The four Imam's - Imam Abu Hanifa, Imam Malik, Imam
Ahmed bin Hanbal and Imam Shafi - are the main figures who's interpretation
of the Hadith and Qur'an are followed by the majority of Sunni Muslims all
over the world. They are therefore of great importance to the correct
practice of Islam.
He is Abdullah Mohamed Ibn Idris Al Shafi'i, a prominent Imam who was a
descendant from the Hashimi family of Quraysh tribe, which Prophet Mohamed (PBIUH)
He is known as the revivalist of the second century, for he was the one who
put the fundamental of jurisprudence; science of (usul al Fiqh).
At the age of 10, Al Shafi'i mother sent him to Mekkah, near his tribal
ancestry. After entrusting him initially in the care of a relative, she
followed him there to keep an eye on his studies.
As he could not afford enough writing material, Al Shaafi'i used to go to
the governor's offices in search of paper that had already been used. On the
blank side of the paper, he would do his lessons. He memorized the Qur'an at
a very young age.
In order to improve his knowledge of Arabic, he went deep into the desert to
join the Bedouin tribe of Huthail, who were renowned for the best standard
of literary Arabic. He studied poetry and learnt their prose reporting and
stories. He accompanied the tribe on nomadic travels, until he mastered all
that was there to learn. He also learnt archery and became very skilful; he
could hit the target 10 times out of 10.
On his return to Mekkah Al Shafi'i continued studying. At the age of 20 he
had completed all that its scholars has to teach, but this thirst for
knowledge was not quenched. So, he traveled to Madinah to learn from Imam
Al Shafi'i wished to have a foretaste of what he would be learning. He
borrowed Al-Muwatta' to read which even fueled him more made him more eager
to study under Imam Malik.
Al-Shafi'i stayed very closed to Malik for nine years, he never left him
during those nine years except to visit his mother, or to stay for a short
while with some bedouin tribes. The last three years at Malik's study circle
were doubly fruitful because the eminent Iraqi scholar. Muhammad ibn Al-Hasan
Al-Shaibani (132-189H) who recorded all the Hanafi scholarship had come to
study under Malik.
Imam Malik used to care more and give more attention to poor and needy
students. Al-Shafi'i was one of them. When Malik died (179H), Al-Shafi'i
returned to Mekkah hoping to earn his living. Some people asked the governor
of Yemen to help Al-Shafi'i, and so he took him to Yemen where he was
appointed justice in the city of Najran. The people there soon realised that
they had a judge who was devoted to justice, unwilling to swerve from it for
any favor or pressure. They respected him so much and learnt a great deal
In his fifth years at Najran, Al-Shafi'i's mettle was tasted when a
strong-fisted governor took over. Al-Shafi'i did not spare him from
criticism whenever the occasion arose. In the process of curbing the
governor's injustice, Al-Shafi'i earned his enmity.
The governor wrote to Caliph Al-Rasheed in Baghdad, accusing Al-Shafi'i of
backing a revolt by people loyal to the Alawis, the descendants of Ali ibn
Talib (may Allah be pleased with him). He said:
‘I have no authority over this man, and he achieves by his
tongue much more than a fighter can achieve with this sword.'
Was this accusation false? Indeed it was, for Al-Shafi'i never supported or
advocated any revolt or rebellion against the Caliph. On the contrary he
used to love the Alawis, as they were the descendants of Ali, (may Allah be
pleased with him), and Fatimah, (,ay Allah be pleased with her), the
daughter of Prophet Mohammad, (PBUH).
At the age of 34, Imam Al-Shafi'i was brought in 184H before the Caliph in
Baghdad, in fetters and chains. Muhammad ibn Al-Hasan Al-Shaibani, the Chief
Justice was his the only of his advisers and top officials present at the
court. Two factors affected the Caliph's Judgement: a lucid defence by the
accused himself; and Chief Justice Muhammad ibn Al-Hasan Al-Shaibani's
Testimony. Al-Shafi'i pointed out that his scholarship was known to the
Chief Justice, who described Al-Shafi'i as a scholar of eminence who would
not be involved in such matters.
Caliph Al-Rasheed, known to be kind and merciful, saw in this testimony his
way out to spare Al-Shafi'i. He told Muhammad ibn Al-Hasan Al-Shaibani to
take Al-Shafi'i to his home while he thought the matter over. There the case
ended. The charge was never revived. The governor who had rid himself of a
fearless critic was no longer interested what happened to him.
This episode was a blessing in disguise because it brought Al-Shafi'i back
on track in his quest for knowledge. Al-Shafi'i stayed with Muhammad ibn Al-Hasan
Al-Shaibani and read under his guidance all the books that he had written,
recording the Fiqh of Imam Abu Haneefah ( one of the Four grand Imams) and
his disciples. After two years, Al Shaafi'i left Baghdad, he said:
‘I carried with me a whole camel load of books, all of
which I learnt directly form Muhammad ibn Al-Hasan.'
Al-Shafi'i learnt the Fiqh in Baghdad as well as memorized
the Ahadith that were known in Iraq, but not in Madinah or Mekkah. He also
entered into debate with many scholars, speaking as a student of Imam Malik,
but he would only debate with lesser scholars than Muhammad ibn Al-Hasan Al-Shaibani,
whom he gave great respect.
Among the most important characteristic of Al-Shafi'i was his native
intelligence that gave him an easy and good grasp of even the most difficult
of questions. He always studied matters in depth, so as to reach the right
solution and the right answer regarding any question put to him. His
cleverness was coupled with a superb memory and ready argument.
When discussing any matter, Imam Al-Shafi'i would put it with a wealth of
meanings that he always found ready to hand, his explanation was always rich
and to the point.
Al-Shafi'i had a unique exquisite literary style, lucidity of expression and
command over the language. His very clear use of words made him a
influential speaker. One of his students said:
‘Every scholar gives more in his books than when you meet
him personally, except for Al-Shafi'i whose verbal discussion gives you more
than his books.'
Imam Al-Shafi'i's books are among the finest in style, eloquence and
Another quality that positioned Al-Shafi'i at the highest rank of Islamic
scholars was his persistent devotion and sincerity in the pursuit of truth,
and declaring it even if it was unpopular, or at variance with his teacher,
to whom he was most devoted. His gratitude to Muhammad ibn Al-Hasan, who had
saved him from the Caliph's wrath, did not prevent him from supporting the
Madinan scholars' views. No one ever accused him of rejecting true evidence.
Imam Al-Shafi'i used to urge his students to devote both their time and
effort in studying the Hadith.
Imam Al-Shafi'i never got furious while debating with anyone, because he was
not interested in scoring points or winning people's admiration, but rather
in reaching the truth. And if his opponent were right, he would not find any
difficulty accepting his view.
He was quoted as saying:
‘I wish people would learn what I have to give, without it
being attributed to me. In this way, I will receive the reward for it from
Allah, without having people's praise.'
With such noble qualities and wealth or knowledge, no wonder that scholars
placed Imam Muhammad ibn Idris Al-Shafi'i in the highest rank.
Syria like many other countries around the world
witnessed, during this period, the flood of refugees
from war troubled nations like Somalia, arrival of
people from Algeria during the brutal struggling between
the Mujahidun and the government, resettlement of the
Palestinians fleeing from sophisticated guns of the
Israelis as well as adventure of African migrants for