Muhammad Ahmad 'Abdus-Salam
One of the good features of Islam is that it takes its adherents from a
condition to a better one, from the sweet to the sweeter, and from the
precious to more precious and so on. So, they always are in "a Garden of
Delight (Paradise)," enjoying the pleasures and blessings of their lord.
Before the end of Ramadan, you see the Qur'an calling people to complete the
month then they receive the next month with Takbir then the Sunnah commands
them to pay Zakat-ul-Fitr at the dawn of the first day of Shawwal. At sunrise,
Islam commands them to go to Salat-ul-'Eid in open areas and to observe the
fast of six days of Shawwal to win the great reward. As for Takbir, Allah
says: "Allâh intends for you ease, and He does not want to make things
difficult for you. (He wants that you) must complete the same number (of
days), and that you must magnify Allâh [i.e. to say Takbîr (Allâhu Akbar;
Allâh is the Most Great)] for having guided you so that you may be grateful to
Him." [Surat Al Baqarah: 185]. Ibn Jarir reported on the authority of Ibn 'Abbas
who said: "It is entitled on the fasting people when they ascertain the coming
of Shawwal to pronounce Takbir until they end their 'Eid" since Allah says:
"(He wants that you) must complete the same number (of days), and that you
must magnify Allâh [i.e. to say Takbîr (Allâhu Akbar; Allâh is the Most
Great)] for having guided you so that you may be grateful to Him." [Surat Al
Baqarah: 185]. Sa'id ibn Mansur and Ibn Abu Shaybah reported that Ibn Mas'ud
used to pronounce Takbir saying: "Allahu Akbar, Allah Akbar, La Ilaha Illa
Allah, Wallahu Akbar Allah Akbar Walillahil-Hamd." Ibn Abu Shaybah and Al
Bayhaqy reported in his Sunan on the authority of Ibn 'Abbas that he used to
pronounce Takbir saying: Allahu Akbaru Kabira, Allahu Akbaru Kabira, Allahu
Akbaru walillahil-Hamd, Allah Akbar 'Ala Ma Hadana. Reported by Ash-Shawkany
in his Tafsir.
As for Zakat-ul-Fitr, Al Bukhari and Muslim reported on the authority of Ibn 'Umar
(may Allah be pleased with him) that the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon
him) enjoined the payment of one Sa' of dates or one Sa' of barley as
Zakat-ul-Fitr on every Muslim slave or free, male or female, young or old, and
he ordered that it be paid before the people went out to offer the 'Id prayer.
(One Sa' = 3 Kilograms approx.)
Abu Dawud, Ibn Majah, Ad-Daraqutny, and Al Hakim who graded it as authentic
reported on the authority of Ibn 'Abbas that the Messenger of Allah (peace be
upon him) prescribed the sadaqah (alms) relating to the breaking of the fast
as a purification of the fasting from empty and obscene talk and as food for
the poor. If anyone pays it before the prayer (of 'Eid), it will be accepted
as zakat. If anyone pays it after the prayer, that will be a sadaqah like
other sadaqahs (alms).
As for offering Salat-ul-'Eid in the desert, Al Bukhari reported on the
authority of Um 'Atiyyah who said: "Our Prophet (peace be upon him) ordered us
to come out (on 'Id day) with the mature girls and the virgins staying in
seclusion." Hafsah narrated the above mentioned Hadith and added: "The mature
girls or virgins staying in seclusion but the menstruating women had to keep
away from the Musalla and pronounce Takbir as people pronounce and say Amen
after their supplications in pursuit of the blessing of that day."
Al Bukhari reported also that Ibn 'Umar said: "The Prophet (peace be upon him)
used to proceed to the Musalla and an 'Anaza used to be carried before him and
planted in the Musalla in front of him and he would pray facing it (as a
Sutra)." So, the Sunnah of the Prophet (peace be upon him) is that men, women,
children go to the desert to offer Salat-ul-'Eid; may Allah guide us to the
Let it be known that one of the dispraised innovations is leaving
Salat-ul-'Eid for visiting graves although it is not part of the Shari'ah to
visit graves on that day, and the worst is women's going with them despite the
Hadith which reads: "May Allah curse women who visit graves."
Fasting of Shawwal:
Imam Ahmad, Muslim, and the compilers of the Four books of Sunan as was
reported in Al Jami' As-Saghir that the Prophet (peace be upon him) said:
Whoever fasts Ramadan and six days of Shawwal is as if he had fasted his
entire lifetime. It was reported that the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon
him) said: "Whoever fasts Ramadan, Shawwal, Wednesdays, and Thursdays shall
enter Paradise." Reported in Majma' Az-Zawa'id and said: Reported by Ahmad and
one of its narrators is not known, but the rest of its narrators are
A questioner asked the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) about the
fasting of lifetime, he said: Fast Ramadan and the next month, and every
Wednesdays and Thursdays, and when you do so, you have fasted the entire
lifetime." He graded it as authentic in Sahih Al Jami'and explained it. The
author of reasons for the revelation of the Hadith said: Reported by Abu Dawud,
At-Tirmidhy, An-Nasa'y, and Al Bayhaqy. At-Tirmidy said: It is a strange
Hadith, whereas Abu Dawud did not grade it as weak.
Ibn Majah reported that Usamah ibn Zayd used to fast the Sacred Months, then
the Messenger (peace be upon him) said: Fast Shawwal. So, he avoided the
fasting of the sacred months and observed the fast of Shawwal until he died.
As-Sindy said in Al Hashiyah: It is reported in Az-Zawa'id: Its chain of
transmission is authentic but it is Munqati'.He authenticated it in Al Jami'
and its explanation; and Allah knows the best.
We ask Allah to guide us to things which please Him.