Is It True That MUT'AH Is NIKAH? The
Real Types of Marriage, Marriage With Given
03 June 2012
I used to be an advocate of
the teachings of Shiah and at that time, I had spread
the "religious prostitution" of this Mut'ah.
So to make up for my sins, I am now always trying to
awaken the Muslims that what is called MUT'AH
relationship has no basis at all.
I previously felt "like a buffalo with pierced
(harnessed) nose" (a proverb signifying the state of
being controlled – ed.), accepting whatever was
delivered by those Shiah "ulama's". Although actually
deep down I kept on wondering, because there were
The argumentation of the Shiahs on the halal status of
the mut'ah relationship with verse 4:24 is no other
than to deflect the meaning and purpose of the verse
and take out the context of the verse from the verse
before and after it, and also not seeing that al-Qur'an
is one unit and one verse is an explanation for
another verse. And also, a very striking example is in
the case of term "Ahlul Bait" on verse 33:33, which is
also taken out of its context, so that its meaning
could be skewed to become 'certain people' outside of
the context of the verse.
Now, let's see the context of the word TAM-TA'-TUM in
And do not MARRY those [women] whom your fathers
married, except what has already occurred. Indeed, it
was an immorality and hateful [to Allah ] and was evil
as a way.
Prohibited to you [for MARRIAGE] are your mothers,
your daughters, your sisters, your father's sisters,
your mother's sisters, your brother's daughters, your
sister's daughters, your [milk] mothers who nursed
you, your sisters through nursing, your wives'
mothers, and your step-daughters under your
guardianship [born] of your wives unto whom you have
gone in. But if you have not gone in unto them, there
is no sin upon you. And [also prohibited are] the
wives of your sons who are from your [own] loins, and
that you take [in marriage] two sisters
simultaneously, except for what has already occurred.
Indeed, Allah is ever Forgiving and Merciful.
And [also prohibited to you are all to MARRY] married
women except MAA-MALAKAT-AIMAA-NUKUM. [This is] the
decree of Allah upon you. And lawful to you are [all
others] beyond these, [provided] that you seek them
[in MARRIAGE] with [gifts from] your property,
desiring chastity, not unlawful sexual intercourse. So
for WHATEVER YOU ENJOY [of MARRIAGE] FROM THEM (the
wives), give them their due compensation (dowry) as an
obligation. And there is no blame upon you for what
you mutually agree (to vary it), AFTER A DOWRY IS
PRESCRIBED. Indeed, Allah is ever Knowing and Wise.
And whoever among you cannot [find] the means to MARRY
free, believing women, then [he may MARRY] from those
whom your right hands possess of believing slave
girls. And Allah is most knowing about your faith. You
[believers] are of one another. So MARRY them with the
permission of their people and give them their due
compensation according to what is acceptable. [They
should be] chaste, neither [of] those who commit
unlawful intercourse randomly nor those who take
[secret] lovers. But once they are sheltered in
marriage, if they should commit adultery, then for
them is half the punishment for free [unmarried]
women. This [allowance] is for him among you who fears
sin, but to be patient is better for you. And Allah is
Forgiving and Merciful. (4:22-25)
So if NOT TAKEN OUT FROM its context, the above verse
-among others- contains the obligation of paying dowry
after the aqad nikah (covenant of marriage) which must
be paid if the husband has enjoyed [of the marriage]
with his wife. This is seen from the next sentence,
"there is no blame upon you for what you mutually
agree (to vary it), AFTER A DOWRY IS PRESCRIBED."
It cannot be imagined at all that it talks about the
so-called "NIKAH (which actually is not nikah) MUT'AH".
And if we admit that the teachings of Al-Qur'an is a
unity, then the verses about this NIKAH (MARRIAGE)
should also be linked with other verses about NIKAH.
Al-Qur'an teaches that Nikah is also categorized as
"mistaqan ghalidhan" (4:21), a word that is also used
in the context of the Covenant of the Prophets with
Allah (33:7). So it's not just any frivolous agreement
Due to the strength of the bonds, an already married
couple do not split up / divorce just like that. If a
problem should arise, they have to be reconciled first
in the framework of islah with the mediation of the
hakam (arbitrator) from the party of the husband or
4:35 "And if you fear dissension between the two, send
an arbitrator from his people and an arbitrator from
her people. If they both desire reconciliation, Allah
will cause it between them. Indeed, Allah is ever
Knowing and Acquainted [with all things]."
The difficulty of the process of divorce can also be
seen from the need for two witnesses when the
proceeding of the divorce takes place (65:2). So it is
not a case of "as long the word divorce was hurled out
by the husband, then the divorce happens". And on the
other hand, when already divorced, and they feel
encouraged to remarry, the process of remarriage is so
easy (read the following verses: 2:228,229,231; 65:2).
Since the verses of the Qur'an is a UNITY of the
teachings of Islam, then the verses about nikah must
be in one package of teaching with the verses about
divorce and other verses about family.
Thereby, the overview of NIKAH according to the
teachings of the Qur'an is far away from the MUT'AH,
so much so that this BID'AH Mut'ah does not deserve to
be called Nikah.
Since Mut'ah is bid'ah, then as a consequence, its
architects have to create its subsequent bid'ah, for
example, in terms of the rules of the iddah on the
women after having been given mut'ah, the rules of the
inheritance of the children as the product of mut'ah,
etc. where none of these are in the Qur'an.
From the viewing glass of the Qur'an, the sexual
relationship, in which the end does not know the
process of divorce, is more fit to be called ZINA.
Where did the teaching of Mut'ah possibly originate
As we know it, distorted teachings on a religion
usually occur as a result of the influence (whether
intentional or not) of the existing belief or doctrine
in the area where the original teaching spreads.
Generally, Muslims admit that the teaching of the
trinity on the Christian religion is not the original
teachings of Jesus/ Prophet Isa, but due to the
influence of the beliefs of the Roman society.
It would certainly make us wonder, where did the
teaching of mut'ah, which is considered as marriage,
come from and why is it particularly popular in the
Persian community (Iran and Iraq)?
I quote below the types of marriage in the Majusi/Zoroaster
religion, which was the religion of the Persian
society in the past, where there is a big possibility
that it was where the mut'ah, which is considered as
marriage, originated from:
The types of marriage
In the beliefs of Zoroaster/ Majusi there are
basically two types of marriage (zanîh), namely:
pâdixšâyîhâ ("with authorization, given
authorization") and stûrîh, each with several subtypes
and forms which are not coordinated. As they underwent
gradual blurring and modification by the terminology
of the Central Persia in the Islamic period, somehow,
five types of marriage are recognized in the Persian
Rivayats (Transl. Dhabhar, I, pg. 180-81).
Marriage with given authorization
A marriage with authorization (zanîh î zan pâdixšâyîhâ
"the marriage of a woman in the conditions of being
given authorization"; Mâdayân, pt. 1, pg. 36) is the
legal union/bond of a husband and wife; could be
construed as a "lawful" wedlock, the equivalent of
marriage in Islam or Christianity. There are family
members who are known as šôy "husband," zan "wife,"
pus "son," and duxt "daughter". This type of marriage
requires the authorization of the bride's father or
wali (guardian), as well as a detailed marriage
contract (paymân î zanîh;. Pahlavi Texts, Jamasp-Asana
ed., pg. 141-43), out of which an example has survived
in the Islamic period (1278 CE).
In pâdixšâyîhâ not only the sanction of the guardian
but the consent of the bride and groom is also very
important (Mâdayân, pt. 1, pg. 36). AÚdurbâd Î
Mahrspandân (qv) advises the young men to propose
themselves to the bride (xweštan ray zan xwad xwâh;
Pahlavi Texts, Jamasp-Asana ed., pg. 61), from this it
follows that in the Sasania period, marriage is
usually arranged by the parents or matchmaker, as is
the still existing practice in Persia. It is the duty
of the father to decide for his son to look for a wife
and his daughter to be given in marriage (Dênkard,
Madan ed., II, pg. 744).
Appeared before the judges (mowbed) are the two
fathers, the bride (wayôg) and the bridegroom (Damad),
and three witnesses (gugây), whose identities have
been registered. When married, the bridegroom assumes
the status of 'the head of the household' and the
bride as 'the lady of the house', with the rights and
duties which accompany them (Dênkard, Madan ed., II,
It is known that there was an old custom of receiving
an amount of two thousand drahms of "security" (pâyandanîh)
by the bride, which is the euphemism of a marriage. It
is also alleged that for the higher class circle, the
portion of the marriage is not limited to this
traditional amount but also includes moving or real
property given to the family of the bride with the
incentive of a rich dowry (*passâzagân). It is this
kind of transaction that might be the main reason for
one to choose a close relative for marriage, to
prevent the riches from leaving the family. As a
matter of fact, the type of marriage which is the most
beneficial, which is regarded as a panacea for all the
deadly sins other than sodomy (Rivâyat î Êmêd, chap.
29), is what is referred by modern Persians as a
unification of the "next of kin" (xwêdôdah, Av
xvaêtvadaƒa-; AirWb. , col. 1860; Nyberg, Manual II,
pg. 224), described in Dênkard (Madan ed., I, pg. 73)
as "the union of the father and the daughter, the son
and the mother, the brother and the sister" (hampaywandîh
î Engkau pid duxt ud, ud ud burdâr nanah, ud ud brad
xwah). Stated in Yasna (12.9) the devout people -xvaêtvadaƒa
– have the right to respect.
Consanguineous (kin) marriage was originally performed
by the nobility among the commoners, which later was
generally practiced by all parts of the Iranian
society, the high and the low stratum. Many Persian
kings married their sisters or daughters (Boyce,
Zoroastrianism I, pg. 254 n. 24, II, pg. 75-77; idem,
1979, sv khvâetvadatha), and the Majusi, as reported
by Xanthus Lydia, did live together with their mothers
and daughters (Jackson, pg. 152-57). During the period
of Sasania, priest Arda Wîrâz (qv) took all his seven
sisters as wives (Arda Wîrâz Nâmag, chap. 2).
Consanguineous marriage among the common people are
covered in most law books of Central Persia,
especially the Rivâyat î Êmêd (chapter 22, 24, 27-30;
see de Menasce, 1985, pg. 138-44; Shaki, 1971, pg.
335-36; Nyberg, Manual II, pg. 224).
The Pâdixšâyîhâ marriage could be temporary, for a
period of time mutually agreed, and thus it can
function as a form of marriage friendship. After the
expiry of the specified time period, the wife's dowry
and personal property (wâspuhragân) return to her,
however, if she dies, the property belongs to her
husband (Mâdayân, pt. 2, pg. 2).