrams were present.

Ibn al-Jawzi narrated in al-Muntazam, concerning the events of 23 AH, that Abu 'Uthmaan, Abu Haarithah and al-Rabee' said: 'Umar did Hajj with the wives of the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him), with whom were their mahrams before whom they did not have to observe hijab. At the front of their caravan he put 'Abd al-Rahmaan ibn 'Awf and at the rear he put 'Uthmaan ibn 'Affaan

Moreover, it is highly unlikely that their mahrams would not be present, since so many people travelled for Hajj with them from Madinah. It is most likely that there would be a brother, grandfather, maternal uncle, paternal uncle or another mahram through breastfeeding, because breastfeeding of other people's children was very common at that time.

2 - If we assume that there were no mahrams with them, then that may have been an ijtihaad on their part. It is well known that the ijtihaad of the Sahaabah cannot be accepted if it goes against a sound text narrated from the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him).

Al-San'aani (may Allah have mercy on him) said:

That cannot be taken as evidence, because there is no consensus.
Subul al-Salaam (2/930).

3 - A third group of scholars argued that this was something that applied only to the wives of the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him), because they were the Mothers of the Believers, and all men were their mahrams.

Abu Haneefah (may Allah have mercy on him) said:

All the people were mahrams for 'Aa'ishah, so no matter who she travelled with, she was travelling with a mahram, but that does not apply for any women other than her. End quote.
'Umdat al-Qaari' (10/220).

But this answer of Abu Haneefah is not acceptable, because the wives of the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) were the Mothers of the Believers with regard to marriage, but they were not mahrams. If the Mothers of the Believers were mahrams it would have been permissible for them to take off their hijabs in front of them, be alone with them etc., and no one would suggest such a thing.

Ibn Taymiyah says in Manhaaj al-Sunnah (4/207) of the wives of the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him): They are the Mothers of the Believers in the sense that it is haraam for anyone else to marry them, not in the sense that they are mahrams. End quote.

The best answer is the first one.

To conclude: it is not permissible to reject Sahih hadeeths because of interpretations of some of the deeds of the Sahaabah which may be interpreted in more than one way. What is required is to follow that which is proven and not that which is subject to different interpretations.

Shaykh 'Abd al-'Azeez ibn Baaz (may Allah have mercy on him) was asked: They say that 'Aa'ishah (may Allah be pleased with her) did Hajj with 'Uthmaan without a mahram.

He replied:

This requires evidence. It is not permissible to say that she did Hajj without a mahram with no evidence. She must have had a mahram. She had her brother's sons, she had her brother 'Abd al-Rahmaan, she had the sons of her sister Asma'. The one who says that she did Hajj without a mahram is lying unless he can offer proof. Moreover, even if we assume that she did Hajj without a mahram, then she was not infallible; none of the Sahaabah were infallible. Evidence is that which was said by Allah and His Messenger; the view of So and so is not evidence. Whatever goes against the Sunnah cannot be regarded as evidence. Evidence is to be found in the Sahih Sunnah. This is what is well known among the scholars, and it is that on which there is consensus.
Al-Shaafa'i (may Allah have mercy on him) said: The people are unanimously agreed that once the Sunnah of the Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) has become clear to a person, he has no right overlook it and follow the view of any person.

Maalik (may Allah have mercy on him) said: The view of any of us may be accepted or rejected, except the occupant of this grave (meaning the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him)).

What is meant is that what is required of the people of Islam and the believers is to accept the Sunnah, and it should not be ignored because of the views of this person or that person. Moreover, 'Aa'ishah should not be thought of as going against the Sunnah, when she was a well known faqeehah and the most knowledgeable of the world's women, and she is the one who heard ahaadeeth from the Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him). End quote.
Fataawa al-Shaykh Ibn Baaz (25/361, 362)

Shaykh Ibn 'Uthaymeen (may Allah have mercy on him) said:

If someone were to say: This hadith does not say that there was a mahram with them. Can it be said that the case of the wives of the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) was different because they were the Mothers of the Believers, not in the sense of their being mahrams but as a sign of respect? Or can it be said that nothing is said here about mahrams, but he sent these two noble Sahaabis with the mahrams? The first is possible, and so is the second.

If we accept the principle that the ambiguous should be understood in the light of what is clear and definitive, what can we say?

The answer is that we accept the second possibility, and we say that there must have been mahrams with them, but these two noble Sahaabis were sent with them as an honour and a sign of respect towards the Mothers of the Believers (may Allah be pleased with them). End quote.
Sharh Kitaab al-Hajj min Sahih al-Bukhaari (tape no. 19, side 2).

And Allah knows best

 

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Islam in Burundi Muslims or Burundian Muslims | Muslims of Burundi and Muslims in Burundi <> Islam in Cameroon Muslims or Cameroonian Muslims | Muslims of Cameroon and Muslims in Cameroon <> Islam in Cape Verde Muslims or Capean Muslims | Muslims of Cape Verde and Muslims in Cape Verde <> Islam in Central Africa Muslims or Central African Muslims | Muslims of Central Africa and Muslims in Central Africa <> Islam in Chad Muslims or Chadian Muslims | Muslims of Chad And Muslims in Chad <> Islam in Comoros Muslims or Comorian Muslims | Muslims of Comoros and Muslims in Comoros <> Islam in Congolese (DRC Kinshasa) Muslims or Congolese (DRC Kinshasa) Muslims | Muslims of Congolese (DRC Kinshasa) and Muslims in Congolese (DRC Kinshasa) <> Islam in Congo (Brazzaville) Muslims or Congolese (Brazzaville) Muslims | Muslims of Congo (Brazzaville) and Muslims in Congo (Brazzaville) <> Islam in Djibouti Muslims or Djiboutian Muslims | Muslims of Djibouti and Muslims in Djibouti <> Islam in 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Islam in Lesotho Muslims or Lesothian Muslims | Muslims of Lesotho and Muslims in Lesotho <> Islam in Liberia Muslims or Liberian Muslims | Muslims of Liberia and Muslims in Liberia <> Islam in Madagascar Muslims or Madagascan Muslims | Muslims of Madagascar and Muslims in Madagascar <> Islam in Malawi Muslims or Malawian Muslims | Muslims of Malawi and Muslims In Malawi <> Islam in Mali Muslims or Malian Muslims | Muslims of Mali and Muslims In Mali <> Islam in Mauritania Muslims or Mauritanian Muslims | Muslims of Mauritania and Muslims In Mauritania <> Islam in Mauritius Muslims or Mauritian Muslims | Muslims of Mauritius and Muslims In Mauritius <> Islam in Mozambique Muslims or Mozambican Muslims | Muslims of Mozambique and Muslims in Mozambique <> Islam in Namibia Muslims or Namibian Muslims | Muslims of Namibia and Muslims in Namibia <> Islam in Niger Muslims or Nigerean Muslims | Muslims of Niger And Muslims in Niger <> Islam in Nigeria Muslims or Nigerian Muslims | Muslims of 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Islam in Tanzania Muslims or Tanzanian Muslims | Muslims of Tanzania and Muslims in Tanzania <> Islam in Togo Muslims or Togolese Muslims | Muslims of Togo and Muslims in Togo <> Islam in Uganda Muslims or Ugandan Muslims | Muslims of Uganda and Muslims in Uganda <> Islam in Zambia Muslims or Zambian Muslims | Muslims of Zambia and Muslims in Zambia <> Islam in Zimbabwe Muslims or Zimbabwean Muslims | Muslims of Zimbabwe and Muslims in Zimbabwe <> Islam in African Muslims || African Mosques || African Muslim Organizations || African Muslim Colleges || African Muslim Businesses www.esinislam.com <<>>  ALL SERVICES ARE FREE ::::: AwqafAfrica is in association with www.esinislam.com, www.islamafrica.com, and www.islamicafrica.com <<>> African Muslim Directories <<>> If you reside in the UK, the US, Canada, France, Germany, Ireland, or Australia and require FREE Islamic ritual services including Marriage, Newborn Baby Ceremonies, Funerals, etc. send your requests to: ritualservices@esinislam.com  <<>>> Free Muslim visits in Johannesburg, Cape Town, Lagos, Abuja, Port Harcourt, Accra, Cotonou, Port Novo, Freetown, Abidjan, Dakar, Khartoum, Nairobi, Addis Ababa, Harare, or Kinshasa visits@esinislam.com  <<>> FREE Translations English-Arabic-English and French-Arabic-French are available for mosques, Islamic centres, and Muslim organizations based in Africa or serving the Africans abroad: translator@esinislam.com  <<>> Free Islamic And Arabic Studies For The African Muslims And African American Muslims <<>> Islam In Africa <> Islam In America <> Islam In Europe <> Islam In Asia <<>> Join us celebrating Islam in Africa Muslims or African Muslims | Muslims of Africa and Muslims in Africa Islam in Angola Muslims or Angolan Muslims | Muslims of Angola and Muslims in Angola <>Islam in Benin Muslims or Dahome Muslims | Muslims of Benin and Muslims in Benin <> Islam in Botswana Muslims or Boswanan Muslims | Muslims of Botswana and Muslims in Botswana <> Islam in Burkina Faso Muslims or Burkinan Muslims | Muslims of Burkinafaso and Muslims in Burkinafaso <> Islam in Burundi Muslims or Burundian Muslims | Muslims of Burundi and Muslims in Burundi <> Islam in Cameroon Muslims or Cameroonian Muslims | Muslims of Cameroon and Muslims in Cameroon <> Islam in Cape Verde Muslims or Capean Muslims | Muslims of Cape Verde and Muslims in Cape Verde <> Islam in Central Africa Muslims or Central African Muslims | Muslims of Central Africa and Muslims in Central Africa <> Islam in Chad Muslims or Chadian Muslims | Muslims of Chad And Muslims in Chad <> Islam in Comoros Muslims or Comorian Muslims | Muslims of Comoros and Muslims in Comoros <> Islam in Congolese (DRC Kinshasa) Muslims or Congolese (DRC Kinshasa) Muslims | Muslims of Congolese (DRC Kinshasa) and Muslims in Congolese (DRC Kinshasa) <> Islam in Congo (Brazzaville) Muslims or Congolese (Brazzaville) Muslims | Muslims of Congo (Brazzaville) and Muslims in Congo (Brazzaville) <> Islam in Djibouti Muslims or Djiboutian Muslims | Muslims of Djibouti and Muslims in Djibouti <> Islam in Equatorial Guinea Muslims or Equatorial Guinean Muslims | Muslims of Equatoria Guinea And Muslims in Equatoria Guinea <> Islam in Eritrea Muslims or Eritrean Muslims | Muslims of Eritrea and Muslims in Eritrea <> Islam in Ethiopia Muslims or Ethiopian Muslims | Muslims of Ethiopia and Muslims in Ethiopia <> Islam in Gabon Muslims or Gabonese Muslims | Muslims of Gabon and Muslims in Gabon <> Islam in Gambia Muslims or Gambian Muslims | Muslims of Gabia and Muslims in Gambia <> Islam in Ghana Muslims or Ghanaian Muslims | Muslims of Ghana and Muslims in Ghana <> Islam in Guinea (Conakry) Muslims or Guinean (Conakry) Muslims | Muslims of Guinea (Conakry) and Muslims in Guinea (Conakry) <> Islam in Guinea Bissau Muslims or Bissauan Muslim or Bissawean Muslims | Muslims of Guinea and Muslims In Guinea <> Islam in Ivory Coast Muslims or Ivorian Muslims | Muslims of Ivory Coast and Muslims in Ivory Coast <> Islam in Kenya Muslims or Kenyan Muslims | Muslims of Kenya and Muslims in Kenya <> Islam in Lesotho Muslims or Lesothian Muslims | Muslims of Lesotho and Muslims in Lesotho <> Islam in Liberia Muslims or Liberian Muslims | Muslims of Liberia and Muslims in Liberia <> Islam in Madagascar Muslims or Madagascan Muslims | Muslims of Madagascar and Muslims in Madagascar <> Islam in Malawi Muslims or Malawian Muslims | Muslims of Malawi and Muslims In Malawi <> Islam in Mali Muslims or Malian Muslims | Muslims of Mali and Muslims In Mali <> Islam in Mauritania Muslims or Mauritanian Muslims | Muslims of Mauritania and Muslims In Mauritania <> Islam in Mauritius Muslims or Mauritian Muslims | Muslims of Mauritius and Muslims In Mauritius <> Islam in Mozambique Muslims or Mozambican Muslims | Muslims of Mozambique and Muslims in Mozambique <> Islam in Namibia Muslims or Namibian Muslims | Muslims of Namibia and Muslims in Namibia <> Islam in Niger Muslims or Nigerean Muslims | Muslims of Niger And Muslims in Niger <> Islam in Nigeria Muslims or Nigerian Muslims | Muslims of Nigeria and Muslims in Nigeria <> Islam in Rwanda Muslims or Rwandan Muslims or Rwandese Muslims | Muslims of Rwanda and Muslims in Rwanda <> Islam in Sao Tome Muslims or Sao Tomese Muslims | Muslims of Sao Tome and Muslims in Sao Tome <> Islam in Senegal Muslims or Senegalese Muslims | Muslims of Senegal and Muslims in Senegal <> Islam in Seychelles Muslims or Seychellois Muslims | Muslims of Seychelles And Muslims in Seychelles <> Islam in Sierra Leone Muslims or Sierra Leonean Muslims | Muslims of Sierra Leone and Muslims in Sierra Leone <> Islam in Somalia Muslims or Somali Muslims | Muslims of Somalia and Muslims in Somalia Islam in South Africa Muslims or South African Muslims or Southern African Muslims | Muslims of South African Or Muslims Of Southern Africa Or Muslims in Southern Africa <> <> Islam in Sudan Muslims or Sudanese Muslims | Muslims of Sudan and Muslims in Sudan <> <> Islam in Swaziland Muslims or Swazi Muslims | Muslims of Swaziland and Muslims in Swaziland <> Islam in Tanzania Muslims or Tanzanian Muslims | Muslims of Tanzania and Muslims in Tanzania <> Islam in Togo Muslims or Togolese Muslims | Muslims of Togo and Muslims in Togo <> Islam in Uganda Muslims or Ugandan Muslims | Muslims of Uganda and Muslims in Uganda <> Islam in Zambia Muslims or Zambian Muslims | Muslims of Zambia and Muslims in Zambia <> Islam in Zimbabwe Muslims or Zimbabwean Muslims | Muslims of Zimbabwe and Muslims in Zimbabwe <> Islam in African Muslims || African Mosques || African Muslim Organizations || African Muslim Colleges || African Muslim Businesses www.esinislam.com <<>>  ALL SERVICES ARE FREE <> African Islamic education services and interactive Muslim World news network with insightful analysis and commentary on issues and events of importance to Muslims unfolding Muslim perspectives and Da'wah:: The Muslim World :: African Muslims :: African American Muslims :: 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