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Dictionary Of Islam: Islamic Glossary




























 Dictionary Of Islam Entry





A'imma ()
The plural of imam. (t.p)  

A'immat al-madhahib ()
Plural of imam al-madhhab; imams of the legal schools. (t.p)

A'uzu billahi minashaitanir rajim ()
This is an expression and a statement that Muslims have to recite before reading to Qur'an, before speaking, before doing any work, before making a supplication, before taking ablution, before entering the wash room, and before doing many other daily activities. The meaning of this phrase is: I seek refuge in Allah from the outcast Satan. Allah is the Arabic name of God.

Satan is the source of evil and he always tries to misguide and mislead people. The Qur'an states that Satan is not an angel but a member of the Jinn, which are spiritual beings created by Allah. So the belief that Satan is a fallen angel is rejected in Islam. (c.m.j.e)

A.H.(After Hijrah) ()
means After Hijrah. It is the reference used in the Islamic calender, instead of A.D. which is used in the Christian calender. (c.m.j.e)

A`udhu billahi min ash-shaytan ar-rajim ()
The arabic expression "i seek protection in Allah from the accursed shaytan." one says this before beginning to recite the qur'an. (t.p)

A`udhu billahi min ash-shaytan ar-rajim ()
The arabic expression meaning "i seek protection in Allah from the accursed shaytan." one says this before beginning to recite the qur'an. (t.p)

Abad ()
After-time, eternity without beginning. the secret of after-time is the negation of lastness. (t.p)

Abd ()
A prefix used in many Muslim male names in conjunction with a divine attribute of God, meaning "servant." Examples include Abd-Allah ("servant of God"), Abd al-Rahman ("servant of the Most Merciful"), and Abd al-Khaliq ("servant of the Creator"). (c.i.e)

Abdal ()
Plural of badl. (t.p)

Abdan ()
The plural of badan, "body", used in sharika al-abdan, partner ship in physical labour for gain. (t.p)

Abiq ()
A runaway slave. (t.p)

Abjad ()
Literally "alphabet", a system of calculation based on the numerical values of the arabic letters. "abjad" is the first of a series of eight words which comprise all the letters of the alphabet. (t.p)

Abraham ()
see Ibrahim. (c.i.e)

Abu 'ali ad-daqqaq ()
The imam of the sufis of his time and the shaykh of abu'l-qasim al-qushayri. originally from nishapur, he studied there, after which he travelled to marw, where he studied shafi`i fiqh. he died in 405/1014. (t.p)

Abu Bakr as-Sadiq ()
One of the closest companions of Prophet Muhammad, given the appelation as-Sadiq, "the Truthful." Upon the death of the Prophet in 632 C.E., Abu Bakr became the first Caliph (successor) and served as leader of the Muslim community until his death in 634 C.E. (c.i.e)

Abu dawud ()
Abu sulayman ibn al-ash'ath ibn ishaq al-azdi as-sijistani, the author of the sunan and one of the greatest of the scholars of hadith. he was born in 203/817 and died on a friday in the middle of shawwal, 275/888 in basra. he was so accomplished in the science of hadith that it was said that hadiths were made pliable for abu dawud in the same way that iron was made pliable for the prophet da'ud. he said, "i wrote down 500,000 hadiths of the prophet and selected from them those which are in the sunan." he was a pupil of ibn hanbal. (t.p)

Abu hanifa ()
Abu hanifa an-nu`man ibn thabit, founder of the hanafi school in baghdad. he is one of the four imams and is known for developing ra'y (judicial opinion). he shunned sleep and was called the "peg" because he used to stand for long periods in night prayers. he only slept between zuhr and asr. he grew up in kufa and the khalif al-mansur asked him to accept the post of qadi. he refused and al-mansur imprisoned him and beat him until he died. he would never sit in the shade of someone to whom he had loaned money, saying, "every loan that brings benefit is usury." he died in 150/767. (t.p)

Abu madyan ()
Shu'ayb ibn al-husayn al-ansari, (520/1126 - 594/1198), an andalusian who later taught in bougie. he was born near seville and is buried in the village of al-'ubbad, outside tlemcen. he was the qutb, al-ghawth, of his time. he met `abdu'l-qadir al-jilani while on hajj. he is credited with the introduction of the qadiriya into the maghrib. he is known as sidi boumedienne in algeria. (t.p)

Abu nu`aym al-isfahani ()
Ahmad ibn `abdullah ibn ahmad al-isfahani, a notable hadith scholar who studied under many excellent men. he wrote various works, including al-mustadrak `ala kull min as-sahihayn and hilya al-awliya'. it is said that it was taken to nishapur and sold there for 400 dinars. he was born in rajab, 334/942 and died in safar, or on 20 muharram, 430/1038 in isfahan. (t.p)

Abu sa'id al-kharraz ()
Ahmad ibn 'isa, a sufi and author of kitab as-sidq, (d. c. 286/899). al-hujwiri says that he was the first to explain the doctrine of fana' (annihilation) and baqa' (going on). he was also known for his emphasis on 'ishq (passionate love of Allah) and his scrupulous observance of the shari `a. (t.p)

Abu talib al-makki ()
Abu Muhammad ibn all, shaykh of the sufis and people of the sunna. he was born in iraq between baghdad and wasit. he was a sufi, maliki faqih and scholar. he wrote the qut al-qulub. he died in baghdad in 386/998-9. he was the leader of the salimiya in basra. (t.p)

Abu ya`la ()
Ahmad ibn 'ali at-tamimi al-mawsull, author of musnad al-kabir. he was a hafiz of hadith who was known as "the hadith scholar of mosul". he died in mosul in 307/919. (t.p)

Abu yusuf ()
Ya`qub ibn ibrahim ibn habib al-ansari al-baghdadi, born in kufa in 113/731. he was the student of abu hanifa and the first to propagate his school, a hadith master and brilliant jurist who had an extensive knowledge of tafsir. he acted as qadi in baghdad for al-mahdi, al-hadi and harun ar-rashid, who made the hanafi school the official state code for the 'abbasids. he was also the first to write on the principles (usul) of hanafi fiqh, and was a mujtahid. he died in baghdad in 182/798. he wrote kitab al-kharaj on taxation and constitutional questions. (t.p)

Ad-dahr ()
Unending and everlasting time, not divided into past, present and future. linear time is called `zaman' in arabic. (t.p)

Ad-dahr ()
Unending and everlasting time, not divided into past, present and future. linear time is called "zaman"in arabic. (t.p)

Ad-daqqaq ()
See abu ali ad-daqqaq. (t.p)

Ad-daraqutni ()
'Ali ibn 'umar, from dar al-qutn, a part of baghdad. he was an unrivalled scholar in his era. he had knowledge of traditions and weaknesses and the names of the men and their states in integrity, truthfulness and knowledge of the schools of the fuqaha'. he was born in 306/918 and died in 385/995. he has many books, including a hadith collection, as-sunan, and al-istidrak which is about the weakness of some hadiths in al-bukhari. he also has one of the first books on the gira'at. (t.p)

Ad-dardir ()
Abu' l-barakat ahmad b. Muhammad al- `adawi al-maliki, who died in 1201/1786-7. he wrote ash-shark as-saghir `ala aqrab al-masalik. (t.p)

Ad-darqawi ()
Mulay al-'arabi, (1150/1737 - 1239/1823), the nineteenth century mujaddid or renewer of sufism in the maghrib. he was considered to be the qutb. he was the founder of the darqawi branch of the shadhiliya. his letters to his disciples contain rules of conduct, instructions and core teachings of the tariqa, elucidating and simplifying the teachings of his shaykh, sidi `ali al-jamal (d. 11934/1779-80). (t.p)

Ad-darimi ()
Abu Muhammad `abdullah ibn `abdu'r-rahman attamimi, born in samarqand in 181/797-8 and died there in 255/869. he travelled widely in search of knowledge and was known for his integrity and scrupulousness. his students included muslim, abu dawud, at-tirmidhi and an-nasa'i. he was appointed qadi of samarqand, judged one case and then resigned. he has a sunan. (t.p)

Ad-daruriyat al-khamsa ()
"The five essential values": religion, life, intellect, lineage, and property. the objectives (maqasid) of the shari`a involve the promotion and protection of these values. the principle of masalih mursala is based on achieving the realisation of these values. (t.p)

Ad-durr al-bayda' ()
"The white pearl", a term designating the first intellect. (t.p)

Ad-dusuqi ()
Shams ad-din Muhammad b. ahmad al-maliki, (d. 1230/1815). he wrote a gloss (hashiya) on ahmad ad-dardir's work. (t.p)

Adab ()
Correct behaviour, both inward and outward, good deportment. it is the deep courtesy observed in acts of worship as the person is aware that he is constantly dependent on and in the presence of Allah. (t.p)

Adab ()
Correct behaviour, both inward and outward, good deportment. (t.p)

Adab al-qadi ()
The duties of the judge. (t.p)

Adab of qur'an recitation ()
The adab of qur'an recitation includes the following: the intention should be sincerely for Allah and not to please others; the reciter must be pure in body, clothes and place; one begins by seeking refuge with Allah; it should be done with fear and humility and distinct pronunciation, and with awareness of the meanings of what is being recited; the recitation should be neither too soft nor too loud. (t.p)

Adam (aa-dum)
The first human being, created by God as His vicegerent (responsible deputy) on Earth. Muslims believe Adam was the first prophet of God as well, establishing monotheism as the original spiritual system of humankind. Islam does not share with Christianity the doctrine of "Original Sin," instead maintaining that each individual person is born sinless and is responsible for his or her own spiritual state, independent of the actions of other persons, past or present. (c.i.e)

Adh-dhahabi ()
Muhammad ibn ahmad, great turkoman muslim scholar, born in damascus in 673/1274, who wrote a hundred books, including siyar a'lam an-nubala'. he records the biographies of the narrators of hadith. he died in damascus in 748/1347. (t.p)

Adha ()
See `id al-adha. (t.p)

Adhan ()
The call to prayer. (t.p)

Adhan ()
The Muslim call to worship. The adhan consists of specific phrases, recited aloud in Arabic prior to each of the five daily worship times. Upon hearing the adhan, Muslims discontinue all activity and assemble at a local masjid for formal communal worship. (c.i.e)

Adhan ()
The call for the daily prayers are called Adhan. The person who calls the Adhan is called a Mu'adhin. A Mu'adhin calls the Adhan five times a day before Muslims are to perform their daily Salah (Prayer).

The Adhan is composed of specific words and phrases to be recited loudly in the Arabic language so that the neighbors can recognize the time schedule for the prayers. (c.m.j.e)

Adib ()
Litterateur, writer, essayist. it denotes- someone who is characterised by adab, meaning either someone well-disciplined, or, more frequently, someone skilled in literary accomplishments. (t.p)

Adib ()
Someone who is characterised by adab, someone well-disciplined. (t.p)

Adilla ()
Plural of dalil, proofs, items of evidence. (t.p)

Adilla `aqliya ()
Logical proofs or evidence. (t.p)

Adl (adil)
Justice and equity. A fundamental value governing all social behaviour and forming the basis of all social dealings and legal framework. (i.i.q)

Af'al ()
The acts, of Allah. (t.p)

Afaqi ()
Time, from afaq, "horizons". afaqi time describes time in the created world of human daily life. (t.p)

Afdal ()
The best. (i.i.q)

Afrad ()
(Plural of fard), solitary individuals, people who are outside the jurisidiction of the qutb and follow a solitary spiritual path. (t.p)

Aftahiya ()
Rafidite sect, see futhiyya. (t.p)

AH ()
After Hijra. Hijra means emigration. The Islamic calendar starts from the day the Holy Prophet Muhammad (S.A.W.), emigrated from Mekkah to Madinah, in 622 A.D. (i.i.q)

Ahad ()
"One", designating Allah's unique oneness, disconnected from others. (see qur'an 112:1),(t.p)

Ahad ()
(Khabar) an isolated hadith; a report which is transmitted through a single isnad or from a single source. (t.p)

Ahadeeth ()
Sayings and traditions of the Holy Prophet Muhammad (S.A.W.). Singular: Hadith. (i.i.q)

Ahadith ()
Plural of hadith. (t.p)

Ahadiya ()
The transcendent unity which is not the object of any distinctive knowledge and so is not accessible to the creature; the state of unity which admits of no plurality whatsoever, the unity is the sum of all potentialities and as such is not an object of worship. (t.p)

Ahkam ()
The plural of hukm: laws, values and ordinances. (t.p)

Ahkam al-qur'an ()
"Rulings of the qur'an" by qadi ibn al-`arab1 (d. 543/1148). there are several books with this title by different authors. essentially it presents the ayats which contain legal judgements and explains them. it is very systematically formulated. (t.p)

Ahkam al-qur'an ()
Legal judgements which are derived from the qur'an. (t.p)

Ahl ()
House, family, kin. (t.p)

Ahl adh-dhimma ()
"People of the pact", protected non-muslim subjects.(see dhimma). (t.p)

Ahl al-'adl wa't-tawhid ()
"The people of justice and unity", the title used by the mu'tazilites for themselves: "justice", because they say that human actions are not predetermined by Allah or it would be unjust for god to reward or punish people; "unity", because they reject the attribution of any physical and human qualities to Allah, saying that Allah is not only unique, but also he has no multiplicity within him. they hold the view that all anthropomorphic expressions in the qur'an must be interpreted as metaphors and images, and must not be understood literally. (t.p)

Ahl al-bayt ()
"The people of the house," the family of the prophet. (t.p)

Ahl al-hadith ()
A term used to denote the conservative traditionalists, especially at the time of the mu'tazilite/ash'arite conflict during the 'abbasid era. (t.p)

Ahl al-hadith ()
"The people of hadith", term used for conservative traditionalists, especially during the time of the mu'tazilite/ash'arite conflict. (t.p)

Ahl al-hall wa'l-`aqd ()
"The people of loosing and binding," i.e, the `ulama' (scholars), leaders and army commanders who make binding decisions for the community. (t.p)

Ahl al-harb ()
"The people of war", non-muslims living beyond the muslim frontier. (t.p)

Ahl al-kitab ()
"The people of the book", principally the jews and christians whose religions are based on the divine books revealed to musa and `isa; a term also used to refer to any other group who claim to be following a book revealed prior to the qur'an. (t.p)

Ahl al-Kitab ()
Literally, "People of the Book." This term, found in the Qur'an, describes adherents of divinely revealed religions that preceeded Islam. Most commonly, the term refers to Jews and Christians, and confers upon these two groups a special status within Muslim society, owing to the monotheistic basis of their religions. (c.i.e)

Ahl al-ma`rifa ()
The people of gnosis, the gnostics. (t.p)

Ahl al-madina ()
The people of madina, particularly the first three generations: the companions, the tabi`un, and the tabi`u't-tabi`in. (t.p)

Ahl ar-ra'y ()
Means people of opinion. It is refers to people that are consulted on Islamic matters. These people are highly learned in Islam. (i.i.q)

Ahl ar-ra'y ()

means people of opinion. It is refers to people that are consulted on Islamic matters. These people are highly learned in Islam.

Ahl ar-ra'y ()
People of opinion. it is used to refer to people who make use of the principle of ra'y to arrive at rulings. (t.p)

Ahl as-sufiyya ()
The people of tasawwuf or sufism. (t.p)

Ahl as-sunna wa'l-jama`a ()
The people of the sunna and the community: all the people who follow the sunna of the prophet and who hold together as a community on that basis; the main body of the muslim community. (t.p)

Ahliya ()
Legal capacity, also called kaja'a. (t.p)

Ahliya al-aft' ()
An active legal capacity which can incur rights as well as obligations. (t.p)

Ahliya al-wujub ()
A receptive legal capacity which is good for receiving entitlements but cannot incur obligations. (t.p)

Ahliyah ()
Legal capacity. (i.i.q)

Ahliyat al-add' ()
Legal capacity for execution. (i.i.q)

Ahliyat al-wujub ()
Legal capacity for the acquisition of rights and obligations. (i.i.q)

Ahlul Kitab Wa Sunnah ()
Literally means "the People of the Book (the Holy Qur'an) and the sayings and traditions, i.e. the Sunnah of Prophet Muhammad (S.A.W.)". (i.i.q)

Ahmad al-badawi ()
A famous sufi, said to be descended from 'ali, the fourth khalif. he was born in fez in the zuqaq al-hajar in 596/1199-1200, the youngest of eight children. he went to makka with his family while still a child. he knew the seven gira'at. he went to tanta (tandita) in egypt and became very ascetic. the founder of the ahmadiya or badawiya tariqa, he died in 675/1276. (t.p)

Ahmad bamba ()
(1266/1850 - 1345/1927) His actual name was Muhammad ibn Muhammad ibn habibullah, the son of a wolof shaykh. born in m'backe, senegal, he was the founder of the muridiya tariqa in senegal, a sub-group of the qadiriyya. although he was a zahid, he was persecuted by the french as a possible threat because of his popularity. he founded the village of touba in baol for his followers, where they cultivated peanuts. in 1895, he was exiled to gabon for seven years. he was exiled a second time to mauritania where he remained until 1325/1907. (t.p)

Ahmad ibn an-naqib al-misri ()
Ahmad ibn lu'lu' ar-rums, shihab ad-din. his father was a christian convert from antakya, turkey, who was originally captured and enslaved by a muslim prince who educated him and then set him free. then he served him as a captain (naqib) and later became a sufi in the baybariyya of cairo where ahmad was born in 702/1302. ahmad memorised the seven qira'at and studied shafi`i fiqh, tafsir, arabic, and sufism. he wrote the 'umdat as-salik. he died of the plague in ramadan in 769/1368 at the age of 67. (t.p)

Ahmad ibn hanbal ()
Abu 'abdullah ash-shaybani, imam of the ahl as-sunna, born in baghdad in 164/780 and grew up there as an orphan. he was devoted to the sunna so that he became its imam in his time. he travelled for sixteen years in pursuit of hadith and memorised 100,000 hadiths, 30,000 of which are in his musnad. he was a hafiz of qur'an, memorised al-muwatta' of imam malik, and learned fiqh from ash-shafi`i. he was the founder of the hanbali madhhab. it is said that in his gatherings only the hereafter was mentioned - nothing of worldly things. he prayed every night and used to recite the entire qur'an every day. he was imprisoned and tortured for twenty-eight months under the 'abbasid khalif al-mu'tasim for refusing to state that the qur'an was created. he died in 241/855. (t.p)

Ahmad ibn hanbal ()
Imam of the ahl as-sunna and founder of the hanbali school, born in baghdad in 164/780. he was so devoted to the sunna and hadith that he became their imam in his time. he learned fiqh from ash-shafi`i. he died in 241/855. (t.p)

Ahmadiya ()
Tariqa in egypt from ahmad al-badawi, the famous egyptian sufi (d. 675/1276). it is also called the badawiya. it has numerous branches, but is confined to egypt. its members wear a red turban. it was popular among the mamluks, and has several subbranches. (not to be confused with the sect bearing the same name, also known as the qadianis, who by declaring their leader, mirza ghulam ahmad (d. 1326/1908) to be a prophet have been declared kafirun by the sunni `ulama'.)(t.p)

Ahruf ()
The seven different modes in which the qur'an was revealed. (t.p)

Ahwal ()
Plural of hal. (t.p)

Ahzab ()
means parties. Ahzab is used to describe the different tribes that fought the Muslims in the Battle of the Ditch in 627 C.E., 5 A.H..

Aid al-ithbat ()
"Affirmationists", those who affirmed the qadar or divine omnipotence; blanket term used by the mu'tazilites for their opponents, from dirar to al-ash`ari. (t.p)

Aisha ()
Daughter of Abu Bakr and one of the wives of Prophet Muhammad. Aisha transmitted a large number of the Prophet's hadith, which were compiled by scholars in early Islamic history. (c.i.e)

Ajal ()
A delay granted to the debtor for repayment of a loan or for the performance of an obligation. (t.p)

Ajarida ()
A kharijite sub-sect, close in belief to the najdites. they were the followers of 'abdu'l-karim ibn 'ajrad. (t.p)

Ajrul Mithl ()
A remuneration based on what is customary in the community. (i.i.q)

Akhbar ()
Plural of khabar. (t.p)

Akhbar al-ghayb ()
Prophetical reports of previously unrecorded events. (t.p)

Akhira ()
The next world, what is on the other side of death, the hereafter, the dimension of existence after this world. (t.p)

Akhira ()
The next world, what is on the other side of death, the hereafter, the dimension of existence after this world. (t.p)

Akhlaq ()
The plural of khuluq, meaning trait of character. in the plural it means ethics, morality. the prophet said, "i was sent to perfect good character (akhlaq)."(t.p)

Al- mi`yar ()
Al-mi'yar al-mughriban fatawa `ulama' ifriqiya wa'l andalus wa'l-maghrib, "the standard, expressing the fatwas of the scholars of tunisia, andalusia, and morocco" by al-wansharisi. a comprehensive collection of fatwas. one of the areas it covers is fiqh an-nawazil. (t.p)

Al-'alawi ()
Shaykh abu'l-'abbas ahmad ibn mustafa ibn 'aliwa, born in mostaghanem, algeria in 1291/1874, he was also known as ibn 'aliwa. he was a cobbler in his youth. he was a sufi, maliki scholar, poet and renewer of the shadhiliya tariqa, founding the 'alawi-darqawi tariqa. his shaykh was al-buzidi, a darqawi shaykh. although he could neither read nor write, he dictated several remarkable and complex works, including his commentary on al-murshid al-ma'in of ibn al-'ashir, and his diwan which is still widely sung today. he died in 1353/1934. many think he was a mujaddid or renewer. (t.p)

Al-'ayn ath-thabita ()
Archetype of a being, a source form in the malakut. (the plural is a `yan). (t.p)

Al-'aziz ()
"The notable", the title of the high court official of egypt who purchased the prophet yusuf - and whom the prophet yusuf eventually became. (t.p)

Al-'utbiyya ()
Or al-mushtakhraja. a well-known collection of malik's opinions, written by Muhammad al-'utbi. some contemporaries said that it contained a number of errors. it contains unusual questions and often omits to mention how they were transmitted to him. (t.p)

Al-`ama' ()
The great mist: primordial non-spatiality in non-time. (t.p)

Al-`ama' ()
The great mist: primordial non-spatiality in non-time. the prophet was asked, "where was Allah before the creation of the universe?" and he replied, "in the `ama'."(t.p)

Al-`aql ()
The intellect, al- 'aql al-awwal: the first intellect, analogous to the pen (al-qalam). (t.p)

Al-`aql ()
The intellect, al- aql al-awwal: the first intellect, analogous to the pen (al-qalam). (t.p)

Al-`aql al-fa'il ()
Active intellect, the nous of plotinus, the logos, or "world of ideas" of plato, a term used by al-farabi. (t.p)

Al-`aql al-hayulanl ()
Potential intellect, intellectus potenta, latent capacity to acquire external truths, a term used by al-farabi. (t.p)

Al-`aql al-mustafad ()
Acquired intellect, intellectus acquisitus, learned knowledge, a term used by al-farabi. (t.p)

Al-`ayan ath-thabita ()
Archetypes, fixed essences, source forms. (t.p)

Al-`utbi ()
Muhammad ibn ahmad, scholar of cordova and pupil of ibn habib, who wrote al-'utbiyya. he was one of the first to popularise malik's school in andalusia. he died, in 255/869. his compendium was also called al-mustakhraja. `(t.p)

Al-Aamilu-Alaz-Zakah ()
Zakah collector. (i.i.q)

Al-ahkam al-khamsa ()
"The five values", the categories of fard or wajib, mandub, mubah, makruh, and haram. (t.p)

Al-ahkam as-sultaniya ()
Governmental principles, governmental and administrative law. (t.p)

Al-ahkam as-sultaniya ()
"The laws of islamic governance" by abu'l-hasan al-mawardi (d. 450/1058). a classical work on the laws of islamic governance in practice. it deals with the principles of political science, with special reference to the functions and duties of the khalifs, the chief minister and other ministers, the relationships between various elements of the public and the government, and measures to strengthen the government, and ensure victory in war. he is considered as being the author and supporter of the "doctrine of necessity" in political science. (t.p)

Al-ahkam at-taklifiyya ()
Legal values resulting directly from commands which impose obligations. (t.p)

Al-ahqaf ()
"The sand dunes", the tracts of sand dunes where the people of `ad lived, next to hadramawt and yemen. also the title of sura 46 of the qur' an. (t.p)

Al-akabir `an al-asaghir ()
"The greater from the lesser," meaning a senior from a junior narrator, or a prolific from a lesser narrator. (t.p)

Al-amana ()
The trust, or moral responsibility or honesty, and all the duties which Allah has ordained. (see qur'an 33:72). amana also means trustworthiness, faithfulness, honesty. (t.p)

Al-amana ()
The trust or the moral responsibility or honesty, and all the duties which Allah has ordained. (see qur'an 33:72). (t.p)

Al-amr ()
The command, "be!" (kun) which translates possibilities into the manifest (fa yakun). (t.p)

Al-amr al-mujtamil 'alayhi ()
"The generally agreed-on way of doing things with us", an expression used by imam malik to denote the consensus of the people of madina. (t.p)

Al-amr bi'l-ma`ruf wa'n-nahy `an al-munkar ()
Promotion of good and prevention of evil. this is a duty for all muslims which is prescribed in the qur' an. (t.p)

Al-ansari ()
Abu isma'il 'abdullah, (396/1006 - 482/1089), a sufi scholar and mutakallim. he was first a shafi'i and then a hanbali. in persian, he is called pir-i-ansar. he was born near herat. he wrote mundjat, tabaqat as-sufiyya, manazil as-sd'irin, and other books. he wrote in persian in rhyming prose interspersed with verses. (t.p)

Al-asbab wa'l-wasa'it ()
Literally "causes and means", intermediary causes. (t.p)

Al-asbab wa'l-wasa'it ()
Literally causes and means, intermediary causes. (t.p)

Al-asharatu mubashshirun ()
the ten people that were given the glad tiddings of assurance of entering Paradise. They were Abu Bakr, Umar, Uthman, Ali, Abdur Rahman ibn Awf, Abu Ubaydah ibn al-Jarrah, Talhah ibn Ubaydullah, az-Zubayr ibn al-Awwam, Sa'd ibn Abi Waqqas, Sa'id ibn Zayd.

Al-aslah ()
"The best", the mu'tazilite doctrine that Allah always chooses the best for his creatures. (t.p)

Al-asma' al-husna ()
The most beautiful names, meaning the ninety nine names of Allah. (t.p)

Al-awza`i ()
Abu 'amr `abdu'r-rahman, imam and founder of the madhhab followed by the people of the maghrib before they became maliki. he lived in syria until he died as a murabit in the port of beirut. he was the main syrian authority on shari'a in his generation. he placed special emphasis on the "living tradition" of the muslim community as an authoritative source of law. his madhhab spread in north africa and spain. his tomb is near beirut. he died in 157/774. (t.p)

Al-baghawi ()
Abu Muhammad al-husayn ibn mas`ud, born in bagha near herat, a shafi'i imam in various fields. his father was a furrier. he was known to his contemporaries as "the reviver of the din". he has a sixteen volume sharh as-sunna, dealing with shafi `i fiqh and the basis for it. he has a tafsir entitled lubab at-ta'wil. he died in marw in 510/1117. he produced the masabih as-sunna which is a collection of hadiths. (t.p)

Al-baghawi ()
Abu Muhammad al-husayn ibn mas`ud, born in bagha near herat, a shafi`i imam in various fields. his father was a furrier. he was known to his contemporaries as "the reviver of the din". he has a sixteen volume sharh as-sunna, dealing with shafi`i fiqh and its basis. he has a tafsir entitled lubab at-ta'wil. he died in marw in 510/1117. he produced the masabih as-sunna which is a collection of hadith. (t.p)

Al-baghawi ()
Al-husayn ibn mas`ud, born in bagha, an imam in various fields. he was known to his contemporaries as "the reviver of the din". he has a sixteen volume sharh as-sunna, dealing with shafi`i fiqh and the basis for it. he has a tafsir entitled lubab at-ta'wil. he died in marw in 510/1117. (t.p)

Al-baqillani ()
Muhammad ibn at-tayyib, the qadi and imam of the people of the sunna, d. 403/1013. he was born in basra in 338/950 and became one of the foremost scholars in kalam. he was a maliki faqih and an ash'arite mutakallim. he wrote i`jaz al-qur'an. he was sent by 'adud ad-dawla as an envoy to the byzantines in constantinople where he debated with christian scholars in the presence of the emperor. (t.p)

Al-bara'a al-asiliya ()
Presumption of innocence or freedom from liability. (t.p)

Al-baydawi ()
`Abdullah ibn 'umar, born in bayda, near shiraz. when "al-qadi" (the judge) is mentioned in tafsir, he is the one who is meant. he was qadi in shiraz for a time. his chief work was anwar at-tanzil. he died in tabriz in 685/1286. (t.p)

Al-bayhaqi ()
Ahmad ibn al-husayn, abu bakr, born in khasrajand, a village around bayhaq near nishapur. he produced nearly a thousand volumes, and was a shafi`i. al-bayhagi was one of the great imams in hadith and shafi`i jurisprudence. he wrote some important books, such as-sunan al-kubra, as-sunan as-sughra, al-mabsut, and alasma' wa's-sifat. he died in nishapur in 458/1066. (t.p)

Al-bayhaqi ()
Ahmad ibn al-husayn, abu bakr, born in khasrajand, a village around bayhaq near nishapur. he produced nearly 1,000 volumes. al-bayhaqi was one of the great imams in hadith and shafi'i jurisprudence. he wrote some important books, such as-sunan al-kubra, as-sunan as-sughra, al-mabsut, and al-asmd' wa's-sifat. he died in nishapur in 458/1066. (t.p)

Al-bayt al-ma'mur ()
"The visited house", Allah's house above the seventh heaven. (t.p)

Al-bazzar ()
Abu bakr ahmad 'amr, a hadith scholar from the people of basra. he compiled two musnads, a large one called al-bahr alkabir and a small one (al-'ilal). he died in ramla in 292/904. (t.p)

Al-bistami ()
Abu yazid tayfur ibn 'isa, known as bayazid al-bistami. he was a famous sufi who was born in bistam in 188/804. his grandfather was a zoroastrian. bayazid made a detailed study of the shari'a and practiced self-denial (zuhd). throughout his life he was assiduous in the practice of his religious obligations and in observing voluntary worship. many muslim scholars both in his time and after his time, said that bayazid al-bistami was the first to spread the reality of annihilation (fana'). he is famous for his ecstatic expressions. he died in in 260/874 at the age of 71, either in damascus or bistam, persia. (t.p)

Al-bukhari ()
Abu `abdullah Muhammad ibn ismail, travelled in search of knowledge to all the men of hadith of the cities. he was born in 194/810 in bukhara. he started to frequent the company of the shaykhs of transmission when he was eleven. he said that he produced the sahih from the cream of 6,000 hadiths, and did not write down any hadith in it until he had first prayed two rak `ats. he died in 256/870. (t.p)

Al-burda ()
Lit. "the cloak", meaning the mantle of the prophet, the name of a popular poem written in praise of the prophet by al-busiri. (t.p)

Al-buruj ()
The the constellations of the zodiac; the name of sura 85 of the qur'an. (t.p)

Al-busiri ()
A berber born in cairo, (610/1213 - 695/1296). he was a disciple of ash-shadhili and al-mursi. he was suffering from paralysis when he dreamt that the prophet put his mantle on him and he awoke cured and wrote al-burda, the famous poem in praise of the prophet. (t.p)

Al-falak al-atlas ()
The starless heaven, the 'arsh. (t.p)

Al-fath ar-rabbani ()
"Sublime revelation", a series of discourses by shaykh `abdu'l-qadir al-jilani (d. 561/1166). (t.p)

Al-fiqh al-akbar ()
A creed, the most famous is by abu hanifa. (t.p)

Al-fitan wa ashrat as-sa`a ()
The trials and the signs of the hour. also known as ayat as-sa`a, "the signs of the hour". (t.p)

Al-furqan ()
That which separates truth from falsehood; hence the qur'an. (t.p)

Al-ghani ()
"The rich-beyond-need" or "independent", he who has no need of anything. this describes Allah while the creature is poor (faqir). (t.p)

Al-ghashiya ()
"The overwhelmer", one of the names for the day of judgement and the name of sura 88 of the qur'an. (t.p)

Al-ghashiya ()
"The overwhelmer", one of the names for the day of judgement and the name of sura 88 of the qur'an. (t.p)

Al-ghayb al-mutlaq ()
"The absolutely unknowable" in reference to the essence of Allah. (t.p)

Al-ghazali ()
(Also written al-ghazzali) Muhammad ibn Muhammad, abu hamid at-tusi, the shafi i imam and sufi born in tabiran, near tus in 450/1058. he studied fiqh with al-juwayni. he taught at the nizamiyya madrasa before he became a sufi, pointing out that all religious certainty was a result of spiritual experience. he is nicknamed "shafi`i the second". he died in tabiran in 505/1111. he was the author of many books, especially ihya' `ulum ad-din. (t.p)

Al-ghazali ()
Muhammad ibn Muhammad, abu hamid at-tusi, the shafi`i imam and sufi born in tabiran, near tills in 450/1058. he studied fiqh with al-juwayni. he taught at the nizamiyya madrasa before he became a sufi. he is nicknamed "shafi`i the second". he died in tabiran in 505/1111. he was the author of many books, especially ihya' `ulum ad-din. (t.p)

Al-ghazw al-fikri ()
Cultural aggression. (t.p)

Al-ghunya li talibi tariq, al-haqq ()
By `abdu'l-qadir al-jilani (d. 561/1166), the famous sufi and founder of the qadiri tariqa. it contains a summary of hanbali fiqh. (t.p)

Al-ghurr al-muhajjalun ()
"Those with shining white on their foreheads, wrists and ankles", a name that will be given on the day of resurrection to the muslims because the parts of their bodies which they used to wash in ablution will shine then. (t.p)

Al-hakim ()
Abu `abdullah Muhammad ibn `abdullah an-nisaburl, born in 321/933, a shafi`i faqih and hadith scholar. he travelled extensively in search of hadith and listened to nearly 2,000 shaykhs. he became qadi of nishapur in 359 (hence his name "the judge") and then in jurjan. he has about 1,500 volumes on hadith, of which the most famous is al-mustadrak. he died in nishapur in 405/1014. (t.p)

Al-hakim at-tirmidhi ()
Abu `abdullah Muhammad ibn 'ali, originally from tirmidh, a sufi and shafi`i scholar. he was exiled from tirmidh on account of a book he wrote and went to balkh (now wazirabad) where he was welcomed. he died there at the age of 90 in around 320/931. his major work was the kitab khatm al-awliya'. he discusses things like the light of Muhammad, the reality of adam, the symbolism of the arabic letters and angels. (t.p)

Al-hallaj ()
Husayn ibn mansur, abu'l-mughith, born in about 244/858 near al-bayda' in fars, but raised in wasit in iraq. he left a diwan and the tawasin. he was executed in baghdad in 309/922 because his ecstatic outbursts led people to believe that he was a heretic. (t.p)

Al-hamdu lillah wa shukru lillah ()
The arabic expression which means "praise belongs to Allah and thanks to Allah."(t.p)

Al-hamdu lillahi rabbil 'alamin (AL-HAMDO LILLAHI RABBIL 'ALAMIN) ()
This is a verse from the Qur'an that Muslims recite and say many times per day. Other than being recited daily during prayers, a Muslim reads this expression in every activity of his daily life. The meaning of it is:Praise be to Allah, the Lord of the worlds.

A Muslim invokes the praises of Allah before he does his daily work; and when he finishes, he thanks Allah for His favors. A Muslim is grateful to Allah for all His blessings. It is a statement of thanks, appreciation, and gratitude from the creature to his Creator.

Al-hanifiya ()
The religion of ibrahim, the primordial religion of tawhad and sincerity to Allah. (t.p)

Al-haqq ()
The real, the absolute truth, Allah, being the opposite of khalq, creation. (t.p)

Al-haqq al-makhluq bihi ()
"The truth through which creation occurs", the breath of the merciful. (cf. qur'an 16:3). (t.p)

Al-harith ibn asad al-muhasibi ()
Born in 165/781. he was called al-muhasibi because he frequently called himself to account (muhasaba) and because of his asceticism. he was an excellent scholar, held in high esteem among the people of his time in both outward and inward knowledge, and wrote many books. his father died leaving him a great deal of wealth, but he refused to take any of it because his father had been a qadari. he died in 243/857. (t.p)

Al-harnriya ()
A term used to denote the early kharijites, from the name of the village which was their centre. (t.p)

Al-hasa ()
A type of sale whose outcome is determined by the throwing of a stone. (it involves gharar and therefore is forbidden). (t.p)

Al-hasan al-basri ()
Abu sa'id ibn abu'l-hasan, one of the most eminent of the tabi `un in asceticism and knowledge. he was born in madina in 21/642, the son of a slave captured in maysan who became a mawla of the prophet's secretary, zayd ibn thabit. he was brought up in basra. he went for thirty years without laughing. he met many companions and transmitted many hadiths. his mother served umm salama, the wife of the prophet. he died in basra in 110/728 when he was 88. (t.p)

Al-hasan ibn ziyad al-lu'lu'i ()
One of the famous students of abu hanifa and a faqih of kufa. he wrote several practical works on law, including a handbook for qadis. he became qads of kufa in 194/8 10. he died in kufa in 204/820. (t.p)

Al-hasb ()
A place outside makka where pilgrims go after finishing all the ceremonies of hajj. (t.p)

Al-hawiya ()
The abyss, bottomless pit, hell. (t.p)

Al-hayula al-kull ()
The primal whole which contains the entire universe by potentiality and by competence. (t.p)

Al-hidaya ()
By al-marghinani (d. 593/1196) one of the most important texts outlining the hanafi school which formed one of the bases for hanafi fiqh in the sub-continent. the hidaya is a commentary on the bidaya al-mubtada, a concise work on fiqh by the same author. there are many commentaries and summaries written on it. it has been translated into persian and english. (t.p)

Al-hijr ()
"The rocky tract", a town in arabia about 150 miles north of madina, where the people of thamud lived. also the title of sura 15 of the qur'an. (t.p)

Al-hujwiri ()
Abu'l-hasan `ali ibn `uthman al-jullabi, the sufi, (d. c. 467/1075). known also as data ganj bakhsh ("the bestower of treasures"), he was author of kashf al-mahjub, the first persian treatise on sufism. he was a native of ghazna, afghanistan. he travelled extensively but little of his life is known. he ended his days in lahore where he is buried. (t.p)

Al-hukm al-wad`i ()
Declaratory law, that is, law which regulates the proper implementation of al-hukm at-taklrft, such as by expounding the conditions, exceptions and qualifications thereof. (t.p)

Al-hukm at-takhfi ()
Defining law, law which defines rights and obligations. (t.p)

Al-hutama ()
"That which breaks to pieces", the seventh and deepest level of the fire (see qur'an 104:4-9). (t.p)

Al-igtisad ()
"The just mean in belief', a work by al-ghazali in which he simplified the work done by al-juwayni. (t.p)

Al-insan al-kabir ()
Lit. "great man", the macrocosm, the universe. (t.p)

Al-insan al-kamil ()
The "perfect man" or universal man. sufi term for one who has realised all levels of being and understanding. (t.p)

Al-insan al-kamil ()
A treatise by al-jill (d. 811-20/1408-17), on the "universal man". he attempts to systematise the teachings of ibn al`arabi, but not always agreeing with him. he discusses the different levels of divine manifestations. (t.p)

Al-irshad ()
A treatise by al-juwayni on the sunni position in kalam. (t.p)

Al-jahim ()
Hellfire. (t.p)

Al-jami` as-saghir ()
By as-suyuti (d. 911/1505), a large compilation of hadith which as-suyuti completed in 907/1502. it is arranged alphabetically without isnad. he also has the jam' al-jam' and al-jami' al-kabir. (t.p)

Al-jazuli ()
(D. 870/1465). he studied fiqh in fes and went on hajj, returned to the sousse and joined the shadhiliya. he was a sharif. he pursued the classical model of jihad in which he led the attack against the portuguese who had subjected the coastal peoples to tribute. his tomb is in marrakesh. he wrote the dala'il al-khayrat. (t.p)

Al-jihad al-akbar ()
The greater jihad, meaning the inner struggle against the self. (t.p)

Al-jihad al-asghar ()
The lesser jihad, meaning physical fighting against the unbelievers. (t.p)

Al-jilani ()
See abdu'l-qadir al-jilani. (t.p)

Al-jili ()
See `abdu'l-karim al-jill. al-jullabi: see al-hujwiri. (t.p)

Al-juhfa ()
The miqat of the people of syria and europe. (t.p)

Al-junayd ()
Abu'l-qasim ibn Muhammad, the shaykh of his time. his family originated from nihawand and he grew up in iraq. his fiqh was taken from abu thawr and sufyan ath-thawri. he took his tariqa from as-sari as-saqati, his uncle, and al-muhasibi. he died in 297/910. he was one of the shafi`i fuqaha' and is buried in baghdad. he defined sufism as "isolating the out-of-time (the eternal without beginning or end) from what originates in time", or as dhawq. (t.p)

Al-juwayni ()
Abu'l-ma`ali `abdu'l-malik ibn `abdullah, imam of the two harams, the imam of the arabs and non-arabs, unique in his time, the possessor of virtues and author of excellent books. nizam al-mulk built a madrasa for him at nishapur. he wrote an unrivalled nineteen volume work, nihaya al-matlab, on the shafi'i school. he was the shaykh of al-ghazali and died in nishapur in 478/1085. (t.p)

Al-kalabadhi ()
Abu bakr Muhammad ibn ishaq, an authority on early sufism who died in bukhara, probably in 390/1000. he is listed as a hanafi faqih. kalabadh was a district of bukhara. he wrote kitab at-ta `arruf and bahr al-fawa'id. (t.p)

Al-karrubiyun ()
The cherubim, the angels who are the closest to the throne-bearers and praise Allah constantly night and day. their name is either derived from karb or "sorrow", because of the intensity of their fear of Allah, or from kurb, meaning "nearness" and "strength" because of their constancy in worship. (t.p)

Al-kashshaf ()
"The unveiler" by az-zamakhshari (d. 538/1144), a mu`tazilite commentary on the qur'an. it has a dogmatic position and is characterised by his own view-point. however, he has a brilliant grasp of grammar and lexicology. (t.p)

Al-kathib ()
The slipping sand-heap, the heap where all souls will assemble in the next world, each taking its place according to its spiritual rank. (t.p)

Al-kathib ()
The slipping sand-heap, the heap where all souls will assemble in the next world, each taking its place according to its spiritual rank. (t.p)

Al-khallal ()
Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn harun abu bakr, one of the major transitters of ibn hanbal's fiqh who died in 311/933-4. in fact, he is considered the primary collector of hanbali fiqh. he travelled extensively to collect the knowledge of ahmad ibn hanbal from those who transmitted it from him. after he had assembled his knowledge, he taught a circle of students in the al-mahdi mosque in baghdad from which the hanbali school spread. he collected his texts in the large collection, al-jami`al-kabir, which was about twenty volumes or more. (t.p)

Al-kharraz ()
Abu said ahmad ibn 'isa of baghdad, a cobbler by trade. he met dhu'n-nun al-misri and associated with bishr al-hm and sari as-saqati, he was the author of several books, and died between 279/892 and 286/899. (t.p)

Al-khassaf ()
Abu bakr ahmad b. 'amr. his kitab adab al-qadi has a special place in hanafi literature. he was a court lawyer in baghdad for the 'abbasid khalif al-muhtadi. when al-muhtadi was murdered in 256/869, his house was sacked as well. he died in 261/874. (t.p)

Al-khidr ()
Or al-khadir, "the green one," whose journey with musa is mentioned in the qur'an 18:60-82. he may or may not be a prophet, and appears often to people. (t.p)

Al-khidr ()
Or al-khadir, the green one, whose journey with musa is mentioned in the qur'an 18:60-82. he may or may not be a prophet, and appears often to people, usually to test their generosity. (t.p)

Al-khiraqi ()
Abu'l-qasim 'umar, one of the early hanbali scholars whose compendium of hanbali fiqh is extant. he left baghdad for damascus when the shi'a gained control there. he died in 334/9456. (t.p)

Al-kibrit al-ahmar ()
"Red sulphur", the philosopher's stone; used to describe the transformative action of the shaykh on the disciple. (t.p)

Al-kibrit al-ahmar ()
"Red sulphur", the philosopher's stone. (t.p)

Al-kitab ()
"The book"; e.g. the qur'an. (t.p)

Al-kulliyat al-khams ()
The five universals: life, religion, family, sanity and property. (t.p)

Al-kursi ()
The footstool (as distinct from the throne (`arsh)) although the ayat al-kursi (2:255) is referred to as the throne verse. the footstool is `under' the throne and is far smaller than it, "like a ring lying buried in the middle of the desert" (hadith). the place of the divine command and prohibition, the realm of the universe and the seven heavens, in both the seen and the unseen. (t.p)

Al-kutub as-sitta ()
"The six books", considered to be the most authentic collections of hadith: al-bukhari, muslim, abu dawud, at-tirmidhi, an-nasa'i and ibn majah. (t.p)

Al-lawh al-mahfuz ()
The preserved tablet in the unseen which is also referred to as the umm al-kitdb, the place of recording what will be; the repository of destiny. (t.p)

Al-lawh al-mahfuz ()
The preserved tablet in the unseen which is also referred to as the umm al-kitab, the place of recording what will be, the repository of destiny. (t.p)

Al-ma`ad ()
"The returning" to life after death; the life-to-come; the hereafter. (t.p)

Al-mabsut ()
This is the title of two major sources in the hanafi school. one is by ash-shaybani (d. 189/804) and is one of the primary texts of the school and is sometimes known as al-asi. it is the largest of ash-shaybani's books in which he collected questions on which abu hanifa gave fatwa. each chapter begins with the traditions they considered sound regarding it and then relevant questions and their answers. it gives a picture of early iraqi fiqh, but not the legal reasoning behind it. the second book with this title is by as-sarakhsi (d. 483/1090) which is comprehensive and based on an unpublished work by al-marwazi. (t.p)

Al-maghili ()
Abu `abdullah, Muhammad ibn 'abdu'l-karim at-tilimsani, a berber maliki faqih, (d. 909/1504), involved in the spread of the qadiriyya in the western sahara at the end of the fifteenth century and a key figure in the infusion of islam among the tuaregs. he joined the qadiriya in cairo through as-suyuti. he lived in tuwat and went to gao, to the court of Muhammad askia and thence to other muslim areas. he taught in tagedda, air, gao and hausaland. (t.p)

Al-mahalli ()
Jalal ad-din, the shaykh of as-suyuti, who began a tafsir which as-suyuti finished which is known as the tafsir al-jalalayn, d. 863/1459. (t.p)

Al-mahdi ()
"The divinely guided", the descendant of the prophet who will return at the end of time to establish justice. (t.p)

Al-makki ()
See abu talib al-makki. (t.p)

Al-mala' al-a'la ()
The heavenly host, the angels. (t.p)

Al-manasi ()
A vast plateau on the outskirts of madina. (t.p)

Al-manila bayna manzilatayn ()
"The position between the two positions", one of the five principles of the mu'tazilites. politically, they took a position between the shi'a and the sunnis. in respect of belief, they said that someone who is a fasiq is neither a believer nor an unbeliever. on the surface, this seems innocuous, but it is really an offshoot of the earlier manichaean metaphysical teaching. (t.p)

Al-maqam al-mahmud ()
The highest place in paradise, which will be granted to the prophet Muhammad and none else. (t.p)

Al-marghinani ()
'Ali ibn abi bakr, author of the hanafi fiqh book, al-hidaya. he died in 593/1196. (t.p)

Al-masih ()
The messiah, `isa son of maryam. (t.p)

Al-masih ()
The messiah, `isa, son of maryam. (t.p)

Al-masih ad-dajjal ()
The anti-messiah, the antichrist. (t.p)

Al-masih ad-dajjal ()
The anti-messiah. "dajjal" means a liar and great deceiver. (t.p)

Al-mawaqif wa'l-mukhatabat ()
"Spiritual stagings and addresses", by an-niffari (d. 354/965), a description of various stations through which the salik passes, translated by a.j. arberry. (t.p)

Al-mawardi ()
'Ali ibn Muhammad, the qadi, was born in basra in 364/972 and died in baghdad in 450/1058 when he was 86. his proficiency in fiqh, ethics, political science and literature proved useful in securing a respectable career for him. after his initial appointment as qadi, he was gradually promoted to higher offices, until he became the chief qadi at baghdad. the 'abbasid khalif al-qa'im bi'amri'llah appointed him as his roving ambassador and sent him to a number of countries as the head of special missions. he was a great jurist, muhaddith, sociologist and an expert in political science. his book, al-haws, on the principles of jurisprudence is held in high repute. his contribution in political science and sociology comprises a number of books, the most famous of which is al-ahkam as-sultaniya. (t.p)

Al-mawwaziya ()
One of the major sources of the maliki school which was written by ibn al-mawwaz. it is extremely detailed and comprehensive in its discussion of all the sources. (t.p)

Al-mi'un ()
Sums of a hundred ayat or more. (t.p)

Al-mizzi ()
Jamal ad-din, the famous traditionist. his two major works are: the rijal work, tahdhib al-kamdl ft asma' ar-rijal, and tuhfat al-ashraf bi-ma `rifa'l-atraf. the second work is of great utility for analysis of the isnads of hadiths. (d. 742/1341). (t.p)

Al-mu'tafika ()
"The overwhelmed ones", the cities of sodom and gomorrah. (t.p)

Al-mudawwana ()
The famous maliki legal compendium of sahnun. it contains the replies of ibn al-qasim as well as some of those of ibn wahb. it is sometimes called al-mukhtalita (mixed up) because the problems are lumped together in the various chapters. (t.p)

Al-mughni ()
"The enricher" by ibn qudama (d. 620/1223), a nine volume work which comments on al-khiraqi's al-mukhtasar fi'l-fiqh. it is the largest commentary on it. not content with merely expanding on the text of the mukhtasar and explaining the evidence for its positions, he follows that with a comprehensive exposition of the differing views within the hanbali school and the differences with other schools, even the less well-known schools, and then assesses their relative weaknesses and strengths. (t.p)

Al-muhakkima ()
Along with "harariya", a name used for the earliest kharijites. they deserted 'ali's camp when 'ali accepted arbitration in his war with mu`awiya. their objection was that 'ali had followed a human hukm (judgement) rather than divine hukm. they thought that this was tantamount to disbelief and hence they declared 'ali to be a kafir. (t.p)

Al-muhasabi ()
See al-harith ibn asad al-muhasabi. (t.p)

Al-mukhtasar fi'l-fiqh ()
Al-khiragi (d. 334/945-6), one of the most important and most famous hanbali works. over 300 commentaries have been written on it. (t.p)

Al-multazam ()
The area between the black stone and the door of the ka'ba, where it is recommended to make supplication. (t.p)

Al-munqidh min ad-dalal ()
"The deliverer from error", a book by al-ghazali (d. 505/1111), in which he gives a detailed acount of his intellectual and religious struggles which culminated in his becoming a sufi. (t.p)

Al-mustadrak 'ala as-sahihayn ()
By al-hakim an-nisaburi (d. 405/1014). he used hadiths which he considered met the criteria of al-bukhari and muslim. (t.p)

Al-mustakhraja ()
See al-`utbiya. (t.p)

Al-mustasfa min `ilm al-usul ()
A book by al-ghazali on the usul al-fiqh. (t.p)

Al-muwatta' ()
Malik's famous compendium of fiqh and hadith. virtually every hadith in it was accepted by al-bukhari. ash-shafi'i said of it, "after the book of Allah, there is no book on earth sounder than that of malik." there are two surviving recensions: that of yahya ibn yahya al-laythi al-masmudi and that of Muhammad ibn al-hasan ash-shaybani. (t.p)

Al-muwatta' ()
Of malik ibn anas (d. 179/795), the oldest and most authentic collection of hadith and fiqh. (t.p)

Al-muzani ()
Abu ibrahim ibn isma'il, born in 175/791 in egypt. ash-shafi`i said about him, "if he had debated with shaytan, he would have defeated him." a shafi`i mujtahid, he wrote al-mukhtasar about shafi`i fiqh. if he missed a fard prayer, he would pray it twenty-five times alone; and he used to wash the dead without payment hoping for a reward. he died in 264/878. (t.p)

Al-qarafi ()
Shihab ad-din abu'l-`abbas ahmad b. abi'l-`ala' idris, an egyptian maliki, but a berber by origin from sanhaja, born in 626 /1228. a maliki faqih and mufti, he grew up in al-qarafa in cairo. he was the most important maliki scholar of his time in cairo. he had knowledge of hebrew, grammar, lexicography, algebra, magic, astronomy, and opthalmology. he wrote sharh tanqih al-fusul on legal theory, al-furaq on qawd'id, and a six volume opus of maliki fiqh, adh-dhakhira, meant to be one of the best books on maliki fiqh. at-tamyiz was another book by him. he died in 684/1285. (t.p)

Al-Qard al-Hassan ()
Loans fixed for a definite period of time without interest or profit sharing. (i.i.q)

Al-qari`a ()
"The crashing blow", one of the names of the last day and the name of sura 101 of the qur'an. (t.p)

Al-qari`a ()
"The crashing blow", one of the names of the last day and the name of sura 101 of the qur' an. (t.p)

Al-qawa'id al-fiqhiya ()
"Rules of fiqh" by ibn juzayy al-kalbi (d. 741/1340), a single volume on legal judgements according to the maliki school accompanied by the differences and agreements with the other schools. (t.p)

Al-qira`at as-sab` ()
The seven accepted variant readings of the qur'an. also the title of a famous book on the subject by ibn mujahid. (t.p)

Al-qiyama ()
The arising and standing of people at the resurrection, and the name of sara 75 of the qur' an. (t.p)

Al-qiyama ()
The arising of people at the resurrection. qubba as-sakhra: dome of the rock in jerusalem. (t.p)

Al-quds ()
Jerusalem. qur'an: the holy book, the living miracle, revealed from Allah as a guidance to mankind via the angel jibril to the prophet Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him peace. the revelation began in 610 and continued until shortly before the death of the prophet in 11/632. (t.p)

Al-quduri ()
Abu'l-husayn ahmad b. Muhammad. he has a well-known compendium or mukhtasar. he died in 428/1036-7. (t.p)

Al-qurtubi ()
Muhammad ibn ahmad ibn abi bakr, abu `abdullah al-ansari al-qurtubi, of cordoba, an ascetic maliki scholar and hadith scholar, one of the greatest imams of tafsir who divided his days between writing and worship. his twenty volume tafsir is called al-jami' li-ahkam al-qur'an. he delights in the grammatical and rhetorical virtuosity in the various readings which enhances the possibilities of the meanings of the text. he enjoys the diversity of the different readings and the opportunity to construct and refute wellexpressed arguments, and explores its layered meanings. he disdained self-importance and wore a simple caftan and cap. he travelled to the east and settled in munya abi'l-khusayb in upper egypt where he died in 671/1273. (t.p)

Al-qushayri ()
Abu'l-qasim 'abdu'l-karim ibn hawazin, the shaykh of khurasan in his time in asceticism and knowledge of the din. he was born in 376/986. he was based at nishapur and died there in 465/1074. he has various books, the most famous of which are the risala al-qushayriya about tasawwuf and the biographies of the sufis, and the la ta'if al-isharat on tafsir. in kalam he was the student of the ash'arite, abu bakr ibn furak, and in sufism the follower of as-sulami, and abu 'ali ad-daqqaq whose daughter fatima he married. he battled the mu'tazilites in nishapur until he had to flee to makka to protect his life. (t.p)

Al-rukn al-yamani ()
The yemeni corner of the ka'ba, facing south towards yemen. (t.p)

Al-umm ()
By ash-shafi'i (d. 204/820) a seven volume collection which contains ash-shafi'i's final school of fiqh. (t.p)

Al-usnl al-khamsa ()
The five affirmations of the mu `tazilites: tawhid; `adl (justice); al-wa `d wa'l-wa `ad ("the promise and the threat"); manzila bayna'l-manzilatayn (the position between two positions); and commanding the correct and forbidding the rejected. (t.p)

Al-wa'd wa'l-wa`id ()
"The promise and the threat", the promise of heaven and the threat of hell as recompense for actions. a consequence of this, the mu`tazilites assert, is that a wrongdoer can never come out of the fire by divine mercy. (t.p)

Al-wa`idiya ()
Mu'tazilites who believe that logically Allah must punish the disobedient as he must reward the obedient; therefore, according to them, if a person committed a major sin and died before repenting, then Allah must not forgive him. this doctrine conflicts with the qur'an and the sunna. (t.p)

Al-Wadi'ah ()
This refers to deposits in trust, in which a person may hold property in trust for another, sometimes by implication of a contract. (i.i.q)

Al-wahidi ()
`Ali ibn ahmad abu'l-hasan an-nisaburi. a grammarian and commentator, he wrote a classical tafsir on which as-suyuti drew extensively. he died in 468/1076. he wrote al-basit, al-wasit, al-wajiz. he dealt with asbab an-nuzal. (t.p)

Al-wajfz ()
By al-ghazali (d. 505/1111), a synopsis of the shafi`i school. (t.p)

Al-Wakalah al Mutlaqa ()
Resale of goods with a discount on the original stated cost. (i.i.q)

Al-wansharisi ()
Ahmad ibn yahya, a maliki mufti of fez, (c. 834/1430 - 914/1508). he has a twelve volume collection of fatwas called al-mi`yar al-mughriban fatawa 'ulama' ifriqiya wa'l-andalus wa'l maghrib, "the standard, expressing the fatwas of the scholars of tunisia, andalusia, and morocco", and other works. (t.p)

Al-wasiti ()
Abu bakr ibn musa, imam and gnostic of Allah, and one of al-junayd's companions. he was one of the most esteemed scholars and sufis. he was from the city of wasit. he died in marw in 320/932. (t.p)

Al-wujud al-mutlaq ()
"Absolute being" which is impossible to conceive. it did not come out of non-existence, but exists absolutely. (t.p)

Al-yasa` ()
The prophet elisha. (t.p)

Ala ()
Instrument, tool. (t.p)

Alaihis Salaam ()
May Allah's peace be upon him. May also be abbreviated to A.S. A phrase which is usually read after the name of a prophet other than Prophet Muhammad (S.A.W.) is mentioned. (i.i.q)

Alastu ()
Allah's declaration in the qur'an (7:172): "a lastu bi-rabbikum?" - `am i not your lord?" which, when he created adam, he asked of all the souls of adam's descendants that would exist until the end of the world. this is the primordial covenant (mithaq) between Allah and mankind. (t.p)

Alaysa' ()
A disciple of ilyas, the prophet elisha. (t.p)

Ali ibn Abi Talib ()
One of the companions of the Prophet, he was also Muhammad's cousin and son-in-law. He became the fourth Caliph of the early Muslim state in 656 C.E. He is considered the last of the "Rightly-Guided" caliphs by Sunni Muslims, and the first of the Imams by Shi'ah Muslims. (c.i.e)

Alif ()
The first letter of the arabic alphabet. it is often used as a symbol of divine unity. (t.p)

Alim ()
One who has knowledge. This term refers commonly to a Muslim religious scholar. (pl. Ulama [oo-la-ma] ). (c.i.e)

Alim (AALIM) ()
a learned person in Islam, scholar.

Aliya ()
Instrumentality. (t.p)

Allah (ALLA ALAH) ()
The true name for the creator of the Universe is Allah. He is the Merciful, the Beneficent, the Knowledgeable, the Protector, the Mighty, the God, the Provider, the Exalted, the Lord, the All-Knowing, the All-Hearing, the All-Seeing, the Magnificent, the Wise, the Loving, the First, the Last, and the Eternal.

The Qur'an mentions around 100 beautiful names for Allah through which Muslims may understand and recognize Him, and His responsibilities for the whole Universe.

Allah ()
The Name of the Creator of the Universe and all that it contains according to Islam. Derives from the word "Ilah" which means "the One deserving all worship", the One to Whom all hearts submit in love, fear, reverence, desire, trust and sincerity, and to Whom all limbs submit in all forms of worship such as prayers, supplications, sacrifices, invocations, etc. (i.i.q)

Allah (al-lah) ()
Literally, "The God." Muslims use this Arabic term as the proper name for God. Muslims view Allah as the Creator and Sustainer of everything in the universe, Who is transcendent, has no physical form, and has no associates who share in His divinity. In the Qur'an, God is described as having at least ninety-nine Divine Names, which describe His attributes. (c.i.e)

Allahu a'lam ()
An arabic expression meaning "Allah knows best". (t.p)

Allahu akbar ()
The arabic expression meaning "Allah is greater." also called the takbir. (t.p)

Allahu Akbar (al-lah-hu uck-bar) ()
This phrase, known as the Takbir, means "God is Greatest" and is uttered by Muslims at various times. Most often it is pronounced during the daily worship, but Muslims also use it to express happiness, surprise, regret, thankfulness, fear, or approval, thereby reinforcing their belief that all things come from God. (c.i.e)

This statement is said by Muslims numerous times. During the call for prayer, during prayer, when they are happy, and wish to express their approval of what they hear, when they slaughter an animal, and when they want to praise a speaker, Muslims do say this expression of Allahu Akbar. Actually it is most said expression in the world. Its meaning:Allah is the Greatest.Muslims praise Allah in every aspect of life; and as such they say Allahu Akbar.

Almsgiving Tax ()
See Zakah. (c.i.e)

Alqab ()
Nicknames (by which transmitters are known). (t.p)

Ama ()
A female slave. thus the female version of "'abdullah" is "amatullah". (t.p)

Amal ()
Hope, a feeling in the heart that something good will happen. (t.p)

Amal ()
False hope, remote expectation, as in having a false expectation of the importance of worldly things; or else true hope in Allah. (t.p)

Aman ()
Guarantee of safety, safe-conduct. (t.p)

Amana ()
A trust, a fiduciary relationship, a deposit on trust. (t.p)

Amanah ()
Something given to someone for safekeeping. Trust. The contract of amanah gives rise to fiduciary relationships and duties. (i.i.q)

Amara ()
(Plural amarat) evidence or an indication which leads to a speculative reasoning, as opposed to dalil, which leads to a definitive ruling. (t.p)

Ameen (Amin)
Custodian or guardian. (i.i.q)

means custodian or guardian. Someone who is loyal or faithful.

Amin ()
Trustee. (t.p)

Amin ()
"Ameen", a compound of verb and noun meaning "answer our prayer" or "so be it". (t.p)

Amin ()
(Plural umana') a trustworthy person. the prophet was known as "al-amin". (t.p)

Amir ()
The one who commands, the source of authority in a situation; a military commander. (t.p)

Amir ()
means leader or commander.

Amir ()
Amir is used in Islam to mean leader or commander. (i.i.q)

Amir al-mumineen ()
means commander of the belivers. This title was given to the Khalifah.

Amma ba'd ()
An expression used for separating an introductory from the main topics in a speech; the introductory being usually concerned with Allah's praises and glorification. literally it means "whatever comes after."(t.p)

Amr ()
The command (see sufism), the eidos of aristotle, the active pole (yang) in which the yin is tabs `a (nature, or the hyle of aristole). (t.p)

Amr ()
(Plural awamir, umur) command, matter, affair. (t.p)

Amr ()
(Plural awamir, umur) command, matter, affair. (t.p)

Amr bi'l-ma`rnf wa'n-nahy `an al-munkar ()
Promotion of good and prevention of evil. this is a duty for all muslims which is prescribed in the qur' an. (t.p)

Amthila ()
Examples, plural of mithal. (t.p)

Amwal ()
Wealth. In business context, Amwal means wealth that is contributed as capital in a partnership. Plural: mal. (i.i.q)

An-nabulisi ()
See `abdu'l-ghani ibn isma il an-nabulisi. (t.p)

An-nafs al-`ammara ()
The insinuating self which is wholly evil and totally under the control of passions and bent only on self-gratification. it is totally blind to any higher reality. 'the lower self of man commands to evil acts except where my lord shows mercy." (qur'an 12:53). (t.p)

An-nafs al-lawwama ()
The self-reproaching self, which is indecisive in choosing between good and evil and is constantly embroiled in an inner struggle. it is unable to overcome the impulses of the lower self while it nonetheless recognises the higher one. `no, i swear by the self-reproaching self "(qur'an 75:2). (t.p)

An-nafs al-mulhama ()
The inspired self, which recognises its faults and strives to correct them. "by the self and what proportioned it and inspired it with depravity or godliness! "(qur'an 91:7-8). (t.p)

An-nafs al-mutma'inna ()
Finally there is the self at peace, which is illuminated and acts according to the good and is therefore liberated. "o self at peace, return to your lord, well-pleased, well-pleasing. enter among my servants. enter my garden. " (qur'an 89:27-30). (t.p)

An-nafs an-natiqa ()
The rational soul which can make its ideas known by means of speech and which also understands speech. it does not die with the body, as it is an essential substance and not an accident. (t.p)

An-nar ()
The fire, hell. (t.p)

An-nasa'i ()
Abu `abdu'r-rahman ahmad ibn 'ali ibn shu'ayb, born in 215/830 in nasa. he studied with the great scholars and went to those who were mentioned as having knowledge in his time. he was a shafi`i and wrote on the rites of hajj according to the shafi`ites. he used to fast every other day and loved women, having four wives and many slave-girls. he wrote many books on the virtues of the companions, especially on `all. he was skilled in the science of hadith and unique in memorisation and precision. he compiled one of the six sahih collections of hadith: the sunan. his sunan is the one with the fewest weak hadiths after the two main sahih collections. he was murdered in 303/915 in damascus because of his love for 'all by the remnants of the kharijites. (t.p)

An-nasafi ()
`Abdullah ibn ahmad, abu 'abdu'r-rahman of idhaj, a village near isfahan, one of the great hanafi imams of his time, who wrote on usul, fiqh and `aqida. he wrote a three volume tafsir called madarik at-tanzil. he died in idhaj in 710/1310. [there are three other well-known scholars also called an-nasafi.](t.p)

An-nawawi ()
Yahya ibn sharaf, abu zakariyya, born in the village of nawa on the horan plain of southern syria in 631/1233. he was the imam of the later shafi'ites and wrote many books: minhaj at talibin, kitdb al-adhkar, riyad as-salihin and other books. he lived very simply. after twenty-seven years in damascus, he returned home and died at the age of 44 in 676/1277. (t.p)

An-nawawi ()
Yahya ibn sharaf, abu zakariyya, born in the village of nawa on the horan plain of southern syria in 631/1233. imam of the later shafi`ites. he wrote many books, including minhaj attdlibin, kitab al-adhkar riyad as-salihin. he lived very simply. after twenty-seven years in damascus, he returned home and died at the age of 44 in 676/1277. (t.p)

An-nawawi ()
Yahya ibn sharaf, abu zakariyya, born in the village of nawa on the horan plain of southern syria in 631/1233. he was the imam of the later shafi`ites and wrote many books: minhaj at-taliban, kitab al adhkar, riyad as-salihin and other books he lived very simply. after twenty-seven years in damascus, he returned home and died at the age of 44 in 676/1277. (t.p)

An-niffari ()
Muhammad ibn `abdu'l-jabbar, an iraqi sufi of the 4th/loth century. very little is known about his life. he died probably in 354/965. he wrote al-mawaqif wa'l-mukhatabat. (t.p)

An-nuri ()
Abu'l-husayn ahmad ibn Muhammad, a native of baghdad of a khorasani family, a pupil of sari as-saqati and companion of al-junayd. he wrote some fine poetry and died in 295/908. (t.p)

Anbiya' ()
The plural of nabs. (t.p)

Angels ()
See Mala'ikah. (c.i.e)

Ansar (ANSAAR)
means helpers. These were the people of Madinah who responded to the Prophet's call to Islam and offered Islam a city-state power.

Anwar at-tanzil ()
"The light of revelation and secrets of interpretation" by al-baydawi. he condensed the tafsir of az-zamakhshari in places and expanded it in other places, removing its mu`tazilite aspects and overtones. (t.p)

Aqabah ()
a place just outside of Mecca, in Mina where the first Muslims from Yathrib Madinah pledged allegiance to the Prophet in the year 621 C.E.. A similar meeting took place the next year when more Muslims from Yathrib pledged their allegiance to the Prophet.

Aqd ()
A contract. (i.i.q)

Aqd Sahih ()
A legal contract. (i.i.q)

Aqeeda (Aqida Akeeda Akida)
Literally means belief or creed. In Islamic terms, it means the following six articles of faith: 1. Belief in Allah, the One God. 2. Belief in Allah's angels. 3. Belief in His revealed Books. 4. Belief in His messengers. 5. Belief in the Day of Judgement. 6. Belief in Fate and the Divine Decree. (I.Z)

Aqlab ()
Modification. this occurs when nun or tanwin is followed by ba'. the nun becomes a mim. thus min ba'd becomes mim ba`d. (t.p)

Ar-rafi`i ()
'Abdu'l-karim ibn Muhammad, abu'l-qasim, born in qazwin in 557/1162. the imam of his time in fiqh and tafsir, he represents with imam an-nawawi the principle reference of the later shafi`i school. his main work is a commentary on al-ghazali's, al-wajiz, entitled fath al- `aziz. he was a mystic and ascetic. he died in qazwin in 623/1226. (t.p)

Ar-Rahmaan ()
the Keeper of the stores of Mercy(o.s)

Ar-ramhurmuzi ()
Abu Muhammad (d. c. 370/981), the first writer to compile a comprehensive work on the science of hadith entitled kitab al-muhaddith al-fdsil. (t.p)

Ar-rami ()
Jalal ad-din Muhammad ibn Muhammad ibn Muhammad ibn husayn, the founder of the mevlevi sufi order. he was born in balkh (afghanistan) in 604/1207-08 to a family of learned theologians. escaping the mongol invasion, he and his family travelled extensively in the muslim lands, performed the pilgrimage to makka and finally settled in konya, anatolia (turkey), where he succeeded his father in 629/1231 as professor in religious sciences. he was introduced into the mystical path by a wandering dervish, shamsuddin of tabriz. his love for and his bereavement at the death of shams found their expression in a surge of music, dance and lyric poems, divani shamsi tabrizi. rumi is the author of a huge didactic work, the mathnawi, and his discourses, fihi ma fihi, written to introduce his disciples to metaphysics. rumi died on december 17, 672/1273. men of five faiths followed his bier. he was a truly universal man. (t.p)

Ar-raqim ()
The tablet which contained the story of the seven sleepers, or possibly the name of their dog. (see qitmir). (t.p)

Ar-rass ()
"The men of ar-rass", a people mentioned in the qur'an who were destroyed. ar-rass is possibly the name of a well. (t.p)

Ar-rayyan ()
The name of one of the gates of paradise through which only the people who often observe fasting will enter. once all the fasters have entered it, it will be locked. (t.p)

Ar-razi ()
Al-fakhr, Muhammad ibn 'umar, imam of tafsir who was unique in his time in judgement and transmission and basic sciences. a shafi`i mujtahid who worked to preserve the religion of the ahl as-sunna from the deviations of the mu'tazilites, shiites, etc. he wrote a thirty-two volume tafsir, mafatih al-ghayb. he was a qurashi from tabaristan, born in rayy. he died in herat in 606/1210. (t.p)

Ar-rifa'i ()
Abu'l-`abbas ahmad ibn 'ali, the founder of the rifa i tariqa. he grew up in the area around basra and eventually established his zawiya in umm 'abida. he died in 578/1182. (t.p)

Ar-ruh al-amin ()
"The trusty spirit," meaning jibril; also known as ar rah al-qudus, "the spirit of purity". (t.p)

Arabic ()
The language of the Qur'an. Arabic is a Semitic language, used throughout the world by Muslims and non-Muslims, Arabs and non-Arabs. Historically, in Muslim civilization Arabic became the language of learning and scholarship, and was the common language for people living as far apart as Spain and China. (c.i.e)

Arafat ()
a plain north of Mecca. It is on this plain that humanity will be raised on the Day of Judgement for questioning and judgement. During the Hajj on the ninth day of the month of Zhu-l-Hijjah, Muslim pilgrims gather on this plain for one day.

Arak ()
A tree from which siwak (tooth brush) is made. (t.p)

Arba`in ()
"The forty hadith" by an-nawawi (d. 676/1277), perhaps the most popular small collection of hadiths. (t.p)

Ard ()
The earth. the opposite is samawdt, "the heavens". (t.p)

Arkan ()
(The plural of rukn), used for the five indispensable pillars of islam which are: the shahada, the salat, the zakat, the fast of ramadan and the hajj. (t.p)

Arkan ()
The elements or essential ingredients of an act, without which the act is not legally valid. (i.i.q)

Arsh ()
Compensation given in the case of someone's injury caused by another person. (t.p)

As-sa`a ()
The final hour (the day of judgement). (t.p)

As-sa`ir ()
Raging fire, a name for hell. (t.p)

As-Salaam Alaykum ()
The traditional, time-honored greeting of Muslims, meaning "Peace be upon you." The appropriate response is "Wa Alaykum As-Salaam," meaning, "And upon you be peace also." (c.i.e)

As-salamu 'alaykum ()
"Peace be upon you," the greeting of the muslims. (t.p)

As-salat `ala'n-nabi ()
The prayer on the prophet. (t.p)

As-salat al-mashishiya ()
The poem in praise of the prophet composed by ibn mashish (d. c. 625/1228) which is frequently recited. (t.p)

As-samiri ()
The samaritan who made the golden calf. (t.p)

As-sanusi ()
Muhammad 'ali, abu `abdullah as-sanusi al-khattabi al-hasani al-idrisi, born in mosteghanem, algeria in 1202/1789. he was the founder of the sanusi tariqa, a maliki scholar and sufi whose disciples included shaykh al-'arabi ad-darqawi and ahmad tijani. he produced more than forty books and travelled a lot. his main centre was near al-bayda in libya. he worked for fifteen years to spread islam south to the african interior. he then went to makka where he remained until 1269/853, and then returned to establish a new centre at jaghbub. he died in 1275/1859. (t.p)

As-sarakhsi ()
Muhhammad ibn ahmad, abu bakr, a great hanafi imam, mujtahid, qadi and author of the thirty volume encyclopaedic al-mabsut, dictated to his students while he was imprisoned in an underground cell in uzjand near ferghana for advising a local chief about the din. he wrote a number of books and died in ferghana in 483/1090. (t.p)

As-sarraj ()
Abu nasr `abdullah ibn 'ali, author of kitab al-luma `, a classic sufi text. he died in 378/988. (t.p)

As-sawi ()
The gloss of ahmad as-sawi al-maliki on the tafsir al-jalalayn. this actually makes the jalalayn more usable because it explains words and grammatical usages and expands on it. it is in four volumes (which includes the text of the jalalayn). (t.p)

As-sidr wa'l-taqsim ()
Another term for takhrij al-manat. (t.p)

As-subki ()
Taqi ad-din 'ali ibn `abdu'l-kafi, born in subk, egypt in 683/1284, a shafi`i scholar and mujtahid. he wrote more than 150 books including at-takmila, an eleven volume supplement to an-nawawi's sharh al-muhadhdhab, fatawa as-subki in two volumes, and al-ibhaj fi sharh al-minhaj. in 739/1339 he moved to damascus where he was made a qadi. eventually he fell ill and was replaced by his son and returned to cairo where he died in 756/1355. (t.p)

As-suhrawardi ()
Abu hafs 'umar. he became shaykh of shaykhs in baghdad and acted as ambassador for the 'abbasid khalif to the ayyubids and seljuks. he helped with the organisation of the futuwwa ideals and an-nasir may have organised the movement. he died in 632/1234. (t.p)

As-sulami ()
Abu `abdu'r-rahman Muhammad ibn al-husayn, a shaykh of the sufis and author of a book on their history, ranks and tafsir, the tabaqat as-sufiya. he was born in nishapur in 325/936 and died in 412/1021. (t.p)

As-sulami ()
Abu `abdu'r-rahman Muhammad ibn al-husayn, a shaykh of the sufis and author of a book on their history, ranks and tafsir. he wrote the tabaqat as-sufiya and haqa'iq at-tafsir. he was born in nishapur in 325/936 and died in 412/1021. (t.p)

As-sunan al-kubra ()
By al-bayhagi (d. 458/1066). the hadiths in this compilation are arranged according to their legal import. they include traditions that were not available from earlier compilations. (t.p)

As-suynti ()
Jalalu'd-din, `abdu'r-rahman ibn abi bakr, born in 849/1445. a shafi`i mujtahid, sufi, hadith scholar and historian who wrote books on almost every subject. raised as an orphan in cairo, he memorised the qur'an by the age of eight and proceeded to study intensively. at the age of forty he abandoned the company of men for the solitude of the garden of al-miqyas by the nile, avoiding his former friends. he wrote nearly six hundred books. wealthy muslims and princes tried to visit him, but he put them off and refused to visit the ruler. his books include his hadith work, jdmi ` al-jawami `, the tafsir al-jalalayn (completing a manuscript by his teacher, jalalu'd-din al-mahalli), and tadrib ar-rawi. he died in 911/1505. (t.p)

As-suyuti ()
Jalal ad-din'abdu'r-rahman ibn abi bakr, born in 849/1445. a shafi`i mujtahid, sufi, hadith scholar and historian. he wrote books on almost every subject. raised as an orphan in cairo, he memorised the qur'an by the age of eight and proceeded to devote himself to study. at the age of forty he abandoned the company of men for the solitude of the garden of al-miqyas by the nile, avoiding his prior friends, and proceeded to write nearly six hundred books. wealthy muslims and princes visited him, but he put them off and refused to visit the sultan. his books include a hadith collection, jami ' al-jawami', the tafsir al-jalalayn (completing a manuscript by his shaykh, jalal ad-din al-mahalli), and tadrib ar-rawi. he died in 911/1505. (t.p)

Asabiyyah ()
means tirbal loyalty, nationalism.

Asanid ()
Plural of isnad. (t.p)

Asas ()
"First principle", an isma'ili term. (t.p)

Asbab ()
Causes, plural of sabab. (t.p)

Asbab ()
Legal causes, plural of sabab. (t.p)

Asbab al-wurud ()
The historical circumstances of a hadith. (t.p)

Asbab an-nuzul ()
The historical circumstances leading up to a revelation or in which particular ayat were revealed; situational exegesis. (t.p)

Asbat ()
Tribes (of israel). (t.p)

Ash'arites ()
Along with the maturidites, articulated the sunni position of kalam, which is characteristed by rationality while refusing to force it upon matters of faith. the main features of this school are the negation of intermediate cause and effect as everything is caused by Allah and the discontinuity between Allah and his creation. furthermore, it is asserted, the divine attributes are distinct from the essence, although they cannot be in any way comparable to the attributes of creatures. the word of Allah, for example, is eternal and uncreated while articulated sounds are created. (t.p)

Ash-sha`rani ()
`Abdu'l-wahhab ibn ahmad (848/1492 - 973/1565), egyptian scholar and sufi who founded a tariqa. he was the author of the tabaqat al-kubra. (t.p)

Ash-shadhili ()
Abu'l-hasan 'ali ibn `abdullah, (593/1196 - 656/1258). he was from ceuta and a disciple of `abdu's-salam ibn mashish. he fled from tunisia and established a following in egypt, dying near the red sea on the way to makka. his successor was abu'l'abbas al-mursi (d. 686/1287), the shaykh of ibn `ata'llah (d.709/1309). he wrote hizb al-bahr, hizb al-barr, hizb an-nasr, and other litanies. (t.p)

Ash-shafi`i ()
Abu 'abdullah Muhammad ibn idris, the famous scholar who was born in ghazza in 150/767 and grew up in makka. he had learned the qur'an by heart when he was seven. he knew grammar, poetry and language. he memorised the muwatta' in a single night. he gave fatwas when he was fifteen. he travelled to yemen and then baghdad and then settled in egypt. he was the founder of one of the four madhhabs. in fact, he produced two schools: the first, the "old school" which was based on the school of madina, and then the "new school" which he produced four years after arriving in cairo. he wrote al-umm and ar-risala. he was the first to formulate the principles of abrogating and abrogated verses. he died in 204/820. (t.p)

Ash-shatibi ()
Abu ishaq ibrahim ibn musa al-gharnati, (d. 790/1388), a maliki faqih who wrote al-i'tisam and al-muwafaqat. he presented the doctrines of maqasid ash-shari`a (the purposes of the law). (t.p)

Ash-shawkani ()
Muhammad ibn `all, born in shawkan, near khawlan, yemen in 1173/1760. an important scholar, he was educated in san`a' where he became a qadi. he wrote 114 books, especially an eight volume commentary on hadith called nayl al-awtdr. he died in 1250/1834. (t.p)

Ash-shaybani ()
Muhammad ibn hasan, abu 'abdullah, born in wasit in 131/748. a mujtahid imam, he was educated by abu hanifa, abu yusuf and malik. he was raised in kufa where he met abu hanifa, joined his school and then moved to baghdad, where the 'abbasid khalif harun ar-rashid made him a qadi. he transmitted al-muwatta' of malik. he was one of the shaykhs of ash-shafi'i. he wrote many books and died in rayy in 189/804. he has kitab al-asl or al-mabsut, al-jami ` as-saghir and al-jami ` al-kabir. (t.p)

Ash-shibli ()
Abu bakr dulaf ibn jahdar, khorasani of origin, but born in baghdad or samarra in 247/861, the son of a court official. he was a maliki faqih. then he joined the circle of junayd and became noted for his eccentric behaviour which led to his commital to an asylum. he died in 334/946 at the age of 87. he left his "sayings" (isharat). his tomb is in baghdad. (t.p)

Ashab al-ayka ()
"The people of the thicket". ayka may be a place or a description. their prophet was shu`ayb and the description of them corresponds to the people of madyan. (t.p)

Ashab al-fara'id ()
Those entitled to fixed shares of inheritance by the qur'an. they are: father, father's father however old, half-brother by the mother, husband, wife, daughter, son's daughter, however young, full sister, consanguine sister, uterine sister, mother, and grandmother. (t.p)

Ashab al-kahf ()
The seven sleepers, the seven believers who slept for 309 years (in a cave near ephesus) and who attained high status because of their emigrating to another place in order not to lose their faith when disbelievers invaded their land. mentioned in surat 18:927 of the qur'an. (t.p)

Ashab al-mash'ama ()
"The companions of the left", the people of the fire (see qur'an 56:9). (t.p)

Ashab al-maymana ()
"The companions of the right", the people of the garden (see qur'an 56:8). (t.p)

Ashab al-ukhdud ()
The people of the ditch, the christians of najran who were burned alive by dhu nuwas in yemen in about 525 ce after he had failed to force them to convert to judaism. (see qur'an 85:4-9). (t.p)

Ashab ar-ra'y ()
Speculative jurists. (see ahl ar-ra'y). (t.p)

Ashbah wa naza'ir ()
"Resemblances and similarities", the study of the semantic structure of the law. (t.p)

Asiya ()
The wife of pharaoh mentioned in the qur'an in 66:11. she is considered to be one of the four perfect women, (the others being maryam, khadija and fatima). (t.p)

Asl ()
(Plural usul) root on whose basis analogy is sought, primary principle, textual basis. (t.p)

Asl ()
The basic estate. (t.p)

Asma' adh-dhat ()
The names of the essence. (t.p)

Asma' ar-rijal ()
"The names of the men", the study of the lives of the narrators who are the links in the chain of transmission. (t.p)

Asma' as-sifat ()
The names of the attributes. (t.p)

Asr ()
the late afternoon obligatory Salah, prayer.

This is an expression Muslims say whenever they meet one another. It is a statement of greeting with peace. The meaning of it is:Peace be upon you.

Muslims try to establish peace on earth even through the friendly relation of greeting and meeting one another.

The other forms are:Assalamu 'Alalikum Wa Rahmatullah,which means:May the peace and the Mercy of Allah be upon you,andAssalamu Alalikum Wa Rahmatullahi Wa Barakatuh,which means :May the peace, the mercy, and the blessings of Allah be upon you.

Astaghfiru'llah ()
The arabic expression meaning "i ask forgiveness of Allah". (t.p)

Astaghfirullah (ASTAGHFIRALLAH)
This is an expression used by a Muslim when he wants to ask Allah forgiveness. The meaning of it is:I ask Allah forgiveness.A Muslim says this phrase many times, even when he is talking to another person. When a Muslim abstains from doing wrong, or even when he wants to prove that he is innocent of an incident he uses this expression. After every Salah (payer), a Muslim says this statement three times.

At-ta`ati ()
Sale by "give and take" which is sanctioned by custom. tadamiin: joint liability. (t.p)

At-tabarani ()
Sulayman ibn ahmad, abu'l-qasim, born in acre in 260/873. a great hadith master and mufassir, he travelled to listen to had 7th for sixteen years, meeting about a thousand shaykhs of transmission. he travelled from syria in quest of hadiths, and his journey lasted thirty-three years. he settled in isfahan where he related hadiths for sixty years and produced three hadith collections, the largest of which is the twenty-five volume al-muj `am al-kabir. he died in isfahan in 360/971. (t.p)

At-tabari ()
Abu ja'far Muhammad ibn jarir, one of the scholars and author of famous books. he was from tabaristan. he was born in 224/839 and died in 310/923. he has a massive and widely-used tafsir of the qur'an called jami' al-bayan which is known as tafsir at-tabari. it contains a large number of hadiths, but it is also a structured work which deals with methodological issues. he discusses linguistic concerns, the various readings, and the issue of interpretation by personal opinion (ray). he divides the qur'an into verses which can only be interpreted by the prophet; verses of which only Allah knows the interpretation; and those which can be interpreted by people with proper knowledge of the language. (t.p)

At-tadili ()
Abu ya`qub yusuf ibn yahya, known as ibn az-zayyat, born in tadla (tadila), morocco. he spent most of his life in marrakesh and around it. he died in 628-629/1230-31 while qadi of ragraga. he completed at-tashawwuf ila rijal at-tasawwuf in 617/1220. it is one of the earliest and most important sources for the religious history of morocco. (t.p)

At-tahawi ()
: Imam abu ahmad ibn Muhammad al-misri at-tahawi al-hanafi. taha is a village in egypt. he began as a shafi'i studying with al-muzani, who was his uncle. one day al-muzani remarked to him, "by Allah, you have achieved nothing." at-tahawi became angry and went to ibn abi 'imran al-hanafi and became a hanafi, so eager to establish that school that he demanded the transmission of reports of history according to his school and used what others considered to be weak arguments, according to al-bayhaqi. one of his most famous works is the "commentary on the meanings of traditions". he also has a mukhtasar of hanafi fiqh. he was born in 239/851 and died in 321/932. (t.p)

At-tanbih ()
By ash-shirazi (d. 470/1083), a standard work on shafi'i doctrine. (t.p)

At-targhib wa't-tarhib ()
By ibn hajar al-'asqalani (d. 852/1449), a small collection arranged according to topics. (t.p)

At-tashil fi `ulum at-tanzil ()
"Facilitation of the sciences of revelation" by ibn juzayy. it is very succinct and comprehensive, quite densely packed into two volumes. it is one of the best of the smaller tafsirs. (t.p)

At-tayalisi ()
Abu dawud sulayman ibn dawud ibn al-jarud al-farisi. he was an outstanding scholar. al-qallas and ibn al-madini both said that they had never met anyone with a better memory than him. ibn mahdi said, "he is the most truthful of people." he wrote from a thousand shaykhs. he was born in 133/750 and died in 201/818 at the age of sixty-eight. he has a musnad, the earliest musnad still extant. (t.p)

At-tijani ()
Abu'l-`abbas ahmad ibn Muhammad, founder of the tijaniya. he was born in 1150/1737 at 'ayn madi, a village 72 km west of laghuat. he died in 1230/1815 and is buried in fes, morocco. (t.p)

At-tirmidhi ()
See al-hakim at-tirmidhi. (t.p)

At-tirmidhi ()
Abu `isa ibn Muhammad ibn `isa, he was born in 209/824 and is one of the great scholars. he was proficient in fiqh and had many books on the science of hadith. his book as-sahih is one of the best and most useful books. it is properly entitled al-jami `. he also has ash-shama `il an-nabawiyya. it is said, "whoever has this book in his house, it is as if he had the prophet speaking." he died in tirmidh in 279/892. (t.p)

At-tiwal ()
The long suras. (t.p)

At-tur ()
The mount, the name of sura 52 of the qur'an, refers to mount sinai. (t.p)

Ath-tha`alibi ()
Abu zayd `abdu'r-rahman b. Muhammad (d. 875/1470-1) wrote al-jawahir al-hisan fi tafsir al-qur'an. he was interested in stories, narrative variants and their various authorities. he attempts to convey the richness of the narrative tradition. (t.p)

Athar ()
(Plural athar) lit. impact, trace, vestige; also deeds and precedents of the companions. (t.p)

Athar ()
(Plural athar) lit. impact, trace, vestige; synonym of khabar, but usually reserved for deeds and precedents of the companions. (t.p)

Atomism ()
An ash'arite position refined by al-bagillanl which asserts that atoms are simultaneously both space and time. they are instants in space, but without extension. (t.p)

Awaq ()
Plural of uqiyya, a measurement of silver equivalent to forty dirhams or 123 gms of silver. (t.p)

Awliya' ()
The plural of wall. (t.p)

Awqaf ()
(Plural of waqf) pious foundations. (t.p)

Awqaf ()
Property voluntarily transferred to a charity or trust so that it is use for public benefits. (i.i.q)

Awqiyyah ()

means weight, like the ones used to weigh items.

Awrah ()
parts of the body that are not supposed to be exposed to others. For men this is from the navel to the knee. For the women it is all of her body except the hands, feet, and face.

Awsaq ()
Plural of wasq, a measure of volume equal to sixty sa`s. (t.p)

Awtad ()
The plural of watad. they are four of the abdal and are part of the spiritual hierarchy. they have a certain spiritual station which is reflected in north, south, east and west. (t.p)

Aya(t) ()
(Plural ayat) verse of the qur'an; a sign of Allah. (t.p)

Aya(t) ()
A verse of the qur'an. it literally means "sign" and also refers to the signs that one sees in creation. (sometimes written as dya, which is a more faithful representation of the arabic.) the plural is ayat. (t.p)

Ayaat ()
it is the plural form of Ayah.

Ayah (AYA AYYAH) ()
The Arabic meaning of Ayah is a miracle and a sign. The Qur'an is considered to be a miracle itself. Each verse or sentence is called an Ayah or a miracle. The plural of Ayah is called Ayat, which means miracles.

Ayah ()
A verse of the Holy Qur'an. Literally means "a sign". Plural: Ayaat. (i.i.q)

Ayah ()
Literally, "miracle" or "sign." The term is used to designate a verse in the Qur'an. There are over 6,600 ayahs in the Qur'an. (c.i.e)

Ayat al-ahkam ()
Verses which give rulings with a legal connotation. (t.p)

Ayat al-kursi ()
The throne verse: qur'an 2:255. also called ayat al-hifz, the ayat of preservation. (see kursi)(t.p)

Ayat al-mawarith ()
"The verses of inheritance shares" in the qur'an (4:11-12) which lay down the basic rules of inheritance. (t.p)

Ayat al-mudayana ()
"The ayat of buying and selling," qur'an 2:282, which requires witnesses to commercial contracts. (t.p)

Ayat as-sayf ()
The verse of the sword: qur'an 9:5. (t.p)

Ayat-ul-kursi ()

Surah Baqara, Ayah 256 of the Quran. It is called the throne of the Quran.

Ayatollah ()
"Sign of Allah", a honorific title of high-ranking shiite religious authorities. (t.p)

Ayniya ()
Whereness. (t.p)

Aysa ()
Term used by al-kindi for being. now superseded by kawn. (t.p)

Ayyub ()
The prophet job. (t.p)

Az-zamakhshari ()
Abu'l-qasim mahmud b. 'umar, a persian-born arabic scholar. born in 467/1075 in khwarizim. he was a mu'tazilite. he died in 538/1144. his famous commentary on the qur'an is called al-kashshaf. (t.p)

Az-zaqqum ()
A tree with bitter fruit which grows at the bottom of the fire. its fruit resembles the heads of devils. (t.p)

Azal ()
"Pre-time," eternity without end; the negation of firstness, from the one who is described by it. (t.p)

Azar ()
The father of the prophet ibrahim. his name was terah (or tarah). various explanations were given for this: either it was a nickname or a title. (t.p)

Azariqa ()
The azraqites, the most extreme kharijite group in basra who followed nafi` ibn al-azraq (d. 65/686), whose position is that anyone who commits a sin or act of disobedience to Allah is an unbeliever and goes to hell forever. any muslim who did not share their opinion in detail was considered a mushrik; those who did not emigrate to their camp were considered mushriks; and the wives and children of such mushriks were considered mushriks. since not joining them was considered a sin they therefore felt justified in fighting, robbing and killing all non-azraqite muslims. they utilised the practice of isti `rad to ascertain the personal view of a muslim. if he said, "i am a muslim," they killed him immediately because there could be no muslim outside their own camp - but they let non-muslims live. (t.p)



Dictionary Of Islam Entry A





























Arabic English Dictionary


Alphabetical Entries Indexed For Arabic-English Dictionary Of Sheikh Adelabu (Ph. D. Damas) :: ألفبيات مادّات مفهرسة للقاموس العربي الإنجليزي للشيخ أديلابو - دكتوراه من دمسق


مباني الكلمات على الألف الفعلية من الأفعال والمصادر المصروفة ومن مجردّات الأفعال ومجرّدات الأسماء وغيرها

أ إِئْتِمَانِيَّة أَب أَبْيَض أَتَى أَتْيَس أثُّ أَثِيم أَج أَجْيَد
أَح إِحْيَان إِذ أُذَيْنَة أَرَى أَرِيكَة أَخ أَخْيَمَ أَز إِزِّيَان
أَد أَدِيم أَس إِسْتِخْوَال إِسْتَدَّ إِسْتِضْلاَل إِسْتَطَاب إِسْتِكْوَاء إِسْتَل إِسْتِيمَان
أَسْجَى أُسَيْلِم أَشَائِم أَشْيَم أَص أَصِيلَة أَضَاءَ أَضْيَك أَط أَطِيط
أَظْأَر إِظْهَار أَعَادَ أَعْيَن أَغَابَ أَغْيَن أَف أَفْيُون أَقَاء أُقَيْحِيَانَة
أَكَادِيد أَكِيل أَل أَلِيم أَم أَمْيَه أَن إِنْخِنَاق أَنَد إِنْضِوَاء
أَنَطّ إِنْكِمَاش أَنْمَى أَنِين أَه أَهْيَم أَو أَوْهَنَ إِيْهَان أَيْهَم

مباني الكلمات على التاء الفعلية من الأفعال والمصادر المصروفة ومن مجردّات الأفعال ومجرّدات الأسماء وغيرها

ت تَأَيُّد تَب تَبَيُّن تَتَابَع تَتَوُّق تَثَائَبَ تَثْنِيَة تَجَابَّ تَجَيُّف
تَحَابَّ تَحَيُّن تَخَّ تَخَيُّم تَدَابَر تَدَيُّيُن تَذانَب تَذَيُّل تَرَّ تَرِيكَة
تَزَابَنَ تَزَيُّن تَسَائَلَ تَسَيُّف تَشَائَم تَشَيُّم تَصَائَى تَصَيُّف تَضَائَلَ تَضَيُّق
تَطَابَق تَطَيُّن تَظَارَفَ تَظَنُّن تَعَاتَبَ  تَعَيُّن تَغَابَى تَغَيُّم تَفَّ تَفَيْهُق
تَقَى تًقَيُّن تَكَّ   تَكَيُّف تَلَّ تَلَيُّن تَمَّ تَمِيمَة تُن تَنِّين
تَهَاتَرَ تَوَاؤُم تَوّاب تَوَيُّل تَيَّار تُيُوقِرَاطِيَّة  

مباني الكلمات على الميم المصدرية الفاعلية والمفعولية من الأفعال الألفية

مُبيئ مُبْيَضَّ مُتِّي مُتِّهَم مُثيب   مُثِّنِي مُجيئ مُجْهِم مُحيب مُحْيِن
مُخيب مُخْيَم مُدِّي مُذيب مُذَاب مُذْيَل مُرِي مُرْيِف مُزيت مُزِّيَن
مُسيئ مُسْتِخْوَل مُسْتَدَّ مُسْتِغْيَل مُسْتَفّ مُسْتِكْوِي مُسْتَلَّ مُسْتَيْمِن مُسْجِي مُسْوَغ
مُشيب مُشوَك مُصيب مُصِّيَّف مُضيئ مُضْوِي مُطيئ  مُطْيَب مُظْأِر مُظْهَر
مُعيد مُعْيَل مُغيب مُغْيِم مُفيئ مُقَاس مُقيل مُقْوَل مُكْأِب مُكهِم
مُلِيح مُلْيَل مُمِيئ   مُمْوَه مُنيئ مُنْخِنَق مُنَدَّ مُنْضِوِي مُنْطَاد مُنْكِمَش
مُنْمِي مُنْوَك مُنْثِي مُنْوَك مُهيب مُوقَن مُومِن مُونَع  

مباني الكلمات على الميم المصدرية الفاعلية والمفعولية من الأفعال التائية

مُتَآج مُتَأَوُّه مُتَآجَّ   مُتَأَوُّه مُتَبَائِس مُتَتَابِع مُتَتَرِّب مُتَتَوُّق مُتَثَائِب مُتَثَنٍّ
مُتَجَاب مُتَجَيِّف مُتَحَابَّ مُتَحَيِّن مُتَخَابِث مُتَخَيِّم مُتَدَابِر مُتَدَيِّن مُتَذَائِب مُتَذَيِّل
مُتَرَائِي مُتَرَيِّق مُتَزَابِن مُتَزَيِّن مُتَسَائِل مُتَسَيِّف مُتَشَائِم مُتَشَيِّم مُتَصَائِي مُتَصَيِّف
مُتَضَائِل مُتَضَيِّق مُتَطَابِق مُتَطَيِّن مُتَظَارِف مُتَظَنُّن مُتَعَاتِب مُتَعَيِّن مُتَغَابِي مُتَغَيِّم
مُتَفَاؤُل مُتَفَيِّل مُتَقَابِض مُتَقَيِّن مُتَكَاب مُتَكَيِّف مُتَلِّي مُتَلَيِّن مُتَمَاتِن مُتَمَيِّل
مُتَنَائِي مُتَنَيِّق مُتَهَاتِر مُتَهَيِّم مُتَوَائِم مُتَوَيِّل مُتَيَاسِر مُتَيَمُّن  

The materials provided here are ONLY extracts of Arabic-English Dictionary Of Sheikh Adelabu (Ph. D. Damas).  Fully edited versions and better formats are available upon written requests from awqafafrica.com and Awqaf Africa Muslim Open College, London.

Conjugal Formulas :: الموازن الصرفية


Conjugal Verbus (Verb Formulas) :: موازن الفعليات


Conjugal Nomen Verbi (Verbal Noun Formulas) :: موازن المصدريات

Conjugal Agentis (Active Noun Formulas) :: موازن الفاعليات

Conjugal Patentis (Passive Noun Formulas) :: موازن المفعوليات

Conjugal Cognitus (Cognitive Formulas)  :: موازن المجردات


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