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Dictionary Of Islam: Islamic Glossary

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I`dal ()
When two or more links are omitted in the isnad. (t.p)

I`jaz ()
Inimitability of the qur' an. there have been three ways of stating it. the argument of sarfa: Allah turns people away from imitating the qur'an, associated with the mu'tazilite an-nazzam (d. c. 241/835); the contents of the qur'an make it inimitable, stated by al jahiz (d. 271/864); and the third is based on the inimitability of the language itself, which no one can imitate even if they try to do so. (t.p)

I`lam al-muwaqqi`in ()
By ibn al-qayyim al-jawziyya (d. 751/1350), a major work on usul al-fiqh. (t.p)

I`rab ()
Grammatical inflection; the rules for the vowel endings. (t.p)

I`sar ()
Insolvency. (t.p)

I`tibar ()
"Consideration," seeking ways of strengthening support for a hadith from a single source. (t.p)

I`tiqad ()
Belief, being convinced about the truth of something. (t.p)

I`tikaf ()
Seclusion, while fasting, in a mosque, particularly in the last ten days of ramadan. (t.p)

I`tizal ()
Lit. "withdrawal", the theology of that group which withdrew from the circle of hasan al-basri and came to be known as the mu `tazilites. (t.p)

Ibadah (ee-baa-dah)
Literally, "worship," this term refers to any and all acts which demonstrate obedience and commitment to God. Thus in Islam, visiting the sick, giving charity, hugging one's spouse, or any other good act is considered an act of ibadah. (c.i.e)

Ibadiya ()
The followers of `abdullah ibn ibad. they are the most balanced of the kharijites and the closest to the muslims in opinon and thought. they maintain the distinction between kufr ni`ma and kufr shirk. they assert that every sin is kufr ni `ma and that grave sinners will be in the fire forever. (t.p)

Ibaha ()
Permissibility. (t.p)

Ibda` ()
Type of informal commercial collaboration in which one party entrusts his goods to the care of another, usually to be sold, after which the latter, without any compensation, commission or profit, returns the proceeds of the transaction to the first party. (t.p)

Iblis (ib-lees)
The personal name of Satan, or the devil, as found in the Qur'an. Iblis is believed to be a prominent member of the jinn, a class of God's creation. He rebelled against God and was cast out from Heaven. God warns human beings repeatedly in the Qur'an that Iblis is an avowed enemy of humankind, whose temptations must be resisted in order to stay on the "Straight Path." (c.i.e)

Iblis ()
The personal name of the devil. it means "seized by despair". he is also called shaytan or the "enemy of Allah". (t.p)

Iblis ()
The personal name of the devil. he is also called shaytan or the "enemy of Allah". (t.p)

Iblis ()
The personal name of the devil. he is also called shaytan or the "enemy of Allah". (t.p)

Ibn (ib-un)
Arabic term meaning "son of." Many famous Muslim men in history are known by a shortened version of their names begining with ibn. Examples include, Ibn Khaldun (a historian), Ibn Sina (a physician), Ibn Rushd (a judge and philosopher), and Ibn Battuta (a world traveler). (c.i.e)

Ibn 'abdi'l-barr ()
An-numayri, abu 'umar, hafiz of the maghrib and shaykh al-islam, author of al-isti `ab. he was born in cordoba in 368/978 and died at the age of 95 in shatiba in 463/1071. an important hadith scholar, malikl scholar and author and a mujtahid, he was nicknamed the hadith scholar of the west. 'abdu'l-barr was the master of the people of his time in memory and precision. he was an expert on genealogy and history. ibn hazm said, "there is no one with more knowledge of the fiqh of hadith than him." he wrote a number of works, the most famous of which is al-isti'ab. he travelled throughout andalusia. he was appointed qadi several times. he also wrote the earliest major commentary on the muwatta' called al-istidhkar. (t.p)

Ibn 'abidin ()
Muhammad amin ibn 'umar, born in damascus in 1198/1784. originally a shafi`i, he changed and became the hanafi imam of his time. his most famous work is the eight volume hashiyya radd al-muhtar, which is considered authoritative in the hanafi school. he wrote on various areas of knowledge and died in 1252/1836. (t.p)

Ibn 'ajiba ()
Ahmad ibn Muhammad, born in morocco in 1160/1747, a maliki scholar, sufi and mufassir (al-bahr al-madid), one of the shadhiliya tariqa, which he took from ad-darqawi by way of Muhammad buzaydi. he wrote seventeen commentaries on the hikam. he died in 'anjara, morocco in 1224/1809. (t.p)

Ibn `abbad ar-rundi ()
A famous shadhili sufi, one of al-maqqari's disciples, he wrote a commentary on the hikam of ibn `ata'llah which made it widely known throughout the western muslim lands. he was born in ronda in 734/1332, studied in tlemcen and fez and eventually became imam of the qarawiyin madrasa in fes. he died in 793/1390. (t.p)

Ibn `abdi'l-barr ()
An-numayri, abu 'umar, hafiz of the maghrib and shaykh al-islam. he was born in cordova in 368/978 and died at the age of 95 in shatiba in 463/1071. a major hadith scholar, maliki scholar, author, and mujtahid, he was nicknamed "the hadith scholar of the west". ibn hazm said, "there is no one with more knowledge of the fiqh of hadith than him." he wrote a number of works, the most famous of which is al-isti'ab. he travelled throughout andalusia and acted as qadi several times. he wrote the earliest major commentary on the muwatta' entitled al-istidhkdr. (t.p)

Ibn `abdu's-salam ()
'Izz ibn 'abd as-salam as-sulami, "the sultan of the scholars", born in damascus in 577/1181. he was a shafi`i scholar and companion of imam abu'l-hasan ash-shadhili. his reputation was the stuff of legends. in damascus as the khatib, he refused to wear black, speak in saj ` or praise the princes. when as-salih isma`il made concessions to the crusaders, ibn `abdu's-salam condemned him from the minbar. he refused to compromise in any way whatsoever. he later resigned and retired to write a number of books on shafi'i fiqh, tafsir, and other legal areas. his masterpiece was qawa'id al-ahkamfi masalih al-anam. he died in 660/1262. (t.p)

Ibn `adi ()
`Abdullah ibn 'adl al-jurjanl, (277/891 - 365/976). he wrote al-kamil, a general survey of the development of critical assessment of the narrators of hadith. (t.p)

Ibn `asakir ()
`All, (d. 571/1176), author of tabyin and ta'rikh dimishq which contain biographies of transmitters. (t.p)

Ibn `ata'llah ()
Ahmad ibn Muhammad, taju'd-din, abu fadl aliskandari, the sufi imam and author of the hikam, lata'if al-minan, miftah al-falah, and other works, thereby providing the shadhiliyya with their core literature. his shaykh was abu'1-`abbas al-mursi, whose shaykh was ash-shadhili. from alexandria, he moved to cairo where he died in 709/1309 around the age of sixty. he also taught in the al-azhar and the mansuriya madrasa. there was a famous debate between him and ibn taymiyya in 707/1307, in which ibn `ata'llah defended ibn al-`arabi. (t.p)

Ibn `atiyya ()
Abu Muhammad `abdu'l-haqq ibn ghalib al-andalusi (481/1088-9 - c. 542/1147). a north african who abridged all the commentaries and selected the most likely interpretations in al-muharrir al-wajiz. this book is in general circulation in the western islamic world. al-qurtubi adopted his method. (t.p)

Ibn abi dunya ()
A sufi in baghdad, (d. 281/894). he had a book entitled dhamm ad-dunya ("censuring this world"). (t.p)

Ibn abi shayba ()
Abu bakr ibn abi shayba: the author of the musnad, al-musannaf and other books. based in kufa, iraq, ibn abi shayba was a major authority in hadith. abu zur'a, al-bukharl, muslim, and abu dawud all related from him. he died in muharram, 235/849. (t.p)

Ibn abi zayd al-qayrawani ()
Abu Muhammad `abdullah, maliki faqih, 310/922 - 386/996. he was known as "shaykh al-faqih" and "little malik" and was the head of the maliki school in qayrawan. he wrote several books, including his risala, mukhtasar al-mudawwana, an abridgement of the mudawwana, and an-nawadir. (t.p)

Ibn al-`arabi ()
Qadi abu bakr Muhammad ibn `abdullah al-ishbili al-ma`afiri (d. 543/1148), author of ahkam al-qur'an. he was born in seville and went to north africa after the fall of the 'abbadid dynasty and travelled to the east. he then returned to seville which was under the murabitun and became qadi and taught fiqh. he also witnessed the fall of the murabitun and rise of the muwahhidun. he died near fes while returning from marrakesh after a visit to the muwahhid ruler. he wrote over thirty books, including awasim min al-qawasim about the first civil war between muslims. (t.p)

Ibn al-`arabi ()
Muhammad ibn 'ali, abu bakr al-hatimi at-td'i, born in murcia in 560/1165, a mujtahid, scholar and sufi. he is known as muhyiddin (the reviver of the din) and the shaykh al-akbar (the greatest master). he died in damascus in 638/1240 with a copy of ihya' `ulum ad-din on his lap. he wrote over 350 works including the futuhat al-makkiyya and the fusus al-hikam. (t.p)

Ibn al-`arabi states ()
"It is what the heart unexpectedly encounters of its unseen states with drawn from witnessing. (t.p)

Ibn al-`arif ()
The author of mahasin al-majalis ("the attractions of mystical sessions"), his full name was abu'l-`abbas ahmad ibn Muhammad. he lived in almeria, spain. in this period, under the murabitun, almeria was the centre of sufism for the spanish sufis. he founded a tariqa and 130 towns recognised him as imam. he was arrested by the jealous qadi of the city and sent in chains to the amir in marrakesh who promptly set him free. he died a few days later, in 536/1141. he was the first to interpret the ihya' `ulum ad-din of al-ghazali in the west. ibn 'ata': abu'l-`abbas ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn sahl ibn 'ata' al-adami, a sufi and companion of junayd, author of poetry. he was put to death in 309/922. (t.p)

Ibn al-arid ()
'Umar ibn `ali, the sufi poet, born in cairo in 577/1182 and lived in the muqattam in cairo. he died in 632/1235. he is known as the "sultan of the lovers" and his collection of poems is very famous because of the high quality of the poetry. (t.p)

Ibn al-jawzi ()
Abu'l faraj `abdu'r-rahman ibn jawzi, born in baghdad in 508/1114, a great hanbali scholar of his time in history and hadith, famous for his many chronicles of the scholars and saints of the times preceding him. ibn al-jawzi's work talbis iblis is one of his best known works. ibn al-jawzi opposed all doctrines and practices, regardless of their sources, which were innovations in the rule of shari'a - i.e. not found in the qur'an and sunna, wherever found in the islamic community, especially in ibn al-jawzi's time. he wrote condemning specific innovated practices of many groups, including: philosophers (mutakallimun), theologians, traditionalists (`ulama' al-hadith), jurists (fuqaha'), preachers, philologists, poets and false sufis. he wrote nearly three hundred books on tasawwuf, fiqh, `ilm al-qur'an, hadith, tafsir and biographies of many of the great men of tasawwuf. two of his works considered as pillars in the field of tasawwuf are safwat as-safa and minhaj al-qasidin wa mufid as-sadiqin. in addition, full length biographies in praise of the early sufis were penned by ibn al-jawzi. he is sometimes confused with ibn al-qayyim al-jawziyya. he died in damascus in 597/1201. (t.p)

Ibn al-mawwaz ()
Abu `abdullah Muhammad ibn ibrahim al-iskandari, pupil of ibn al-majishun and ibn 'abdu'l-hakam and early systematiser of maliki fiqh. he also studied under asbagh and ashhab. he died in syria as a refugee in 281/894 where he had fled from the inquisition about the createdness of the qur'an (see mihna). he wrote a famous book known as al-mawwaziya. (t.p)

Ibn al-mubarak ()
See 'abdullah ibn al-mubarak. (t.p)

Ibn al-qasim ()
Abu `abdullah `abdu'r-rahman ibn al-qasim al-`ataki (or al-`utaqi) who had both knowledge and asceticism. he was one of the companions of malik who had tremendous influence in recording his school, since he was the source for sahnun for the problems of malik. in the maliki school, he has the same position as Muhammad ibn al-hasan ash-shaybani in the school of abu hanifa. both of them transmitted the school and made free use of ijtihad. ibn al-qasim had opinions which differed from those of his shaykh,malik, so that some said that he was dominated by opinion. ibn 'abdu'l-barr said of him, "he was a faqih dominated by opinion. he was a righteous and steadfast man." he met malik after ibn wahb and kept his company for a long time - about twenty years. he can be considered as the main transmitter of maliki fiqh as the mudawwana, of which he is the source, is the largest compendium of maliki fiqh. he would not accept stipends from the ruler and said, "there is no good in proximity to rulers." he had sat with them at first, but then he abandoned them. he used to consider having a large number of close companions to be a form of slavery since that puts a qadi in danger of committing injustice and the scholar of wasting his time. he died in 191/806 at the age of 63. (t.p)

Ibn al-qasiy ()
Abu'l-qasim, disciple of ibn al-'arif, a sufi who organised a religious militia in the algarve (southern portugal) based in silves and led an uprising against the ruling class and fuqaha' in the algarve in 536/1141. he had military successes against both the murabitun and the muwahhidun and ruled the region for ten years. he wrote khal` an-na`layn. he was killed in 546/1151. (t.p)

Ibn al-qayyim ()
Muhammad ibn abi bakr, abu `abdullah al-jawziyya, born in damascus in 691/1292, a hanbali hadith scholar who wrote zad al-ma`ad. he also wrote i`lam al-muwaqqi`in on usul al-fiqh. he edited the works of his shaykh, ibn taymiyya. he went to prison with him in damascus and remained with him until ibn taymiyya's death in 728/1328. he died in damascus in 751/1350. (t.p)

Ibn al-waqt ()
"Child of the moment," see waqt. (t.p)

Ibn as-sabil ()
Traveller, wayfarer. it literally means "son of the road". (t.p)

Ibn as-salah ()
Abu 'amr `uthman ibn `abdu'r-rahman ash-shahrazuri, known as ibn as-salah. he died in 643/1245. he wrote a book on the science of hadith, kitab 'nam al-hadith. he was a great authority in damascus. (t.p)

Ibn as-salah ()
Abu 'amr 'uthman ibn `abdu'r-rahman ash-shahrazuri, known as ibn as-salah. an important shafi'i scholar, he was a kurd born in sharkhan in 577/1181. he studied in many cities and became a master of hadith. one of his teachers was ibn qudama. he was appointed the head of the dar al-hadith in damascus. he wrote a number of books on various topics, including fiqh. he has a famous collection of fatwas called fatawa ibn as-saldh. he died in 643/1245. (t.p)

Ibn babuya ()
(Ibn babawayh) Muhammad ibn `all al-qumml, (306/918 - 381/992). he is known also as shaykh saduq. author of the main shiite collections of hadith, man la yahdhuruh al-fagih, which covers only legal matters. (t.p)

Ibn daqiq al-'id ()
Taqiyyuddin Muhammad ibn `all, born in yanbu', a shafi`i, mujtahid, made qadi in cairo in 695. he has poems in praise of madina. he was born in 625/1228 and died in 702/1302. (t.p)

Ibn habib ()
'Abd al-malik as-sulami, a maliki jurist of cordoba who studied under ibn al-majishun. he was the author of al-wadiha, one of the major maliki texts which was used in andalusia. it was one of the most comprehensive books of maliki fiqh. although it no longer exists, much of it is quoted in an-nawadir of ibn abi zayd al-qayrawani. he travelled throughout the world in search of knowledge and verifying what he had. he died in 238/852. he wrote several books. al-'utbi was his pupil and hence most of his work comes through him. (t.p)

Ibn hajar al-`asqalani ()
Abu'l-fadl ahmad ibn 'ali, born in cairo in 773/1372. shafi`i fagih and hadith scholar, he studied under azzayla`i and others, was a qadi several times and was known as "shaykh al-islam". he wrote fath al-bari and died in cairo in 852/1449. (t.p)

Ibn hajar al-haytami ()
Ahmad ibn Muhammad, born in 909/1504 in abu haytam, western egypt, was the shafi imam of his time. he received permission to give fatwas when he was barely 20. he died in makka in 974/1567. he wrote many definitive works on shafi`i fiqh, esp. tuhfat al-muhtaj, a commentary on an-nawawi's minhaj at-talibin, al-fatawa al-kubra, and az-zawajir. (t.p)

Ibn hazm ()
'Ali ibn ahmad az-zahiri, born in cordoba in 384/994. he was the main representative of the zahirite school after he abandoned the shafi`i school. his contentiousness eventually forced him to withdraw to his family estate where he died in 456/1064. (t.p)

Ibn hibban ()
Muhammad ibn hibban at-tamimi al-busti, a shafi`i hadith scholar who died in bust in 354/965. he wrote kitab aththiqat and compiled the sahih ibn hibban. the hadiths in this book are arranged neither as in a musannaf nor as in a musnad. (t.p)

Ibn juzayy ()
Muhammad ibn ahmad, abu'l-qasim ibn juzayy al-kalbi of granada, born in 693/1294, a maliki scholar and imam in tafsir and fiqh. he wrote al-qawa'id al-fiqhiya. he died in 741/1340. (t.p)

Ibn juzayy ()
Muhammad ibn ahmad, abu'l-qasim ibn juzayy al-kalbi of granada, born in 693/1294, a maliki scholar and imam in tafsir and high. he wrote the well-known tafsir, at-tashil fi `ulum at-tanzil. he died in 741/1340. (t.p)

Ibn kathir ()
`Imad ad-din isma'il ibn 'umar ibn kathir, abu'l-fida', born in 701/1302 in a village outside damascus. he moved to damascus at the age of five. he was widely travelled and studied with many famous scholars, including ibn taymiyya. he was a shafi`i scholar with books with expertise in various areas. he was greatly respected. he has a well-known tafsir. he has little respect for the intellectual tradition. he dislikes polyvalent readings and argues for a single `correct' reading and hence he is somewhat dogmatic: it might even be said that he impoverishes the text by removing the layered meaning. his desire is also to include all of the relevant hadiths relevant to the text. he died in damascus in 774/1372. (t.p)

Ibn kathir ()
Isma'il ibn 'umar ibn kathir, abu'l-fida', born in 701/1302 in a village outside damascus where he moved at the age of five. he was widely travelled. he was a shafi`i scholar with books with expertise in various areas, particularly the science of rijal. he has a well-known tafsir. he died in damascus in 774/1372. (t.p)

Ibn khafif ()
Abu `abdullah Muhammad ibn khafif ibn isfikshar ash-shirazi, born in 276/890. the son of a prince, he became an ascetic sufi. he was also a shafi`i scholar. he went on hajj at least six times. he died in shiraz in 371/982 at the age of 95. (t.p)

Ibn khuzayma ()
Muhammad ibn ishaq, abu bakr as-sulami, born in nishapur in 223/838. he was a shafi i scholar and mujtahid and wrote more than 140 books, including his mukhtasar al-mukhtasar and a sahih collection. he died in nishapur in 311/924. (t.p)

Ibn ma'in ()
Yahya ibn main, abu zakariyya al-baghdadi, born in niqya, a village near al-'anbar in 157/775. he was one of the great imams of hadith and knowledge of its narrators, known as "the master of hadith masters." his father left him a fortune which he spent on gathering hadiths. he said, "i have written a million hadiths with my hand." he lived in baghdad and wrote several books on hadith and died while on hajj in 233/848. (t.p)

Ibn majah ()
Muhammad ibn yazid ar-rabi', abu `abdullah al-qazwini, of qazwin, born in 209/824. he was a hadith master and mufassir who travelled in search of knowledge and composed his sunan. he died in 273/886. (t.p)

Ibn mashish ()
`Abdu's-salam, the master of abu'l-hasan ash-shadhili, (d. c. 625/1228). he was a berber and the qutb of his age. he was a recluse who lived on the jabal 'alam, a mountain in morocco. all he left was the salat al-mashishiya. (t.p)

Ibn mujahid ()
Ahmad ibn musa at-tamimi: the chief of the reciters, and the first to compile the seven recitations in al-qira'at as-sab`a. he was born in 245/859 and died in 324/935. (t.p)

Ibn qudama ()
'Abdullah ibn Muhammad ibn qudama, abu Muhammad al-jama'ili al-maqdisi, born in jama'il, palestine, in 541/1146, a hanbali scholar and imam educated in damascus who wrote the nine volume al-mughni on hanbali fiqh. he died in damascus in 620/1223. (t.p)

Ibn rajab ()
Abu'l-faraj `abdu'r-rahman b. ahmad al-baghdadi al-hanbali, who died in 795/1392-3. the author of adh-dhayl, al-istikhraj and al-qawa`id. his tabaqat al-hanabila is the most extensive collection of biographies of hanbalis. (t.p)

Ibn rusha ()
Averroes. ibn rusha was a genius with encyclopaedic knowledge. he spent a great part of his fruitful life as a judge and as a physician, yet he was known in the west for being the great commentator on the philosophy of aristotle. he was born in cordova, spain in 520/1128 and died in 595/1198. his book on jurisprudence bidayat al-mujtahid wa-nihayat al-muqtasid has been held by some as possibly the best book on the maliki school of fiqh. his grandfather, abu'l-walid was also known as ibn rushd and was a maliki faqih who wrote al-muqaddimat. (t.p)

Ibn sa'd ()
See Muhammad ibn sa'd. (t.p)

Ibn salim ()
'Ali al-basra, (d. 297/909-10), a disciple of sahl at-tustari, founder of the salimiya and the main teacher of abu talib al-makki. (t.p)

Ibn taymiyya ()
Ahmad ibn `abdu'l-halim, born in harran in 661/1263, the famous hanbali scholar. he was imprisoned for much of his life. he was a copious writer - perhaps too copious. he died in damascus in 728/1328. (t.p)

Ibn wahb ()
Abu Muhammad `abdullah ibn wahb al-fihri al-misri, born in 123/740, a hadith scholar. he stayed with malik for about twenty years, and also studied with many of the companions of az-zuhri. he also related from more than four hundred shaykhs of hadith in egypt, the hijaz and iraq. ibn wahb noticed that some of his hadiths were weak. he said, "if it had not been that Allah rescued me through malik and al-layth, i would have been lost." he was asked, "how is that?" he replied, "i had a lot of hadith and it confused me. i used to present them to malik and al-layth and they would say, `take this and leave that."' malik esteemed and loved him. he used to call him "the faqih" when he wrote to him. he had many excellent books, including what he heard from malik which was recorded in about thirty books. he wrote down the muwatta'. he recorded his answers to questions and consulted them. he was asked to accept the post of qadi but refused and withdrew, dying in 197/812 at the age of 72 `(t.p)

Ibrahim ()
The prophet abraham. (t.p)

Ibrahim (ib-raa-heem)
Abraham, a prophet and righteous person revered by Muslims, Jews, and Christians alike as the patriarch (father-figure) of monotheism. Muslims commemorate Abraham's devotion, struggles, and sacrifices during the annual Hajj rites. (c.i.e)

Ibrahim al-khawwas ()
Ibn ahmad, (d. 290/903), a sufi author who taught al-khuldi. he lived mostly at rayy although he studied extensively. (t.p)

Ibrahim ibn adham ()
Abu ishaq at-tamimi al-balkhi, an early sufi zahid and saint. born into a wealthy family of balkh, he gave it all up to seek knowledge through travel, taking on all sorts of menial jobs and fighting in the jihad against the byzantines. while he was in massisa, a slave brought the news of the death of his father, who had left him a fortune. he was carrying 10,000 dirhams. ibrahim freed him and gave him the dirhams, saying that he had no need of the rest. he fasted all the time. he attended the gatherings of sufyan ath-thawri. he died in 161/778, probably at sufnan on the byzantine frontier. (t.p)

Idgham ()
In qur'an recitation, to assimilate one letter into another. thus an-ya `bud becomes ay-ya `bud, qad tabayyan becomes qattabayyan, etc. (t.p)

Idhkhir ()
A kind of sweet rush well-known for its good smell and found in the hijrz. (t.p)

Idhn ()
Permission. (t.p)

Idhn ()
Permission, usually either to be a shaykh, or to practice dhikr given by a shaykh. (t.p)

Idraj ()
Interpolation into a hadith. (t.p)

Idris ()
The prophet, possibly enoch. (t.p)

Idtirab ()
Shakiness in the isnad. (t.p)

Idtirar ()
Compulsion. (t.p)

Idtirari ()
(Obligation) imposed on man without his choice. (t.p)

Ifada ()
"Overflow", in the hajj when the pilgrims hasten from 'arafat to muzdalifa. (t.p)

Ifham ()
Intelligibility. (t.p)

Iflas ()
Bankruptcy. (t.p)

Ifrad ()
A form of hajj in which hajj is performed before 'umra. (t.p)

Ifrad (Hajj al) ()
"Single Hajj". Performing Hajj without performing the Umrah. (i.i.q)

Iftar ()
Breaking the fast. (t.p)

Iftar ()
Breaking the fast. (t.p)

Iftirash ()
A form of sitting in the prayer in which you sit on the left foot which is on its side, while the right foot is resting upright on the bottom of its toes with the heel up. (cf. tawarruk). (t.p)

Ihdad ()
The period of mourning observed by a widow. (t.p)

Ihram ()
A state in which one is prohibited to practise certain deeds that are lawful at other times, necessary when performing the rites of `umra and hajj. (t.p)

Ihram ()
The state in which one is prohibited from doing certain things which are lawful at other times. Umrah and Hajj are performed in such a state. (i.i.q)

Ihram (ih-raam Ihraam)
State of consecration into which Muslims enter in order to perform the Hajj or Umrah (lesser pilgrimage). The term also refers to the specific dress, made of white, unstitched, seamless cloth, donned by pilgrims while in this state. During the Hajj, the ihram worn by pilgrims serves to reinforce a sense of humility and purity, and human equality in the eyes of God. (c.i.e)

Ihram ()
A state in which one is prohibited to practise certain deeds that are lawful at other times. the ceremonies of 'umra and hajj are performed in this state. when one assumes this state, the first thing one should do is to express mentally and orally one's intention to assume this state for the purpose of performing hajj or 'umra. then talbiya is recited. two sheets of unstitched cloth are the only clothes a man wears: an izar worn below one's waist and a rida' worn round the upper part of the body. (t.p)

Ihraz ()
Original acquisition. (t.p)

Ihsaan (ehsan ehsaan ihsan)
Kindness, Goodness(o.s)

Ihsan ()
The state of being muhsin, an unblemished reputation sexually of someone who is or has been married. (t.p)

Ihsan ()
Absolute sincerity to Allah in oneself: it is to worship Allah as though you were seeing him because he sees you. (t.p)

Ihsan (ehsan)
Ihsan has two literal meanings, doing something well and perfectly and doing someone a favor, and is sometimes used in the Quran and the Sunna with either meaning.

According to a Prophetic saying, ihasn (perfect goodness or doing what is beautiful) means that you worship God as if you see Him; for even if you do not see Him, He certainly sees you. (o.s)

Ihsan ()
Absolute sincerity to Allah in oneself: it is to worship Allah as though you were seeing him because he sees you. (t.p)

Ihsan ()
Virtue, doing the best. (t.p)

Ihtiba' ()
A sitting posture, putting one's arms around one's legs while sitting on the hips. (t.p)

Ihtida' ()
The quality of being guided. (t.p)

Ihtikar ()
Cornering, hoarding. it is not allowed with essential staple items, such as grain. (t.p)

Ihtimal ()
Endurance, forbearance. (t.p)

Ihtiyat ()
Caution, precautionary measure. (t.p)

Ihya' `ulum ad-din ()
"The revivification of the sciences of religion", a famous book by al-ghazali (d. 505/1111), written over a number of years after he left baghdad in 488/1095 to become a wandering sufi. in it, he proposes to radically overhaul the current attitude towards religion by putting fear of Allah at the centre of all actions. (t.p)

Ihya' al-mawat ()
"Revival of dead lands", bringing wasteland into cultivation. (t.p)

Iisan al-hal ()
The tongue of the state, where the state gives expression to the inward of the person. (t.p)

Ijab ()
The offer in contracts. it is followed by the acceptance (qabul). (t.p)

Ijad ()
To give existence to something. (t.p)

Ijad ()
Bestowing of existence; bringing into existence. (t.p)

Ijara ()
Lease or hire, including work for a regular wage. (t.p)

Ijara wa iqtina' ()
Hire purchase contract, lease-purchase financing, a modern development combining two concepts. the purpose here is not interest which must not play a part, the instalments are paid into an account and are invested in a muddraba. capital and profit offset the cost. (t.p)

Ijarah (ijara)
Literally means "to give something on rent". (i.i.q)

Ijarah wa iqtina ()
Contract of renting, hiring or leasing. This term refers to a mode of financing adopted by Islamic banks. It is a contract under which the Islamic bank finances equipment, a building or other facility for the client against an agreed rental together with an undertaking from the client to purchase the equipment or the facility. The rental as well as the purchase price is fixed in such a manner that the bank gets back its principal sum along with some profit, which is usually determined in advance. (i.i.q)

Ijaza ()
A certification, by a teacher that a particular student was qualified to teach a particular subject or to transmit a specific book or collec tion of traditions. (t.p)

Ijaza ()
A certification, by a teacher that a particular student is qualified to teach a particular subject or to transmit a specific book or collection of traditions. (t.p)

Ijbar ()
Determinism. (t.p)

Ijbar ()
The power of compulsion exerted on someone unable to manage their own affairs. (t.p)

Ijma (ij-maa)
Consensus of opinion among scholars and leaders. Ijma is one of the means employed by Muslims for joint decision-making, and for interpreting the Shari'ah. (c.i.e)

Ijma` ()
Consensus, particularly the consensus of the people of knowledge among the muslims on matters of fiqh. there are several sub-categories of ijma `: ijma ` muhassal (acquired consensus) which is concluded directly by the mujtahid; ijma manqul (transmitted consensus) which is established by means of reports; ijma ` ahl al-madina (consensus of the madinans), a principle of maliki fiqh; ijma ` sarih (explicit consensus), expressed by all; and ijma ` sukuti (tacit or presumptive consensus) on which some give an opinion while the rest are silent. (t.p)

Ijma` ()
Consensus, particularly the consensus of the people of knowledge among the muslims on matters of figh. (t.p)

Ijtihad ()
To struggle, to exercise personal judgement in legal matters. (t.p)

Ijtihad ()
To struggle, to exercise personal judgement in legal matters. the most basic form of ijtihad is to form an analogy based on a legal cause ('illa). (t.p)

Ijtihad ()
Technically, it means an endeavour of a jurist to derive or formulate a rule of law on the basis of evidence found in sources; scholarly effort through which a jurist/scholar derives Islamic law on the basis of the Qur'an and Sunnah. (i.i.q)

Ijtihad (ij-ti-haad)
Term designating the intellectual effort of Muslim scholars to employ reason and analysis of the authoritative sources (Qur'an and Sunnah) for the purpose of finding legal solutions to new and challenging situations or issues. (c.i.e)

Ijtihad (IJTEHAD IJTIHAAD IJTEHAAD)
Exerting the sum total of one's ability attempting to uncover Allah's rulings on issues from their sources (Qur'an, Sunnah, Ijma', etc.). Sometimes divided into complete ijtihad (the ability of one to independently arrive at Allah's rulings in all areas of fiqh) and partial ijtihad (the ability of one to do so only in certain areas of fiqh in which they have exerted such efforts).
(c.m.j.e)

Ijtihad bayani ()
"Explanatory ijtihad", the ijtihad which involves interpreting source materials and existing evidence. (t.p)

Ijtihad maslahi ()
Legal reasoning on the basis of maslaha. (t.p)

Ikhfa' ()
Not full articulation in recitation. (t.p)

Ikhlas ()
Sincerity, pure unadulterated genuineness. (t.p)

Ikhlas ()
Sincerity, pure unadulterated genuineness. (t.p)

Ikhtilaf ()
Controversial questions, juristic disagreement. (t.p)

Ikhtilat ()
To muddle things up and misconstrue things. (t.p)

Ikhtisas ()
Allah's singling out a person for a specific blessing or mercy. (t.p)

Ikhtisas ()
Restrictive interpretation. (t.p)

Ikhtiyar ()
Free choice. (t.p)

Ikhwa ()
Brothers. the singular is akh. another plural which is often used is ikhwan. (t.p)

Ikhwan as-safi ()
"The brethren of purity", a secret philosophico-religious society which arose in basra in the fourth/tenth century among some of the isma'ilis. (t.p)

Ikraam (ikram ekram ekraam)
Bounty, Generosity(o.s)

Ikrah ()
Duress, undue influence. (t.p)

Iktisab ()
The same as kasb, acquisition. (t.p)

Ila' ()
A vow by a husband to abstain from sexual relations with his wife. if four months pass, it is considered a divorce. (see zihar). (t.p)

Ilahi ()
A turkish genre of mystical poems in popular metre sung at gatherings of dhikr. (t.p)

Ilhad ()
Heresy, deviation. (t.p)

Ilham ()
Inspiration. (t.p)

Ilm ()
Arabic term meaning "knowledge." The Qur'an and Hadith encourage Muslims to constantly strive to increase their knowledge, of both religious and worldly matters. (c.i.e)

Iltifat ()
Shift in talking in one person to another (i.e. from the singular to the plural). (t.p)

Ilyas ()
Also ilyasin, the prophet elijah or elias. (t.p)

Ilzam ()
Binding. (t.p)

Ima' ()
Implication, implicit indication. (t.p)

Ima' ()
Implication, implicit indication. (t.p)

Imala ()
"Leaning forward", after soft consonants, e.g. in Allah and in lillah, the double 1 becomes softened and the following long a is subject to imala. (t.p)

Imam ()
The codex of the qur'an which 'uthman had compiled and checked. (t.p)

Imam ()
Muslim religious or political leader; leader of muslim congregational worship. the plural is a'imma. (t.p)

Imam (IMAAM EMAAM EMAM)
Imam is a religious leader. Any person who leads a congregational prayer is called an Imam. A religious leader who also leads his community in the political affairs may be called an Imam, an Amir, or a Caliph. However, an Imam is not infallible. He is responsible for his mistakes to all the members of the community and above all he is responsible to Almighty Allah.
(c.m.j.e)

Imam (ee-maam)
Generally, the term imam refers to one who leads congregational worship. More broadly, the term also applies to religious leaders within the Muslim community. While imams lead worship, give sermons, and perform other duties such as officiating marriages, they are not ordained clergy, nor do they belong to any kind of hierarchy. Also, imams do not act as intermediaries between individual worshippers and God. The term Imam has specific authoritative connotations for Shi'ah Muslims. (c.i.e)

Imam ()
(1) Muslim religious or political leader; (2) one of the succession of muslim leaders, beginning with 'ali, regarded as legitimate by the shi'a; (3) leader of muslim congregational worship. the plural is a imma. (t.p)

Imami ()
A term referring to one of the ithna 'asharite shiites. (t.p)

Imamiya ()
The shiite position, also known as the ja'fariyya after ja'far as-sadiq (80/699 - 148/765). abu ja'far Muhammad at-tusi (d. 460/1067-8) is a fundamental source for imami fiqh. his books include al-mabsut, al-khilaf, an-nihaya and al-muhit. another source is a manual of fiqh entitled shara'i ` al-islam by ja'far ibn al-hasan al-hilli (d. 676/1277). (t.p)

Iman ()
Belief, faith, assent, acceptance. (t.p)

Iman ()
Belief, faith, acceptance of Allah and his messenger. belief consists of believing in Allah, his angels, his books, his messengers, the last day, the garden and the fire, and that everything, both good and bad, is by the decree of Allah. (t.p)

Iman (IMAAN EMAAN)
faith and trust in Allah.
(c.m.j.e)

Iman (ee-maan)
Arabic term referring to a state of belief in God and other articles of faith, as well as actual demonstration of belief in practice and behavior. (c.i.e)

Imda' ()
Ratification, signature. (t.p)

Imla' ()
Dictation. (t.p)

Imsak ()
In fasting, it is abstinence from things which break the fast. (t.p)

Imtithal ()
Compliance. (t.p)

In sha' allah (INSHA ALLAH INSHAA ALLA INSHA ALLA IN SHA' ALLA)
When a person wishes to plan for the future, when he promises, when he makes resolutions, and when he makes a pledge, he makes them with permission and the will of Allah. For this reason, a Muslim uses the Qur'anic instructions by sayingIn Sha ' Allah.The meaning of this statement is:If Allah wills.Muslims are to strive hard and to put their trusts with Allah. They leave the results in the hands of Allah.
(c.m.j.e)

Inaba ()
Turning in repentance, returning from minor sins to love. (cf.tawba). (t.p)

Inbisat ()
See bast. (t.p)

Infirad ()
Solitude. (t.p)

Injeel ()
Arabic name for the holy scripture revealed to Prophet Jesus. The Injeel is roughly analogous to the Evangelium of Christianity, and refers to a divine book provided to Jesus by God, as distinct from the Christian Gospels, which are viewed as records of Jesus' life written by his closest contemporaries. (c.i.e)

Injil ()
the revelations that were sent down during the time of Prophet Isa (Jesus). It is refered to as the New Testament.
(c.m.j.e)

Injil ()
The gospel, the revelation given to the prophet 'isa. (t.p)

Inna lillahi wa inna ilahi raji'un (INNA LILLAHI WA INNA ILAHI RAJIOON)
When a Muslim is struck with a calamity, when he loses one of his loved ones, or when he has gone bankrupt, he should be patient and say this statement, the meaning of which is :We are from Allah and to hom we are returning.

Muslims believe that Allah is the One who gives and it is He takes away. He is testing us. Hence, a Muslim submits himself to Allah. He is grateful and thankful to Allah for whatever he gets. On the other hand, he is patient and says this expression in times of turmoil and calamity.
(c.m.j.e)

Inna lillahi wa inna ilayhi raji'un ()
This is something which a muslim expresses when he is afflicted by a misfortune, the meaning of which is "we are from Allah and to him we are returning." it is taken from an ayat of the qur'an (2:156). (t.p)

Inniya ()
"That-ness". when the divine reality described by the attribute of disconnection is witnessed, it annihilates every source except it. (t.p)

Inqibad ()
Anguish. (see qabd). (t.p)

Inqita' ()
When there is a break in the isnad. see munqati `. (t.p)

Insaan (insan ensan ensaan)
Gender-free Arabic for human being(o.s)

Insha'llah ()
The arabic expression meaning "if Allah wills". (t.p)

Intibah ()
"Becoming aware", when Allah restrains his servant out of concern for him. (t.p)

Intifa' ()
Transfer of usufruct. (t.p)

Inzi`aj ()
Disturbance, the effect of admonition in the heart of the believer. (t.p)

Iqala ()
Termination of a contract by mutual consent. (t.p)

Iqama ()
The call which announces that the obligatory prayer is about to begin. (t.p)

Iqamah (IQAAMAH) ()
Iqamah is an Arabic word that refers to the second call for the prayer which follows the first call (Adhan). Iqamah means that the prayer is ready to start. It is to be recited in Arabic before every obligatory prayer. It is composed of specific words and phrases very closely related to the Adhan.
(c.m.j.e)

Iqan ()
Assurance. (t.p)

Iqra (ik-raa)
Arabic word meaning "to read" or "recite," it was the first word of the Qur'an revealed to Muhammad during one of his retreats to the cave of Hira above Makkah. Muslims refer to this word to remind themselves of the importance of acquiring knowledge, "from the cradle to the grave" as Prophet Muhammad said. (c.i.e)

Iqrar ()
Confession; approval, acknowledgement. (t.p)

Iqrar ()
Approval, affirmation. (t.p)

Iqtida' ()
Following, authority. (t.p)

Iqtida' an-nass ()
The required meaning of a given text. (t.p)

Iqtida' an-nass ()
The required meaning of a given text. (t.p)

Iqtisad ()
Moderation, adopting a middle course, being frugal. in modern terms, it is used to mean `economics'. (t.p)

Irada ()
Will, volition, aspirancy. for maturidi, there is a difference between irada and mashi'a. there is no coercion involved in mashi'a, but man's acceptance is involved. thus mashi'a is involved in choosing belief or disbelief. irada involves coercion. (t.p)

Irada ()
Will, volition, aspirancy. (t.p)

Iram ()
Possibly aram, probably in reference to the aramaeans; or else the dam of iram which engulfed the ancient city of ma'rib in yemen in about 120 ce, the city from which it is said bilqis originally came. (t.p)

Irdabb ()
Or ardabb (plural aradib) ardeb, a dry measure of about five and a half bushels. (t.p)

Irja' ()
Suspending or postponing judgement on whether or not someone is a believer. (t.p)

Irmiya' ()
Jeremiah. (t.p)

Irsal ()
The transmitting by a follower of a tradition while failing to name the companion from whom it was transmitted. (t.p)

Irth ()
Inheritance, division of the estate. (t.p)

Irtidad ()
Apostasy. (t.p)

Isa (ee-sa) ()
Jesus, an eminent prophet in Islam. Muslims believe that Mary, the mother of Jesus, was a chaste and pious woman, and that God miraculously created Jesus in her womb. After his birth, he began his mission as a sign to humankind and a prophet of God, calling people to righteousness and worship of God alone. Muslims do not believe Jesus was crucified, but rather that God spared him such a fate and ascended him to Heaven. (c.i.e)

Isha (ISHAA)

the obligatory salaah, prayer, after sunset later in the evening.
(c.m.j.e)

Ishaq ()
The prophet isaac. (t.p)

Ishaq ibn rahawayh ()
At-tamimi, called abu ya`qub, the scholar of khurasan in his time and the "amir al-mu'minin" in hadith. he was originally from marw, born in 161/778. he revived the sunna in the east. he travelled throughout the lands to gather hadith. whenever he heard anything he remembered it and did not forget it. ibn hanbal, al-bukhari, muslim, at-tirmidhi, an-nasa'i and others took from him. ahmad ibn hanbal said, "i do not know of ibn rahawayh's equal in iraq." abu zur'a said, "i never met anyone with a better memory than ishaq." abu hatim said, "his precision and freedom from error are a marvel, besides the memory he has been endowed with." he has a four volume musnad. he lived in nishapur and died there in 238/853. (t.p)

Ishara ()
Textual indication. (t.p)

Ishara an-nass ()
Alluded meaning of a text. (t.p)

Ishara an-nass ()
Alluded meaning of a text. (t.p)

Isharat ()
Allusions, hints, indications of meanings too fine to be expressed directly. (t.p)

Ishba' ()
Elizabeth, the name given by various commentators for the mother of the prophet yahya. (t.p)

Ishraq ()
Illumination. (t.p)

Ishraqi ()
Illuminist school of philosophy, an eclectic mystical intellectualism. (t.p)

Ishtimal as-samma' ()
Wearing clothes in the following two ways: 1. covering one shoulder with a garment and leaving the other bare. 2. wrapping oneself in a garment while sitting in such a way that nothing of that garment covers one's private parts. (t.p)

Ishtirak ()
Equivocally; participation; partnership. Istidanah: Raising or building up credit through credit purchases. It however does not apply to the raising of cash loans. (i.i.q)

Iskandar ()
Alexander the great. (t.p)

Islam ()
Submission to the will of Allah, the way of life embodied by all the prophets, given its final form in the guidance brought by the prophet Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him peace. the five pillars of islam are: the affirmation of the shahada, performing the prayer or salat, paying the zakat, fasting the month of ramadan, and performing the hajj once in a lifetime if you are able to do so. (t.p)

Islam (iss-laam)
Islam is an Arabic word derived from the three-letter root s-l-m. Its meaning encompasses the concepts of peace, greeting, surrender, and commitment, and refers commonly to an individual's surrender and commitment to God the Creator through adherence to the religion by the same name. (c.i.e)

Islam ()
Islam is an Arabic word the root of which is Silm and Salam. It means among others: peace, greeting, salutation, obedience, loyalty, allegiance, and submission to the will of the Creator of the Universe.

Islam is the last and final religion to all mankind and to all generations irrespective of color, race, nationality, ethnic background, language, or social position.

The religion of Islam is not to be confused with Mohammedanism. The latter is misnomer to Islam. Muslims do not accept this name as it gives wrong information about Islam and Muslims.
(c.m.j.e)

Ism ()
Name, noun, the divine name. sometimes al-ism al-a `zam, the greatest name, Allah. al-ism al-jami `, "the all-inclusive name" is Allah. (t.p)

Ism ()
Name, noun, the divine name. sometimes al-ism al-a `zam, the greatest name. (t.p)

Isma'il (iss-ma-eel) ()
The elder son of Abraham, born to his wife Hajar. When he was about thirteen years old, Isma'il helped Abraham build the Ka'bah as a place for monotheists to worship the One God. He, along with his younger brother Is'haq (Isaac), are considered by Muslims to have been prophets in their own right. (c.i.e)

Isma`il ()
The prophet ishmael. (t.p)

Isma`ilis ()
The "sevener" shi'a, the followers of isma`il, son of ja'far as-sadiq (d. 148/765). many of their doctrines were influenced by those of the manichaeans. they assert that isma`il completed the cycle of seven imams after which the era of the hidden imams began, and these imams send out emissaries. they believe that if the imam is not manifest (qa'im), then his emissary or proof (hujja) must be manifest. (t.p)

Isnad ()
(Plural asanid) the chain of transmission of a tradition, transmitted from individual to individual, from its source to the present. (t.p)

Isqat at-tadbir ()
Dropping of management and human planning in favour of Allah's planning, a term used by ibn `ata'llah. similar to tafwid. (t.p)

Isra' ()
The night journey of the prophet to jerusalem, which took place on 27 rajab. (t.p)

Isra' and Mi'raj (iss-raa, me-raaj)
The miraculous "Night Journey" and "Ascension" of Prophet Muhammad, respectively, which took place in 619 C.E. This important event, which took place in the year of Muhammad's wife Khadijah's death, gave strength to him by reaffirming God's support for him. During this event, instructions for the formal Muslim prayer were revealed to Muhammad, making them a cornerstone of Muslim faith and practice. (c.i.e)

Isra'il ()
Israel, the prophet ya`qub or jacob. (t.p)

Isra'iliyat ()
Israelite traditions; pre-islamic biblical or other such materials. (t.p)

Israfil ()
The archangel who will blow the trumpet to announce the end of the world. (t.p)

Israfil ()
The archangel who will blow the trumpet to announce the end of the world. (t.p)

Isti`dad ()
Predisposition, aptitude, preparedness for receiving knowledge or illumination. (t.p)

Isti`rad ()
The practice of the basran khawarij, killing all non-kharijites whom they came across. literally means "questioning" but came to designate the indiscriminate killing of theological opponents. (cf. azariqa). (t.p)

Istidana ()
Commercial commitment of the qirad by the agent in excess of the capital invested. (t.p)

Istidara ()
Circularity, which is the nature of things, since Allah is the first and the last and all things return to him. (cf. qur'an 11:123, 31:55, etc.). (t.p)

Istidlal ()
Deductive reasoning. (t.p)

Istidlal ()
Deductive reasoning. (t.p)

Istidraj ()
Baiting by degrees, a fall from grace by a hidden chain of events. (t.p)

Istiftah ()
The opening supplication recited at the beginning of the prayer (which is not done by malikis). (t.p)

Istighfar ()
to seek Allah's forgiveness. It is something that must be done continuously in a Muslims life.
(c.m.j.e)

Istighfar ()
Asking forgiveness of Allah. (t.p)

Istighfar ()
To ask the forgiveness of Allah, especially by saying, `astaghfiru'llah", "i seek the forgiveness of Allah."(t.p)

Istihada ()
Bleeding from the womb of a woman outside her ordinary periods. (t.p)

Istihsan ()
To deem something good, juristic preference; to decide in favour of something which is considered good by the jurist, over and against the conclusion that may have been reached by analogy. (t.p)

Istijmar ()
Wiping the anus with stones. (t.p)

Istikhara ()
A prayer performed by someone who has not made up his mind in the hopes of being inspired to make a wise decision. (t.p)

Istikhraj ()
Extraction of rulings from the sources. (t.p)

Istilahat ()
Technical vocabularies. (t.p)

Istimrar ()
Continuity. (t.p)

Istinaf ()
(Or ibtida' in az-zamakhshari) disjunctive syntax, meaning that the "waw" begins an entirely new sentence. (t.p)

Istinbat ()
Inference, deducing a somewhat hidden meaning from a given text. (t.p)

Istinja' ()
Washing the private parts with water. (t.p)

Istinshaq ()
Drawing water up the nose which is part of wudu'. (t.p)

Istiqama ()
Being straight, putting into practice the sunna of the prophet. (t.p)

Istiqama ()
Rectitude, rightness, integrity, the state of being correct and sound in one's being and behaviour. (t.p)

Istiqrar ()
Persistence, stability, constancy. (t.p)

Istishab ()
Presumption of continuity, or presuming continuation of the status quo ante. there are various types of istishab: istishab al`adam al-asili (presumption of original absence) in which the fact that a law did not exist in the past leads to the presumption that it is still non-existent unless the contrary is proved; istishab al-wujud alasili (presumption of original presence) which is like the saying "possession is nine-tenths of the law"; istishab al-hukm (presumed continuity of laws and principles), in which the provisions of the shari`a are presumed to apply unless there is contrary evidence (both in judgements and in areas which are not subject to judgement); and istishab al-wasf (continuity of attributes), e.g. water is pure unless there is evidence to the contrary. (t.p)

Istislah ()
Consideration of public interest; to decide in favour of something because it is considered good (maslaha), and more beneficial than anything decided otherwise. a method of interpreting already existing rules by disengaging the spirit of these rules from the letter of the law so that exceptions and extensions are reached which command practical utility and correspond to the fundamental goals of the law. (t.p)

Istislam ()
Literally submission, particularly greeting the black stone and the yemeni corner of the ka'ba during tawaf by kissing, touching or saluting with the outstretched hand. (t.p)

Istislam ()
Submission, acceptance. (t.p)

Istisna' ()
Contract of manufacture. (t.p)

Istisna' ()
This is a kind of sale, where a commodity is transacted before it comes into existence. It means to order a manufacturer to manufacture a specific commodity for the purchaser. If the manufacturer undertakes to manufacture the goods for him with material from the manufacturer, the transaction of Istisna' comes into existence. But it is necessary for the validity of Istisna' that the price is fixed with the consent of the parties and that necessary specification of the commodity (intended to be manufactured) is fully settled between them. This kind of sale, used as a mode of financing, is also called 'Parallel Istisna'. (i.i.q)

Istisqa' ()
The rain prayer of two rak`ats, performed outside the town, with two khutbas after which those present turn their cloaks the other way around. (t.p)

Istita'a ()
The power or capacity to act. (t.p)

Istithna' ()
Exception, saying "in sha'llah," "if Allah wills."(t.p)

Ithar ()
Altruism, putting others before oneself. (t.p)

Ithar ()
Altruism, to prefer others to oneself. (t.p)

Ithm ()
Wilful transgression, sin. (t.p)

Ithna' 'ashariya ()
The shiites who follow twelve imams. (t.p)

Itikaf (Ittekaf itekaf ittikaf)
Itikaf is one of the many observances that are related exclusively to Ramadan. The basic aim of Itikaf is that a person retreats to the Mosque cut off from the daily routine of worldly life and spends time praying and worshiping The Creator. The practice of Itikaf takes place in the last ten days of Ramadan which encompasses "The Night of Power" when a Muslim's devotion is brought to its climax. Linguistically "I'tikaf" means to commit oneself to doing something to the exclusion of everything else. In a religious context, it means to stay in a Mosque for worship. Reference to it is made in the Quran in Verse 187 of Surah 2. All scholars agree that it is a Sunnah, following the practice of the Prophet. Abdullah ibn Umar, a learned companion of the Prophet, reports that "Allah's messenger (pbuh) used to stay in the Mosque during the last ten days of Ramadan." (Related by Al Bukhari). (o.s)

Itmi'an ()
Tranquillity, spiritual peace. (t.p)

Ittihad ()
Becoming one, human individuality passing away in the reality, like a grain of salt in the sea. (t.p)

Iwad ()
Compensation or counter-value. (i.i.q)

Iyad, qadi ()
`Iyad ibn musa, abu'l-fadl al-yahsubi, born in ceuta in 476/1083. the imam of the western muslim lands in with and arabic, a gifted maliki faqih and scholar who wrote a number of books, especially ash-shifa' and the tartib al-madarik which consists of biographies of maliki fuqaha'. he was a qadi in cordoba, then granada and then marrakesh and died of poison in 544/1149. (t.p)

Izar ()
A piece of cloth used as a waist-wrapper both by men and women. (t.p)

Izhar ()
Clear articulation of the letter without nasalisation. this occurs when nun or tanwin is followed by one of six guttural letters (hamza, ha', 'ayn, ha', ghayn and kha'). (t.p)

 

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Arabic English Dictionary

                       

Alphabetical Entries Indexed For Arabic-English Dictionary Of Sheikh Adelabu (Ph. D. Damas) :: ألفبيات مادّات مفهرسة للقاموس العربي الإنجليزي للشيخ أديلابو - دكتوراه من دمسق

                       

مباني الكلمات على الألف الفعلية من الأفعال والمصادر المصروفة ومن مجردّات الأفعال ومجرّدات الأسماء وغيرها

أ إِئْتِمَانِيَّة أَب أَبْيَض أَتَى أَتْيَس أثُّ أَثِيم أَج أَجْيَد
أَح إِحْيَان إِذ أُذَيْنَة أَرَى أَرِيكَة أَخ أَخْيَمَ أَز إِزِّيَان
أَد أَدِيم أَس إِسْتِخْوَال إِسْتَدَّ إِسْتِضْلاَل إِسْتَطَاب إِسْتِكْوَاء إِسْتَل إِسْتِيمَان
أَسْجَى أُسَيْلِم أَشَائِم أَشْيَم أَص أَصِيلَة أَضَاءَ أَضْيَك أَط أَطِيط
أَظْأَر إِظْهَار أَعَادَ أَعْيَن أَغَابَ أَغْيَن أَف أَفْيُون أَقَاء أُقَيْحِيَانَة
أَكَادِيد أَكِيل أَل أَلِيم أَم أَمْيَه أَن إِنْخِنَاق أَنَد إِنْضِوَاء
أَنَطّ إِنْكِمَاش أَنْمَى أَنِين أَه أَهْيَم أَو أَوْهَنَ إِيْهَان أَيْهَم
                       

مباني الكلمات على التاء الفعلية من الأفعال والمصادر المصروفة ومن مجردّات الأفعال ومجرّدات الأسماء وغيرها

ت تَأَيُّد تَب تَبَيُّن تَتَابَع تَتَوُّق تَثَائَبَ تَثْنِيَة تَجَابَّ تَجَيُّف
تَحَابَّ تَحَيُّن تَخَّ تَخَيُّم تَدَابَر تَدَيُّيُن تَذانَب تَذَيُّل تَرَّ تَرِيكَة
تَزَابَنَ تَزَيُّن تَسَائَلَ تَسَيُّف تَشَائَم تَشَيُّم تَصَائَى تَصَيُّف تَضَائَلَ تَضَيُّق
تَطَابَق تَطَيُّن تَظَارَفَ تَظَنُّن تَعَاتَبَ  تَعَيُّن تَغَابَى تَغَيُّم تَفَّ تَفَيْهُق
تَقَى تًقَيُّن تَكَّ   تَكَيُّف تَلَّ تَلَيُّن تَمَّ تَمِيمَة تُن تَنِّين
تَهَاتَرَ تَوَاؤُم تَوّاب تَوَيُّل تَيَّار تُيُوقِرَاطِيَّة  
                       

مباني الكلمات على الميم المصدرية الفاعلية والمفعولية من الأفعال الألفية

مُبيئ مُبْيَضَّ مُتِّي مُتِّهَم مُثيب   مُثِّنِي مُجيئ مُجْهِم مُحيب مُحْيِن
مُخيب مُخْيَم مُدِّي مُذيب مُذَاب مُذْيَل مُرِي مُرْيِف مُزيت مُزِّيَن
مُسيئ مُسْتِخْوَل مُسْتَدَّ مُسْتِغْيَل مُسْتَفّ مُسْتِكْوِي مُسْتَلَّ مُسْتَيْمِن مُسْجِي مُسْوَغ
مُشيب مُشوَك مُصيب مُصِّيَّف مُضيئ مُضْوِي مُطيئ  مُطْيَب مُظْأِر مُظْهَر
مُعيد مُعْيَل مُغيب مُغْيِم مُفيئ مُقَاس مُقيل مُقْوَل مُكْأِب مُكهِم
مُلِيح مُلْيَل مُمِيئ   مُمْوَه مُنيئ مُنْخِنَق مُنَدَّ مُنْضِوِي مُنْطَاد مُنْكِمَش
مُنْمِي مُنْوَك مُنْثِي مُنْوَك مُهيب مُوقَن مُومِن مُونَع  
                       

مباني الكلمات على الميم المصدرية الفاعلية والمفعولية من الأفعال التائية

مُتَآج مُتَأَوُّه مُتَآجَّ   مُتَأَوُّه مُتَبَائِس مُتَتَابِع مُتَتَرِّب مُتَتَوُّق مُتَثَائِب مُتَثَنٍّ
مُتَجَاب مُتَجَيِّف مُتَحَابَّ مُتَحَيِّن مُتَخَابِث مُتَخَيِّم مُتَدَابِر مُتَدَيِّن مُتَذَائِب مُتَذَيِّل
مُتَرَائِي مُتَرَيِّق مُتَزَابِن مُتَزَيِّن مُتَسَائِل مُتَسَيِّف مُتَشَائِم مُتَشَيِّم مُتَصَائِي مُتَصَيِّف
مُتَضَائِل مُتَضَيِّق مُتَطَابِق مُتَطَيِّن مُتَظَارِف مُتَظَنُّن مُتَعَاتِب مُتَعَيِّن مُتَغَابِي مُتَغَيِّم
مُتَفَاؤُل مُتَفَيِّل مُتَقَابِض مُتَقَيِّن مُتَكَاب مُتَكَيِّف مُتَلِّي مُتَلَيِّن مُتَمَاتِن مُتَمَيِّل
مُتَنَائِي مُتَنَيِّق مُتَهَاتِر مُتَهَيِّم مُتَوَائِم مُتَوَيِّل مُتَيَاسِر مُتَيَمُّن  
                       

The materials provided here are ONLY extracts of Arabic-English Dictionary Of Sheikh Adelabu (Ph. D. Damas).  Fully edited versions and better formats are available upon written requests from awqafafrica.com and Awqaf Africa Muslim Open College, London.

Conjugal Formulas :: الموازن الصرفية

                       
 

Conjugal Verbus (Verb Formulas) :: موازن الفعليات

 

Conjugal Nomen Verbi (Verbal Noun Formulas) :: موازن المصدريات

Conjugal Agentis (Active Noun Formulas) :: موازن الفاعليات

Conjugal Patentis (Passive Noun Formulas) :: موازن المفعوليات

Conjugal Cognitus (Cognitive Formulas)  :: موازن المجردات

                       

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