Surat Al Baqarah Verse 179-189 (Quran 2: 179-189)
Muhammad Khayr Ramadan Yusuf
179- Applying the rule for retaliation can stop killing and cease bloodshed.
If the murderer is killed, the trial will abate; otherwise, it will escalate
and cause more than one person to be killed. Moreover, it will result in the
growth of enmity and hatred between both parties and may be between the Kin
and relatives themselves.
So, there is a means to
preserve the lives of people in killing the murderer even if the apparent form
is to kill a person because it is a just ruling by taking the right of
retaliation from the murderer who killed an innocent soul. This is a reminder
and admonish for those people who have minds. Retaliation was legislated to
keep the people away from killing one another, so do not kill anyone lest you
shall be killed.
180- It was prescribed on you that if anyone among you left some money, they
should make a bequest to their parents and relatives in equity; this is a
stressed command for the believers.
This was legislated in the beginning of Islam when the bequest was an
obligatory act for the parents and relatives, then it was abrogated by the
Ayah of Inheritance and each one took his right by the command of Allah and
His Messenger. The heirs no longer need a will to take their rights of
inheritance but they are not permitted to take it at all, including one's
parents because of the authentic Hadith that says: "There is no will for an
Nevertheless, it remains the right of the near relatives who are entitled
desirably to take one-third of the wealth in accordance to the Ayah of
Inheritance and because of the Ayahs and Hadiths that command the believers to
be kind to their relatives and treat them nicely.
181- So, those who change the will of a testator and distort it by adding to,
decreasing from, or hiding it from the trustees, the guardians, or witnesses
after they had heard the will of a testator or it has been reported to them
from a trustworthy source shall be sinners for this alteration and replacement
because they had betrayed the trust. Nothing will be against the testator.
Verily, Allah is hears what the testator said and knows the distortion of
those who changed the will and betrayed it; verily, a severe punishment awaits
182- So, he who knows that the testator made a mistake, declined from the
truth, got out of the limits which he is commanded to observe, and oppressed
others such as to give a will to his daughter's son to increase her share of
inheritance or use such means of manipulation, the trustee has the right to
fix the will according to the Shari'ah rulings. There is no harm on him in
doing so and this is not a kind of alteration or distortion. Rather it will be
a seek for the truth and compromise between the intention of the testator and
the Shar'y matter which is meant. Such a reformer has a forgiveness and mercy
from his Lord because he wants to establish the truth and justice.
183- O people who have believed, Fasting was prescribed on you as it was
prescribed for those who were before you from the People of the Scriptures in
order that they obey Allah, fear Him and keep away from the things that He
prohibited. Fasting contains upbringing, self-purification, and education to
obedience and compliance.
184- It is for a fixed number of days.
was at the beginning of Islam. They used to fast three days of each month,
then the fasting was abrogated by the fasting of Ramadan as will be mentioned
in the following Ayah.
The meaning of the fixed number
of days may be the days of the month itself in compare to the days of the year
out of belittling them in the eyes of the fully competent people.
Those who are sick in a matter that harms fasting or it is
difficult with it to fast or were traveling a far distance that necessitates
shortening of Salah, there is no harm on him to make up what they missed later
As for those who fast it but with hardship such as
the old people and the sick whose sickness is incurable, they have to feed a
needy person for everyday they did not fast; it will be the amount of the food
which a person regularly eats everyday. However, those who give more, it will
be better for them.
Fasting is better for those who were given the permission to break their fast
if there is no difficulty for them.
If you realized
this and were of the people of knowledge and consideration, you would
certainly know that fasting is better than breaking it.
There is another explanation to Ayah which is the view of the
majority. Muslims at the beginning of Islam were given choice between fasting
some days or feeding the needy. So, the meaning of the Ayah will be: Those who
can fast but break their fast have to pay a ransom. then the Ayah was
abrogated and the ransom was made upon those who are unable to fast.
185- The month of Ramadan during which Allah had revealed the Glorious Qur'an,
in the Night of Revelation, as guidance for people from misguidance of
disbelief to faith. The Qur'an contains clear Ayahs that guide to the truth,
prescribed penalties, rulings for those who consider and believe in them
truly. By these Ayahs, people can distinct between the truth and the falsehood
and between the lawful and the prohibited.
Allah had chosen this month for Muslims to fast, so those who attend it while
being non-travelling and healthy, they have to fast the whole month.
However, those who are sick and fasting may increase their
sickness or harm them or they were in the state of travelling for a distance
that demands the shortening of Salah, they may break their fast. However,
later on they have to make up for those missed days when they are recovered or
stop travelling for equal number of days in the following months.
Allah permits you to break your fast in some cases in order to
facilitate the matter for you, and out of His Mercy and Compassion.
He commanded you to make up the missed days in order to
complete the number of days of the month that was ordained to you to fast. He
made all these facilities to you in order that you mentioned, glorify, and
exalt Him at the end of the fasting, on the night of breaking the fast ['Eidul-Fitr],
as gratitude for Him that He guided you to this great act of obedience.
Fasting increases and doubles your good deeds, gets you nearer to the Mercy of
Allah and admits you to Paradise.
Likewise, to thank
Him for this noble grace and for the facilities He gave you to break your fast
and remove the hardship when necessary.
186- And when the people ask you about me, O Prophet, say: Verily, I am near,
All-Hearer, acquainted, and respondent to those who call me. So, let them
answer My Call when I call them to faith, obey My Orders when I ordain the
rulings for them, be firm on faith, and be persistent to obedience so that
they may be guided and do the righteous deeds.
187- First, the command of fasting the month of Ramadan was different from the
fasting that was later ordained. A fasting person was allowed to eat, drink,
and have sexual intercourse after breaking the fast if he does not sleep but
if he slept, everything would be forbidden for him. That prohibition included
also those who slept without breaking their fast. If they slept and did not
break their fast, they are not permitted to break their fast. That was too
difficult for the companions [may Allah be pleased with them] to the extent
that one of them had passed out and some of them had sexual intercourse with
their wives, so the Ayah was revealed. Thereupon, they were happy because in
this Ayah Allah has permitted you to have sexual
intercourse on the nights of fasting. Verily, you live in joy and comfort with
your wives for you are a cover for your wives. You touch and sleep with them
and cannot wait to have sexual intercourse with them although you do that
much. They are the same to you.
Allah knew that you
betray yourselves and expose yourselves to punishment by having sexual
intercourse with them while you were forbidden to do so. He forgave you when
you repented of that and He forgave you. No, there is no harm on you to have
sexual intercourse with them and ask Allah to grant you good offspring.
Eat and drink during night until you can distinct the daytime
from the darkness of the night [i.e., Dawn]. Then complete your fasting from
that time until the sunset.
Do not have sexual
intercourse with your wives while you observe 'Itikaf [seclusion in Masjids
for worship] when you go to your homes for a need.
Those rulings that are mentioned in terms of fasting and penitence are limits
set by Allah, so do not transgress them or even approach them. Do not approach
the limits which distinct the lawful from the unlawful lest you may fall into.
This is an exaggerated prohibition lest you transgress them.
Thus, Allah explains the permissible rulings for the people
clearly to guide them and in order not to disobey His Commands or commit the
188- Do not eat up the properties of one another without right, such as when a
person is indebted and there is no proof to that, he denies that debt and
argue for it before the judges and arbitrators. He knows that he is indebted
and he eats these properties unjustly. He may do this by any form that entails
sin such as perjury, false oath, theft, usurpation, gambling, eating up the
properties of the orphans, and denying the trusts. Committing sins while a
person knows its consequences is more grievous than committing it without
189- The people ask you, O noble Prophet, about the benefit and the wisdom of
the crescent, so tell them: Allah has made the crescents as signs to mark
fixed periods of time for people. By which they know the times of their acts
of worship: fasting, Zakah, Hajj, and expiation. They also use them to know
the times for the due debts, the 'Iddah [the waiting periods of women], the
times of Agriculture, and so on.
It is not good to
enter the homes from holes and passages, leaving the doors while you are in
the state of Ihram. However, what is good is to fear Allah and stop violating
His Order. So, enter your homes from their doors, as usual, even if you are in
the state of Ihram, be obedient, and keep to straightness in order to have all
goodness and guidance.
The Supporters and tribes of
the Arab used to do so, therefore, the Ayah was revealed.