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Dictionary Of Islam: Islamic Glossary

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Ma' al-'aynayn al-qalqami ()
Muhammad mustafa ibn Muhammad, abu'l-anwar, born near walata in the hawd of southeastern mauritania in 1247/1831. of mauritanian and moroccan descent, he was a sufi shaykh of the qadiri tariqa. he was a prolific writer, a well-digger and founder of zawiyas. he built a zawiya at smara (in the saqiyat al-hamra') which had a reputation for qur'anic studies and its large library. it was destroyed by the french. he participated in armed resistance against the french during which he lost several sons. he died in tiznit in southern morocco in 1328/1910. (t.p)

Ma'ida ()
Table; the name of sara 5 of the qur'an. (t.p)

Ma'iya ()
"With-ness". (t.p)

Ma'luh ()
One in thrall to god. (t.p)

Ma'na ()
"Meaning". in sufic terms, spiritual perception of the subtleties behind or within sensory forms. (t.p)

Ma'na ()
(Plural ma`ani) in fiqh, a causal factor. otherwise, `meaning'. (t.p)

Ma'na ifradi ()
Individual meaning. (t.p)

Ma'na tarkibi ()
Contextual meaning. (t.p)

Ma'rifa ()
Gnosis, direct, experiential knowledge of higher realities, witnessing the lights of the names and attributes of Allah in the heart. (t.p)

Ma's-salama ()
"With peace", a formula for ending letters. (t.p)

Ma'uda ()
In pre-islamic times, the unwanted female child who was buried alive. the practice was forbidden in the qur'an in 81:8. (t.p)

Ma`lul ()
"Defective" although it appears to be sound, it is affected by some infirmity. also called mu `allal. (t.p)

Ma`qul ()
Rational, intelligible. (t.p)

Ma`qula ()
(Plural ma `aqil) blood money. (t.p)

Ma`rnf ()
Well-known, generally accepted, beneficial, courtesy. (t.p)

Ma`ruf ()
Something whose meaning is well-known. (t.p)

Ma`ruf al-karkhi ()
Abu mahfuz ibn firuz, a famous sufi of the baghdad school. karkh bajadda is a town in eastern iraq. his parents were either christians or sabi'ians. he had a great influence on as-sari as-saqati, whose shaykh he was, and taught hadith to ibn hanbal. his tomb is in baghdad. he died in 200/815-6 or 204/ 819/20). (t.p)

Ma`sum ()
Infallible or protected from committing wrong actions. (t.p)

Ma`truh ()
Mentally deficient, idiotic, senile; and therefore incapable of making a valid bequest. (t.p)

Mabda' ()
(Plural mabadi') principle, basis, starting point. in the plural it means ideology, fundamental concepts. (t.p)

Mabrur ()
Accepted, as in an accepted hajj. (t.p)

Mabrur ()
A Hajj that is accepted by Allah because of its perfection in both inward intention and outward observation of the traditions of Prophet Muhammad (S.A.W.)(i.i.q)

Madamin ()
A forbidden form of sale in which the foetus in the womb of a pregnant animal is sold. (cf. habal al-habala). (t.p)

Madarr ()
Harmful. (t.p)

Madarra ()
Harm. (t.p)

Madda ()
Matter. (t.p)

Madda ()
Prolongation. there are three letters which are subject to prolongation in recitation of the qur'an: alif, waw and ya'. (t.p)

Madhhab ()
A school of law founded on the opinion of a faqih. the four main schools now are hanafi, maliki, shafi'i and hanbali. there are also madhhabs which have ceased to exist: the awza'i, zahiri, jariri and the madhhab of sufyan ath-thawri. the shi'a also designate their fiqh as the ja`fari madhhab' after ja'far as-sadiq. (t.p)

Madhhab (madh-hub)
An Arabic term used in reference to a particular "school of thought" in Islam. As Islam spread to new regions outside the Arabian penisula and new social, economic and religious issues arose, many scholars studied the sources of Islam to find permissible and practical solutions that believers could employ to address these issues. Over time, the teachings and thoughts of five respected scholars gained prominence, and Muslims tend to adhere to the "school of thought" of one or another of these scholars. Each school's opinions, while differing to some degree with the others, are considered equally valid as a source of practical guidance for the "lay" Muslim. (c.i.e)

Madhhab ()
A school of law founded on the opinion of a faqih. the four main schools now are hanafi, maliki, shafi`i and hanbali. there are also madhhabs which have ceased to exist: the awza`i, zahiri, jariri (from ibn jarir at-tabari) and the madhhab of sufyan ath-thawri. the shi'a also designate their fiqh as the imami or `ja`fari madhhab' after ja'far as-sadiq. among the shi'a, there are also the akhbaris and the usulis. (t.p)

Madhmum ()
Blameworthy. (t.p)

Madinah (ma-dee-nah)
Formerly named Yathrib, Madinah became the center of the first Islamic community and political state after Prophet Muhammad migrated there from Makkah in 622 C.E. The people of Madinah welcomed the persecuted Muslims of Makkah with open arms, establishing a sense of brotherhood and sisterhood viewed as a tangible ideal for Muslims today. Prophet Muhammad died in Madinah in 632 C.E. and was buried in his room adjacent to the city's central masjid, which he established. (c.i.e)

Madinah ()

the first city-state that came under the banner of Islam. It is where the Prophet's masjid and grave are situated.
(c.m.j.e)

Madinah ()
A city in Saudia Arabia, often called Madina al-Munawarra - the Illuminated, or the Enlightened City - where the revelation of the Qur'an was completed, and in which Prophet Muhammad (S.A.W.) died and is buried. (i.i.q)

Madrasa ()
A traditional place of study and learning. (t.p)

Madrasa ()
(Plural madaris) a traditional place of study and learning. maghfira: forgiveness. (t.p)

Madyan ()
Midian, the people to whom the prophet shu'ayb was sent. (t.p)

Mafatih al-ghayb ()
"Keys to the hidden," by ar-razi (d. 606/1210), unfinished but expanded by his pupils. it is also called at-tafsir al-kabir, or `the great tafsir" because of its size. he brings in philosophical thought and other elements. he offers independent suggestions in careful arguments. he was criticised for exceeding the realm of actual tafsir and going into philosophy. (t.p)

Mafhum al-mukhalafa ()
Divergent meaning, an interpretation which diverges from the obvious meaning of a given text. (t.p)

Mafhum al-mukhalafa ()
Divergent meaning, an interpretation which diverges from the obvious meaning of a given text. it has several categories. (t.p)

Mafhum al-muwafaqa ()
Harmonious meaning, an implied meaning which is equivalent to the pronounced text. (t.p)

Mafhum al-muwafaqa ()
Harmonious meaning, an implied meaning which is equivalent to the pronounced text. (t.p)

Mafqud ()
Missing person. he is considered to be still alive by the principle of istishab. (t.p)

Mafqud ()
A missing person whose whereabouts is unknown. (t.p)

Mafrud ()
Obligatory. (t.p)

Mafsada ()
Evil, namely anything which violates ad-daruriyat al-khamsa, the five essential values of religion, life, intellect, lineage and property; the opposite of maslaha. (t.p)

Maqam ibrahim ()
The place of the stone on which the prophet ibrahnn stood while he and isma'il were building the ka'ba, which marks the place of the two rak `at prayer following tawaf of the ka'ba. (t.p)

Magharim ()
Unjust non-shari `a taxes, unlawful taxes, fines. (t.p)

Maghazi ()
the military campaigns of the Prophet.
(c.m.j.e)

Maghrib ()
the obligatory salaah, prayer, that is performed right after the sun sets over the horizon.
(c.m.j.e)

Maghrib ()
The sunset prayer. the maghrib also designates the muslim territories in the northwest of africa and is the arabic name for morocco. (t.p)

Magsnra ()
A stall or compartment erected in the mosque for the ruler, usually near the mihrab. (t.p)

Mahabba ()
Love. ibn `arif defines it as "a certain emotional subjection of the heart which prevents one from yielding to anything except his beloved."(t.p)

Mahall ()
Locus, the place in which Allah's prescencing is experienced: the heart. (t.p)

Mahall ()
Locus. for example, al-maturidi says that the heart is the locus of faith. (t.p)

Mahdhuf ()
Elided and implied, a rhetorical device. (t.p)

Mahiya ()
Quiddity, essential nature. (t.p)

Mahjub ()
Excluded from inheritance by another heir. (t.p)

Mahkama ()
Court, tribunal. (t.p)

Mahkama ()
Court of justice, tribunal. (t.p)

Mahkum fih ()
The subject matter of hukm; the acts, rights and obligations which constitute the subject-matter of a command, prohibition, or permissibility. (t.p)

Mahmad ()
Praiseworthy, commendable. (t.p)

Mahr ()
Dower given by a husband to his wife on marriage. (t.p)

Mahr ()
a dowry given by the man to the woman he is about to marry. It is part of the Muslim marriage contract. It can never be demanded back under any circumstances.
(c.m.j.e)

Mahram (MAHRIM)
A mahram refers to the group of people who are unlawful for a woman to marry due to marital or blood relationships. These people include:

  1. Her permanant Mahrams due to blood relationship, and those seven are: her father, her son (who passed puberty), her brother, her uncle from her father's side, her brother's son, her sister's son, and her uncle from her mother's side.
  2. Her Radha' Mahrams due to sharing the nursing milk when she was an infant, and their status is similar to the permanent seven Mahrams (i.e. nothing can change their status).
  3. Her (in law) Mahrams because of marriage and they are: her husband's father (father in law), her husband's son (step son), her mother's husband (step father), and her daughter's husband.

These categories of people, along with the woman's husband, form the group of allowable escorts for a Muslim woman when she travels.
(c.m.j.e)
Mahram ()
A man whom a woman can never marry because her close relation with him (e.g. father, brother, uncle, son, etc.). Her husband is also her Mahram. (i.i.q)

Mahram ()
A person with whom marriage is forbidden. (t.p)

Mahram ()
A male relative with whom marriage is forbidden. (see dhu mahram). (t.p)

Mahshar ()
The place of gathering on the day of judgement. (t.p)

Mahw ()
Effacement, the removal of the attributes of normality, or the cause. (t.p)

Mahya ()
Vigil, the night recitation of prayers or dhikr through thursday night until friday. this was first inaugurated by ash-shun in cairo in 897/1492. (t.p)

Maiser ()
Gambling. Literally means getting something too easily. (i.i.q)

Majalla ()
A uniform codification of the laws of contract and obligation based on hanafi law, published between 1286/1869 and 1293/1876. (t.p)

Majazi ()
Metaphorical. (t.p)

Majazi ()
Metaphorical, figurative. (t.p)

Majdhab ()
Attracted, someone who is enraptured and bewildered by the effect of divine attraction. (t.p)

Majhul ()
Unknown narrator. (t.p)

Majlis ()
(Plural majalis) sitting, session, gathering of notables in a bedouin tent, audience of a shaykh, assembly, ruling council, parlia ment. (t.p)

Majlis al-'aqd ()
Meeting of the contracting parties. (t.p)

Majmu' ()
"Totality", both the real and creation. (t.p)

Majus ()
Magians, zoroastrians. (t.p)

Makhafa ()
Fear, as khawf. (t.p)

Makharij ()
Plural of makhraj, articulation, phonetics. (t.p)

Makkah (muck-ah)
An ancient city where Abraham and Ishma'il built the Ka'bah. Muhammad, a member of the Quraysh tribe, which traced its lineage back to Abraham, was born in Makkah in 570 C.E. After migrating to Madinah to further the message of Islam, Muhammad returned to Makkah in 629 C.E. with fellow Muslims to reinstitute the age-old monotheistic Hajj. In 630 C.E., after the Quraysh violated a peace treaty, Muhammad marched on Makkah and gained control of the city peacefully, thereafter clearing the Ka'bah of idols and reintegrating the city into the fold of Islam. (c.i.e)

Makrnh ()
Abominable, reprehensible but not unlawful in the shari`a. (t.p)

Makrooh ()
Disapproved of, but not prohibited by Allah Subhana wa Ta'ala. (i.i.q)

Makruh ()
Abominable, reprehensible in the shari `a, disliked but not forbidden. (t.p)

Maktub ()
`Written", pre-ordained, already decided. (t.p)

Mal ()
(Plural anwal) property, something that exists and can be utilised, res in commercio. (t.p)

Mal mutaqawwam ()
Corporeal or incorporeal property with a lawful market price (like jewellery). (t.p)

Mala' ()
Council, senate. (t.p)

Mala'ika ()
Angels, the plural of malak (muqarrabun: the angels brought near to Allah; al-karrubiyan (cherubim) who praise Allah constantly night and day); hafizun (guardian angels). the ten individual angels mentioned are jibril, mika'il, israfil, `azra'il, munkar, nakir, ridwan, malik, and the two guardian angels who record each person's actions. (t.p)

Mala'ikah (ma-laa-ik-ah)
Angels, a class of God's creations. Angels inhabit the unseen world, and constitute a group of beings who do God's bidding and who perpetually engage in His glorification. Muslims believe each human being is assigned two special angels as recorders - one records a person's good deeds while the other records a person's evil deeds. These records will be summoned on the Day of Judgement and each individual will be called to account for his or her deeds. A few angels are named in the Qur'an, such as Jibreel (angel of revelation), Mika'il (protector of holy places), and Israfeel (angel who sounds the horn on Judgement Day, calling all souls to account). (c.i.e)

Malahida ()
Heretics, apostates. it is the plural of mulhid. (t.p)

Malakut ()
The angelic world, the kingdom of unseen forms. (t.p)

Malakut ()
The angelic world. (t.p)

Malama ()
Blame, the path of blame taken by some sufis which involves deliberately provoking people to have a bad opinion of them, so that it is only possible to turn to Allah. (t.p)

Malaqih ()
A forbidden sale, in which the stud properties of an animal are sold. (t.p)

Malik ()
The angel in charge of hell. (t.p)

Malik ()
King. (t.p)

Malik al-mawt ()
The angel of death, `azra'il. (t.p)

Malik ibn anas ()
Abu `abdullah al-asbahi al-himyari, born in madina, the famous imam of madina in fiqh and hadith. one of the four great imams. ash-shafi`i was one of his pupils. he had great knowledge and embodied the din. he compiled the al-muwattd'. he died in madina in 179/795. (t.p)

Malik ibn anas ()
Abu `abdullah al-asbahi al-himyari, born in madina in 93/712, the famous imam of madina in fiqh and hadith. one of the four imams. his love of the prophet was such that he would not mount a horse in madina. he always walked barefoot in its streets out of his respect for the prophet. when he was asked something that he did not know, he would simply say, "i do not know." he would not relate a hadith without first doing wudu'. ash-shafi`i was one of his pupils. he had great knowledge and piety. he wrote the first collection of hadith and fiqh, al-muwatta'. he died in madina in 179/795. (t.p)

Malik ibn dinar ()
Abu yahya an-naji al-basri, a persian mawla, the son of a persian slave from sijistan or kabul, a weeper at basra. he was an early sufi and one of disciples of hasan al-basri. he was known for piety, self-mortification, tawakkul and learning isra'ilite stories. he was a reliable muhaddith and calligrapher of the qur' an. he never ate anything he had not purchased from payment for making copies of the qur'an. he died in basra in 131/748. (t.p)

Mamnu`a ()
Prohibited in the shari`a. (t.p)

Manafi` ()
(Personal) advantages. (t.p)

Managib ()
Virtues, glorious deeds, feats; a type of biography. manara: minaret. (t.p)

Manajat ()
Prayer as an intimate dialogue between an individual and his personal lord. (t.p)

Manaqib ()
Virtues, glorious deeds. (t.p)

Manarah (ma-naa-rah)
A tower-like structure, more commonly called a "minaret," from which the mueddhin (caller to worship) calls out the adhan (call to prayer). The manarah is usually located adjacent to the masjid, though for architectural reasons they may be placed at various places on the masjid grounds for practical as well as decorative effect. (c.i.e)

Manasik ()
The rites, i.e. ihram, tawaf of the ka'ba and sa'y of safa and marwa, the stay at 'arafa, muzdalifa and mina, the stoning of the jamras, the slaughtering of a hady (animal) and the tawaf al-ifada, etc. (t.p)

Manasik al-hajj ()
The rites of pilgrimage. (t.p)

Manat ()
Anchor, basis of a rule. (t.p)

Mandnb ()
Commendable, recommended. (t.p)

Mandub ()
Commendable, recommended. (t.p)

Manfa`a ()
Benefit, utility. (t.p)

Mani` ()
(Plural mawani') hindrance, obstacle, preventative cause which prevents inheritance. these can be: homicide, difference of religion, slavery. (t.p)

Maniha ()
(Plural mana'ih) a sort of gift in the form of a she-camel or a sheep which is given to somebody temporarily so that its milk may be used and then the animal is returned to its owner. (t.p)

Mansukh ()
What is abrogated or superseded, particularly with regard to earlier qur'anic ayat and hadith which were subsequently replaced by later ones, thereby altering the legal judgements or parameters which had initially been expressed in the earlier ones. (t.p)

Mansukh ()
What is abrogated or superseded, particularly with regard to earlier qur'anic ayats and hadiths which were subsequently replaced by later ones, thereby altering the legal judgements or parameters which had initially been expressed in the earlier ones. (t.p)

Mansukh ()
What is abrogated or superseded, particularly with regard to earlier qur'anic ayats and hadith which were subsequently replaced by later ones, thereby altering the legal judgements or parameters which had initially been expressed in the earlier ones. (t.p)

Mantiq ()
Logic (as a discipline). (t.p)

Mantiq at-tayr ()
"The conference of the birds", a classic epic poem written by `attar (d. 638/1230) which tells of a conference attended by all types of birds, who pose a series of questions to their leader, the hoopoe. it is an allegory of the soul's journey to union with Allah. (t.p)

Manzil ()
(Plural manazil) way station, stage, a term denoting a particular phase in the gnostic development of the seeker. each stage has certain qualities and knowledges. (t.p)

Maqaam (maqam muqam muqaam moqam)
Station, Abode, Standing place(o.s)

Maqaam (maqam muqam muqaam moqam)
Station, Abode, Standing place(o.s)

Maqaam (maqam muqam muqaam moqam)
Station, Abode, Standing place(o.s)

Maqala ()
Treatise; doctrinal position. (t.p)

Maqalat al-islamiyyin ()
The famous work by al-ash'ari. it surveys and assesses the various sects, sets forth the basic creed of the muslim community, and surveys the different opinions on the themes of kalam. it was the first work of its kind. (t.p)

Maqam ()
(Plural maqamat) a station of spiritual knowledge, more long lasting than a hal. (t.p)

Maqbul ()
"Accepted". (t.p)

Maqdi ()
Object of decree. (t.p)

Maqdur ()
Within one's capability. (t.p)

Maqlub ()
Inversion, a type of metaphor. this can be by describing something by its opposite (antiphrasis) and by a reversal of the natural order (hysteron proteron). (t.p)

Maqlub ()
"Changed, reversed", when the isnad of a hadith is grafted onto a different text or vice versa, or if the order of a sentence is reversed. (t.p)

Maqsid ()
(Plural maqasid) intention, goal, end, objective. (t.p)

Maqtu` ()
"Severed", a narration from a tabi `i without mentioning the prophet. sometimes munqati ` is used as a synonym, but munqati ` more properly denotes any break at any point in the isnad. (t.p)

Mar ()
The fire, hell. (t.p)

Marabout ()
A french word from murabit, a term for a sufi in north africa. (t.p)

Marad al-mawt ()
The sickness of which a person dies. he cannot dispose of two-thirds of his property in such an illness. (t.p)

Marasil ()
The plural of mursal. (t.p)

Maratib al-wujud ()
"The chain of being": mineral, plant and animal. (t.p)

Marbub ()
One who has a lord, a vassal. (t.p)

Mardud ()
"Rejected". (t.p)

Marfu` ()
"Elevated", a narration from the prophet mentioned by a companion, e.g. "the messenger of Allah said..."(t.p)

Marid ()
A strong and rebellious type of jinn. (t.p)

Maristan ()
Hospital. (t.p)

Marjaan (marjan )
Small pearls or corals. (o.s)

Marthiya ()
Elegy, funeral oration, dirge. (t.p)

Marut ()
See harut and marut. (t.p)

Marwa ()
A small hill near the ka'ba. (see safa and marwa). (t.p)

Marwah ()
a mound near the Ka'bah that is referred to in the Quran as one of the symbols of Allah. It is in conjuction with Safa.
(c.m.j.e)

Maryam (mur-yum)
Mary, the mother of Jesus. Maryam is considered by Muslims to be the most favored of women to God, for her chastity, piety and dedication. Muslims believe she miraculously bore Prophet Jesus in her womb and gave birth to him, while remaining a chaste virgin. The fact that an entire chapter of the Qur'an is titled "Maryam" indicates that the lessons of her life are extremely important for Muslims. (c.i.e)

Maryam ()
Mary, the mother of `isa. (t.p)

Mas'ala ()
(Plural masd'il) issue, problem, case, a matter proposed for determination. (t.p)

Mas`a ()
Walking between safa and marwa when performing sa'y during hajj. (t.p)

Masabih as-sunna ()
By al-baghawi (d. 510/1117), a collection of 4,719 hadiths. it is arranged by topic, but he omitted the isnads as they were taken from well-known collections. it was designed to give people guidance in their daily lives. the mishkat al-masabih is an expanded version of it. (t.p)

Mash ()
Wiping over leather socks when doing wudu' rather than washing the feet. (t.p)

Mash'ar ()
A place where certain rites are performed. (t.p)

Mash'ar al-haram ()
A venerated place in the valley of muzdalifa where it is a sunna to stop. (t.p)

Masha'llah ()
A phrase meaning literally, "what Allah wishes," and it indicates a good omen. (t.p)

Mashayikh ()
Shaykhs. a plural of shaykh. (t.p)

Mashhad ()
Martyrium; a place where a martyr died or is buried; a reli gious shrine celebrating such a person or his tomb. (t.p)

Mashhiir ()
Famous or widely ascribed to. (t.p)

Mashhur ()
A hadith reported by more than two transmitters. some say that it is every narrative which comes to be widely-known, whatever its original isnad. (t.p)

Mashi'a ()
Choice (see irada). (t.p)

Mashruba ()
An attic room; a roofed vestibule. mashnra: consulting with experts. (t.p)

Mashsha'i ()
A peripatetic, an aristotelian. (t.p)

Masi lih mursala ()
Considerations of public interest, human welfare, utility, welfare not explicitly supported by the text. this is a major principle in maliki and hanbali fiqh. (t.p)

Masihi ()
(Plural masihiyyun) christian. (t.p)

Masjid ()
(Plural masajid) mosque, lit. a place of sajda or prostration. (t.p)

Masjid (mus-jid)
A term meaning "place of prostration," masjid designates a building where Muslims congregate for communal worship. The term comes from the same Arabic root as the word sujud, designating the important worship position in which Muslims touch their forehead to the ground. Often, the French word mosque is used interchangeably with masjid, though the latter term is preferred by Muslims. The masjid also serves various social, educational, and religious purposes. There are three sacred masjids in the world which Muslims hope to visit and pray within(c.i.e)

Masjid ()
a place of worship and salaah. The life of the early Muslims used to revolve around the masjid. Meetings would be held there, discussions would take place there. It is called a 'mosque' in English.
(c.m.j.e)

Masjid al-Haram ()
The Grand Masjid in Mekkah where the Kaa'bah is located. (i.i.q)

Masjid al-haram ()
The great mosque in makka. the ka'ba is situated in it. (t.p)

Masjid al-jama`a ()
Central mosque. (t.p)

Masjid al-qiblatayn ()
"The mosque of the two qiblas", the mosque in madina in which the qibla was changed from towards jerusalem towards the ka'ba in mid-prayer in 2 ah. (t.p)

Masjid an-nabawi ()
The prophet's mosque in madina. the prophet's tomb is situated in it. (t.p)

Masjid an-Nabawi ()
Another name for the Masjid ar-Rasool in Madinah. It is the second greatest Masjid in Islam, the first being the Masjid al-Haram in Al-Makkah al-Mukaramah, and the third being the Masjid al-Aqsa in AI-Quds (Jerusalem). (i.i.q)

Masjid at-taqwa ()
"The mosque of taqwa", the first mosque to be built by the prophet and his companions at quba'. (t.p)

Masjid-al-agsa ()
The great mosque in jerusalem. (t.p)

Maskut 'anhu ()
Matters on which the lawgiver is silent. (t.p)

Maslaha ()
Considerations of public interest, human welfare, utility, welfare, human good. "what concerns the subsistence of human life, the wholeness of his way of life, and the acquiring of what man's emotional and intellectual faculties require of him in their absolute sense." (ash-shatibi). (t.p)

Maslaha mulgha ()
A nullified or discredited benefit. the lawgiver has nullified it explicitly or by an indication. (t.p)

Masnun ()
Sunna. (t.p)

Masnun ()
Sunna, referring to an act which the prophet's early community performed regularly. (t.p)

Mathal ()
Parable, example. (t.p)

Mathani ()
Lit. "the often recited", said to be the first long suras, or the fatiha and also various other things. (see qur'an 15:87). (t.p)

Mathnawi ()
Rumi's (d. 672/1273) six volume epic didactic poem and undisputed masterpiece on the teachings of sufism. (t.p)

Matn ()
The text of a hadith. (t.p)

Matruh ()
Contradicts direct evidence. (t.p)

Matruk ()
"Abandoned" because the isnad contains a known liar. (t.p)

Maturidite ()
A follower of al-maturidi (d. 333/944), along with the ash'arites, responsible for the sunni articulation of kalam. as al-maturidi was from khorasan, his school was more widespread in the east and central asia. it is more intuitional and less concerned with rational expression than the ash'arites. (see al-maturidi.)(t.p)

Maw'iza ()
Sermon, admonition. (t.p)

Mawadda ()
Love, affection. (t.p)

Mawali ()
The plural of mawla. (t.p)

Mawani` ()
Legal impediments, the plural of mani `. (t.p)

Mawaqeet ()
Plural of Miqat. Mina: A place five miles from Mekkah and approximately ten miles from 'Arafat. An essential place to visit during the Hajj. (i.i.q)

Mawaqit ()
Plural of miqat. (t.p)

Mawarith ()
Plural of wrath. (t.p)

Mawat ()
Barren uncultivated land. (t.p)

Mawazin ()
The plural of mizan, the scales or balances set up to weigh people's actions on the day of judgement. (t.p)

Mawdu` ()
"Fabricated, forged", a hadith whose text goes against the established norms of the sayings of the prophet. (t.p)

Mawjudat ()
Existents. (t.p)

Mawla ()
(Plural mawala) a person with whom a tie of wall' has been established, usually by having been a slave and then set free. it is also used for a type of political patronage. (t.p)

Mawla ()
a person of slave origin who does not have tribal protection. It is a word with dual meaning. It can mean either master or servant.
(c.m.j.e)

Mawlana ()
"Our master", a term of respect. (t.p)

Mawlaya ()
a form of address to a ruler implying protector.
(c.m.j.e)

Mawlid ()
Or mawlud, a time, place and celebration of the birth of anyone, especially that of the prophet, who was born on the 12th rabi` al awwal/30th august 570 ce. (t.p)

Mawqif ()
"The standing" for judgement on the day of rising. (t.p)

Mawqif ()
(Plural mawaqif) lit. a standing or stopping place. there are two places where pilgrims must stop on the hajj: 'arafa and muzdalifa. (t.p)

Mawquf ()
"Stopped," narration from a companion without mentioning the prophet. it can be elevated to marfu ` if it is of the nature of "we were commanded to..." and the like. (t.p)

Mawsim ()
See moussem. (t.p)

Mawt ()
Death. (t.p)

Mawtin ()
Abode, the world or domain in which we dwell. (t.p)

Maysir ()
Game of chance, gambling. it is unlawful in islam. (t.p)

Mayyit ()
A corpse, a dead body of a human being. (t.p)

Mazi lim ()
"Injustices", complaints, esp. the appellate court for the redress of grievances. (t.p)

Mecca ()
See Makkah. (c.i.e)

Medina ()
See Madinah. (c.i.e)

Meezaan (mizan meezan)
The balance, order(o.s)

Mekkah ()
A city in Saudi Arabia where the Kaa'bah is located. (i.i.q)

Mevleviya ()
Or the mawlawiya, sufi order in turkey founded by jalal ad-din rumi (d. 672/1273). they are known in the west as the "whirling dervishes" because of their central practice of turning which is done to the accompaniment of music. their centre is in qonya, turkey. (t.p)

Mi`raj ()
The ascension of the prophet Muhammad from jerusalem to the seven heavens which took place on the 27th of the month of rajab. mirbad: a place where dates are dried. (t.p)

Mid hadir ()
Ready cash. (t.p)

Mid ribawi ()
Property susceptible of riba. (t.p)

Miftah al-falah ()
"The key to success" by ibn `ata'llah al-iskandari (d. 709/1309), a work on dhikr, its meanings, techniques, and benefits. (t.p)

Mihna ()
The inquisition instituted by the 'abbasid khalif, al-ma'mun, which required all important people to publicly state that they believed that the qur'an was created, even if they did not. (t.p)

Mihrab ()
The prayer niche, a recess in a mosque indicating the direction of qibla. (t.p)

Mihrab (mih-raab)
A niche in the wall of a masjid that indicates the qiblah, the direction of Makkah, towards which all Muslims turn during the formal worship. Architecturally, the mihrab serves to amplify the voice of the imam as he leads the worshippers in prayer. (c.i.e)

Mihrab ()
a recess in the masjid that indicates the direction of salaah.
(c.m.j.e)

Mihrajan ()
Magian festival at the autumn equinox. (t.p)

Mijanna ()
A place at makka. (t.p)

Mika'il ()
(Or mikal), the archangel michael. (t.p)

Mika'il ()
The archangel michael. he is entrusted with the rain, wind and clouds by which land, plants and animals are brought to life. (t.p)

Mikhsara ()
Staff or whip held in the hand with which a speaker makes gestures; a ruler's rod. (t.p)

Milk tamm ()
Full ownership. (t.p)

Millat (Milla)
Faith, Religion or could also mean community(o.s)

Millat ibrahim ()
Religion of ibrahim, the fitra, primordial religion. (t.p)

Mina (MINNA)
a plain within the bounds of the haram of Mecca, within five kilometers outside the city. During the Hajj the pilgrims pass the night between the eighth and ninth day proceed to Arafat on the ninth day.
(c.m.j.e)

Mina ()
A valley five miles on the road to 'arafa where the three jamras stand. it is part of hajj to spend three or possibly four nights in mina during the days of tashriq. (t.p)

Minaret ()
See Manarah. (c.i.e)

Minbar ()
a pulpit.
(c.m.j.e)

Minbar ()
Steps on which the imam stands to deliver the khutba, or sermon, on friday. (t.p)

Minhaj ()
Lit. "open, plain road", procedure, manner. (t.p)

Minhaj at-talibin ()
By imam an-nawawi (d. 676/1277), an authoritative reference for the shafi`i school. it is intended as a commentary on al-muharrar of ar-rafi`i. he refers back to al-juwayni via ar-rafi'i and al-ghazali. there are several commentaries on it. (t.p)

Miqat ()
One of the designated places for entering into Ihram during Umrah or Hajj. (i.i.q)

Miqat (Miqaat)
Miqat (pl. mawaqeet) denotes the points which an outsider intending to perform Pilgrimage may cross only in the state of consecration (ihram). These points were fixed according to directions from God. (I.Z)

Miqat ()
(Plural mawaqit) one of the designated places for entering into ihram for 'umra or hajj. (t.p)

Mir ()
From the arabic amir, a title of respect used in india and iran for descendants of the prophet. (t.p)

Mirath ()
(Plural mawarith) law of inheritance. (t.p)

Misbaha ()
(Plural masabih) prayer beads. (cf. tasbrh). (t.p)

Mishkat al-masabih ()
By wali' d-din al-khatib at-tabrizl. at-tabrizi revised and expanded masabih as-sunna by al-baghawi, mentioning the sources and weight of the hadiths cited and adding more traditions on the topics. (t.p)

Miskin ()
(Plural masakin) very poor, wretched, indigent, those who do not have anything and have to resort to begging to be able to live. (t.p)

Miswak ()
Another term for the siwak. (t.p)

Mithal ()
A model according to which another thing is made or proportioned, a pattern by which a thing is cut or measured, a precedent, an example or parable, a multi-dimensional metaphor capable of conveying more than one meaning simultaneously. (t.p)

Mithal ()
In sufism, this has to do with a modality of experiencing reality. in it, an analogue is produced which is somewhat like a hologram, amulti-dimensional metaphor capable of conveying more than one meaning simultaneously, and then this model is grasped intellectually in a non-linear way. (t.p)

Mithaq ()
Covenant, the primordial covenant between Allah and the creature. (t.p)

Mithaq ()
Solemn covenant, treaty, compact. (t.p)

Mithl ()
Like. (t.p)

Mithli ()
A fungible property (an article which is measurable or weighable or counted by number when alike), e.g. money or grain. (t.p)

Mithqal ()
(Plural mathaqil) "miskal", the weight of one dinar, the equivalent of 72 grains of barley (equals 4.4 grams). it may be somewhat less or more. [10 dirhams weigh 7 mithqals.](t.p)

Mizab ar-rahma ()
"The spout of mercy," the rainspout at the top of the ka'ba on its northeast side. (t.p)

Mizan ()
Balance, scale - symbol of harmony in creation and also the scales of the final reckoning. (t.p)

Moses ()
See Musa. (c.i.e)

Moslem ()
See Muslim. (c.i.e)

Mosque ()
See Masjid. (c.i.e)

Moussem ()
French word from mawsim, a festival of dhikr celebrated by a wall and his followers. (t.p)

Mu'addib ()
Schoolmaster. (t.p)

Mu'adhdhin ()
Someone who calls the adhan or call to prayer. (t.p)

Mu'akkada ()
A sunna which is mu'akkada is an emphatic one, also known as sunna al-huda, one regularly done. (cf. ghayr mu'akkada). (t.p)

Mu'allafa al-qulub ()
Giving a share of the zakat to reconcile people's hearts. this share was discontinued by 'umar ibn al-khattab on the basis of siyasa shay iyya. (t.p)

Mu'allal ()
"Defective" although it appears to be sound, it is affected by some infirmity. also called ma `lul. (t.p)

Mu'allaq ()
"Hanging", missing the whole isnad and quoting the prophet directly. also known as balagha. (t.p)

Mu'allim ()
Teacher, master of a craft. (t.p)

Mu'amalah ()
A term used for the transaction or agreement concluded by Prophet Muhammad (S.A.W.) with the people of Khaybar. (i.i.q)

Mu'an'an ()
All links in the isnad are connected simply by the preposition ,an (from) and thus the manner of transmission is not mentioned. (t.p)

Mu'dal ()
"Perplexing", omitting two or more links in the isnad. (t.p)

Mu'jiza ()
An evidentiary miracle given to a prophet to prove his prophethood. (t.p)

Mu'jiza ()
Miracle, something which it is usually impossible to accomplish. this term is used for the miracles performed by the prophets. the qur'an is the greatest miracle of the prophet. (t.p)

Mu'min ()
a person who has deep faith in Allah and is a righteous and obedient servant of His.
(c.m.j.e)

Mu'min ()
(Plural mu'minun) a believer, someone who possesses imam, who trusts in Allah. (t.p)

Mu'sir ()
A Mu'siris a person who intends to do the Hajj or an Umrah, but is unable to do so due to some obstacle. (i.i.q)

Mu'takif ()
One who is in a state of i `tikaf. (t.p)

Mu'talif ()
Names with the same form that can be read in different ways, e.g. hamad and humayd, as mukhtalif. (t.p)

Mu`amalat ()
Secular transactions, "acts concerning those masalih of men that concern his fellow beings." (ash-shatibi). (t.p)

Mu`anaqa ()
"Embracing" a word or phrase in the qur'an which can be considered as referring to the preceding or the following word, e.g. in 2:2, fihi (therein) can refer to the word before, "la rayba fihi"(no doubt in it) or to the word after, 'fihi huda"(guidance in it). in some qur'ans there are three dots before and after the phrase and mim`ayn written in the margin. (t.p)

Mu`aridat ()
Plural of mu `arida, countervailing considerations. (t.p)

Mu`awwidhatan ()
The last two suras of the qur'an, the two suras of seeking refuge with Allah from the evil which he has created. (t.p)

Mu`tazilite ()
Someone who adheres to the school of the mu'tazila which is rationalist in its approach to existence. the term means "with drawers" because they "withdrew" to an intermediate position as regards the evaluation of grave and lesser sins, holding to the position that someone who commits a wrong action is neither a believer nor an unbeliever. they also opposed the view that the qur' an was eternal and uncreated, believing that this would compromise the uniqueness of Allah. (see also ahl al- `adl wa't-tawhid). (t.p)

Muadh-dhin ()
the person who calls the adhan.
(c.m.j.e)

Mubah ()
Things or acts permissible in Islamic law. (i.i.q)

Mubah ()
Permissible, permitted; something for which there is neither reward nor punishment. also called ja'iz. (t.p)

Mubalagha ()
Hyperbole. (t.p)

Mubarak ()
Blessed by Allah, imbued with baraka. (t.p)

Mubashshirat ()
Lit. "good news", good dreams. (t.p)

Mubham ()
Ambiguous, vague. (t.p)

Mubin ()
Clear, evident. (t.p)

Mubiqat ()
Great destructive sins. (t.p)

Mudabbar ()
A slave who has been given a tadbir, a contract to be freed after his master's death. (t.p)

Mudallas ()
A "concealed" hadith is one which is weak due to the uncertainty caused by tadlis which is where the shaykh of transmission is not mentioned and so the chain of transmission is unclear. (t.p)

Mudaraba ()
Commenda, co-partnership, qirad. (t.p)

Mudarib ()
Agent manager, managing trustee. (t.p)

Mudarris ()
Teacher. (t.p)

Mudd ()
(Plural amdad or midad) a measure of volume, approximately a double-handed scoop. (t.p)

Mudhakara ()
A discourse or exposition in a meeting of dhikr. (t.p)

Mudhakarat al-hadith ()
Memorisation of hadith. (t.p)

Mudharabah ()
An agreement between two or more persons whereby one or more of them provide finance, while the other(s) provide enterpreneurship and management to carry on any business venture whether trade, industry or service with the objective of earning profits. The profit is shared in an agreed proportion. The loss is borne by the financiers only in proportion to their share in the total capital. (i.i.q)

Mudharib ()
The partner who provides entrepreneurship and management in a Mudharabah agreement. (i.i.q)

Mudraj ()
"Interpolated", an addition or comment by a reporter to the text of the saying being narrated. (t.p)

Mudtarib ()
"Shaky", when reporters disagree about a particular shaykh of transmission or some points in the isnad or text so that none of the opinions can be preferred over the others. (t.p)

Mueddhin (moo-ed-dhin)
One who makes the adhan [call to worship] from a minaret or other suitable location near a masjid prior to the five daily worship times. The mueddhin may also perform other duties, such as reciting the Qur'an while worshippers assemble at the masjid and perform the wudu (ritual washing) a few minutes prior to commencement of congregational worship. (c.i.e)

Mufallas ()
Bankrupt, insolvent. (t.p)

Mufassal ()
The suras of the qur'an starting from surat qaf (50) to the end of the qur'an. (t.p)

Mufassirun ()
(Singular mufassir) those who make tafsir. (t.p)

Mufawada ()
In maliki law, a parternship in which each partner confers upon his colleague full authority to dispose of their joint capital in any manner intended to benefit their association. (t.p)

Mufawadah ()
A basic contract of partnership based on wakalah and kafalah. It requires full commitment from the partners. In order to achieve this purpose, the partners must try to maintain equality in the capital, labor, liability and the legal capacity and also declare each partner to be a surety for the other. (i.i.q)

Mufawwida ()
A qadarite group who believed that they are entrusted to themselves by Allah so that they act independently and of their own accord thanks to this delegation of power. (t.p)

Mufrad ()
With one narrator, or from one place. (t.p)

Mufsida ()
What invalidates acts of worship in the shari `a. (t.p)

Mufti ()
Someone qualified to give a legal opinion or fatwa. (t.p)

Mufti ()
One who passes verdicts. (i.i.q)

Mufti ()
Someone qualified to give a legal opinion or fatwa. (t.p)

Muqaraba ()
A qirad. (t.p)

Mugharasa ()
An agreement similar to the musaqa (sharecropping), but involving an orchard. (t.p)

Muhadara ()
The presence of the heart when the proof comes again and again. ibn al-'arabi mentions that it is the conversation between the divine names regarding the realities. (t.p)

Muhadatha ()
Discussion, when Allah addresses the gnostics from the visible world, as when musa was addressed from the burning bush. (t.p)

Muhaddith ()
A scholar of Ahadeeth. Plural: Muhaditheen. (i.i.q)

Muhaddith ()
One who transmits and studies hadiths. (t.p)

Muhadhitheen ()
Scholars of Ahadeeth (sayings and traditions of the Holy Prophet Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him peace). Singular: Muhadith. Muhammad Believed by Muslims to be the Final Messenger of Allah Subhana wa Ta'ala to Ins wal Jinn (mankind and the Jinn). (i.i.q)

Muhajir ()
a person who does Hijrah.
(c.m.j.e)

Muhal 'alayhi ()
The new debtor in the hawala. (t.p)

Muhal lahu ()
Creditor assignee. (t.p)

Muhallil ()
A man who marries a woman who has been trebly divorced on the condition that he then divorce her in order that her first husband can remarry her. marriage solely for this purpose is not permitted. (t.p)

Muhammad (moo-hum-mud)
The prophet and righteous person believed by Muslims to be the final messenger of God, whose predecessors are believed to include the Prophets Adam, Noah, Abraham, Moses, David, Jesus and others. Born in 570 C.E., Muhammad grew up to become a well-respected member of Makkan society. In 610 C.E., he received the first of many revelations that would eventually form the content of the Qur'an. Soon after this initial event, he was conferred prophethood and began calling people to righteousness and belief in One God. Muhammad died in 632 C.E., after successfully (re)establishing the religion known as Islam and providing Muslims with a model for ideal human behavior. (c.i.e)

Muhammad ibn al-hasan ()
See ash-shaybani. (t.p)

Muhammad ibn sa`d ()
Abu `abdullah, the famous reliable scholar, the mawla of the banu hashim, known as the katib or scribe of alwagidi, author of the tabaqat. he died in 230/845 at the age of 62. (t.p)

Muhaqala ()
A forbidden sale in which, for instance, unharvested wheat was bartered for harvested wheat, or land was rented for wheat, or wheat for seeds. (t.p)

Muhaqqiq ()
Verifier, one who has understanding of reality. (t.p)

Muhaqqiq ()
Verifier, one who establishes the reality for himself; those who have understanding of reality. (t.p)

Muharram ()
The first month of the muslim lunar year. mujaddid: rennovater, renewer. (t.p)

Muhasaba ()
Self-examination, examining one's deeds and taking account of them. (t.p)

Muhasaba ()
Self-analysis, reviewing oneself, one's actions and thoughts. (t.p)

Muhassab ()
A valley outside makka sometimes called khayf bani kinana. (t.p)

Muhassar ()
(Wadi nar), a depression on the way to mina where the army of the elephant of abraha was turned away. one should has ten through it. (t.p)

Muhawara ()
Dialogue, debate. (t.p)

Muhdath ()
Generated, temporal, contingent, located in time. (t.p)

Muhdathat ()
Novelties, innovations(t.p)

Muhdith ()
Someone in a state of minor ritual impurity. (see hadath). (t.p)

Muhibb ()
Lover. (t.p)

Muhil ()
Debtor assignor. (t.p)

Muhkam ()
Perspicuous, a text conveying a firm and unequivocal meaning. (t.p)

Muhkam ()
Perspicuous, a word or text conveying a firm and unequivocal meaning. (t.p)

Muhrim ()
One who assumes Ihram. (i.i.q)

Muhrim ()
A person in ihram. (t.p)

Muhrima ()
A female who assumes Ihram. (i.i.q)

Muhsan ()
(Or muhsin) a person who has been married. (see hasan). (t.p)

Muhsana ()
The feminine of muhsan. as well as meaning a person guarded by marriage, it also refers to a chaste unmarried free woman, who is sexually protected, as opposed to an unmarried slave woman over whom her master has sexual rights. (t.p)

Muhsar ()
Someone detained from hajj by an enemy or an illness. (t.p)

Muhsin ()
Someone who possesses the quality of ihsan. (t.p)

Muhsin ()
(Plural muhsinun) someone who does what is good. (t.p)

Muhtasib ()
The public functionary who supervises the market. (t.p)

Muj`am ()
A book arranged in alphabetical order, like the geographical and biographical dictionaries of yaqut. such collections of hadith are called mu jam as-sahaba. (t.p)

Mujaddid ()
Renewer, restorer of the din; it is said that one comes every hundred years or so. (t.p)

Mujahada ()
Self-mortification, forcing the self to do things it finds difficult and opposing passions and desires. (t.p)

Mujahid ()
someone who is active and fights for Islam. A Muslim fighter. The opposite of qaideen.
(c.m.j.e)

Mujahid ()
(Plural mujahidun) a person who takes part in jihad. (t.p)

Mujarrad ()
"Disengaged", divested of all worldly matters. (t.p)

Mujazziz ()
A qa'if, a learned man who reads foot and hand marks. (t.p)

Mujbira ()
Another name for the jabriya. (t.p)

Mujmal ()
Ambivalent, requires details and explanation, ambiguous, referring to a category of unclear words. (t.p)

Mujtahid ()
Someone qualified to carry out ijtihad. (t.p)

Mujtahid madhhab ()
The mujtahid of the school who makes ijtihad only within his own madhhab. (like qadi ibn `arabi, al-muzani, ibn taymiyya, and zufar). (t.p)

Mujtahid mas'ala ()
The mujtahid in a specific issue, e.g. a person able to take ijtihad in one special area e.g. economics, contracts, marriage etc. (like abu bakr al-abhari, al-marwazi and abu'l-hasan al-karkhi). (t.p)

Mujtahid mukharrij ()
One of those who practise takhrij, who do not extrapolate rulings (ahkam) but who are conversant enough with their subject to indicate which view is preferable and suitable. (t.p)

Mujtahid murajjih ()
Someone who is competent to make comparisons and distinguish the correct, preferred (rajih) and agreed upon views from weak ones (like al-qurtubi, ibn qudama, an-nawawi, and al-marghinani). (t.p)

Mujtahid musahhih ()
Someone who can distinguish between the apparent and the obscure views. textbook writers fall into this category. (t.p)

Mujtahid mutlaq ()
The absolute mujtahid who is able to undertake ijtihad in all aspects of the din, like the founders of the various schools. such a person is also called mujtahid fi'sh-shar`. (t.p)

Mukallaf ()
A competent person in full possession of his faculties; subject of legal obligation, personally obligated. (t.p)

Mukashafa ()
Unveiling, it is marked by continual amazement with Allah's infinite greatness. (see kashf). (t.p)

Mukatab ()
A slave who has been given a kitaba, a contract to buy his freedom. (t.p)

Mukataba ()
To receive written traditions from a scholar, either directly or by correspondence, with or without permission, to narrate them to others. (t.p)

Mukhabarat ()
Secret police. (t.p)

Mukhadara ()
The sale of non-mature agricultural products and the sale of dates which have not shown signs of ripeness. it is forbidden. (t.p)

Mukhaththirun ()
"Reporters of numerous traditions", companions of the prophet who reported more than a thousand hadiths: abu hurayra, `abdullah ibn 'umar, anas ibn malik, `a'isha, `abdullah ibn al'abbas, jabir ibn 'abdullah, and abu said al-khudri. (t.p)

Mukhlas ()
One who has been made sincere. (t.p)

Mukhlis ()
One who is sincere. (t.p)

Mukhtalif ()
Names with the same form that can be read in different ways, e.g. hamid and humayd. as mu'taliff(t.p)

Mukhtar ()
Free agent. (t.p)

Mukhtasar ()
An abridgement or summary, especially used for juristic manuals composed for mnemonic and teaching purposes. (t.p)

Mukhtasar al-akhdari ()
A small booklet dealing with purity and the prayer by al-akhdari. (t.p)

Mukhtasar khalil ()
The principal maliki legal textbook by khalil which is so compressed that it requires commentary of which there are many. (t.p)

Mukus ()
Extra-shari `a taxes imposed by later muslim states. (t.p)

Mula'im ()
Suited, consistent. (t.p)

Mulamasa ()
A forbidden sale, in which the deal is completed if the buyer touches a thing without seeing or checking it properly. (t.p)

Mulay ()
Lit. "my master", from mawla, a title used in morocco for sharifs, descendants of the prophet. (t.p)

Mulhid ()
A heretic, atheist. (t.p)

Mulhidat ()
Heresies. (t.p)

Mulk ()
The realm of solid forms, the visible realm; also the title of sara 67 of the qur' an. (t.p)

Mulk ()
The visible realm, the kingdom of solid forms. (t.p)

Multazam ()
The area between the Black Stone and the door of the Ka'abah where it is recommended to make Du'a. (i.i.q)

Mumayyiz ()
Someone who is able to differentiate between good and evil. (t.p)

Mumkinat ()
(Plural of mumkin) possibilities. (t.p)

Munabadha ()
A forbidden sale in which the deal is completed when the seller throws things towards the buyer without giving him a chance to see, touch or check them. (t.p)

Munafiq ()
a hypocrite, one whose external appearance is Islam (praying, fasting,activism, etc.) but whose inner reality conceals kufr - often unbeknownst to the person themselves. (See Al-Baqarah: 8-23). A Munafiq is more dangerous and worse than a Kafir.
(c.m.j.e)

Munafiq ()
(Plural munafiqun) a hypocrite, someone who outwardly professes islam on the tongue, but inwardly rejects Allah and his messenger. (t.p)

Munajat ()
Intimate conversations, prayers. (t.p)

Munasaba ()
Appropriateness. (t.p)

Munasib ()
Appropriate, in harmony with the basic purpose of the law; suitable. (t.p)

Munawala ()
Passing on the text by hand with the approval of the shaykh of transmission. (t.p)

Munawarra ()
"The radiant", "the illuminated", used to describe madina. (t.p)

Munazalat ()
Mutual way-stations, a term used by ibn al-'arabi for stations of unveiling which involves effort on the part of the person as well as unveiling coming from Allah. (t.p)

Mundabita ()
Stipulative. (t.p)

Munkar ()
"Denounced", a narration reported by a weak reporter which goes against another authentic hadith. (t.p)

Munkar ()
Any action or behaviour which is unacceptable or disapproved of by sound intellects; anything which is declared to be hateful, unseemly, foul, immoral, objectionable or reprehensible. (t.p)

Munkar and nakir ()
The two angels who come to question a person in the grave about his or her beliefs and actions while in this world. (t.p)

Munqati' ()
"Broken", a hadith where a link is omitted anywhere before the tabi'i, i.e. closer to the traditionist reporting the hadith. (t.p)

Muqabala ()
"Encounter", the name of the mevlevi dance. (t.p)

Muqabala wa-tashih ()
Formal system of checking and correcting. (t.p)

Muqabala wa-tashih ()
Formal system of checking and correcting. (t.p)

Muqaddam ()
"One who is promoted," the representative of the shaykh; (also na'ib). (t.p)

Muqaddar ()
An implied text. it is not actually there, but implied by the context. (t.p)

Muqaddima ()
Prerequisite. (t.p)

Muqallid ()
A person who practises taqlid, not performing ijtihad himself but instead following the legal opinion already arrived at by a mujtahid. (t.p)

Muqaradah ()
Another name for Mudharabah used by the Malikis. (i.i.q)

Muqarin ()
Associative. (t.p)

Muqarrabun ()
"Those who are drawn near", those who are nearest to Allah. the angels who are muqarrabun are also called al-`alawiyun, "the highest". (t.p)

Muqasama ()
Taking part of a governor's wealth when he retires to be used for the good of the community. (t.p)

Muqatil ibn sulayman ()
Born in marw, where he taught, and then moved to basra during the abbasid civil war. he later moved to baghdad and then back to basra where he died in 150/767. although he is renowned for his knowledge of tafsir, and his tafsir appears to be the earliest in existence, he is often viewed unfavourably, but the reason is not entirely clear. his tafsir is full of narrative embellishments (part of the criticism of him may be due to his use of jewish and christian material in this respect). he was also criticised for borrowing interpretations from earlier sources indirectly (without `listening' to them) and without isnad. he was also a zaydi and murji'ite. he wrote on abrogation, recitations, and other qur'anic subjects. (t.p)

Muqatila ()
Soldiers, fighters. (t.p)

Muqayyad ()
Restricted, qualified, conditional. (t.p)

Muqtadi ()
"One appointed", the person who stands behind the imam in the prayer and calls out the iqama and takbir. (t.p)

Mura`at al-khilaf ()
Allowance for disagreeing opinion. (t.p)

Murabaha ()
Partnership between an investor and a borrower in a profitsharing re-sale of goods, in which the profit is pre-determined and fixed. (t.p)

Murabahah ()
Sale at a special profit margin. The seller purchases the goods desired by the buyer and sells them at an agreed mark-up price. The payment being settled within an agreed time frame, either in instalments or lump sum. The seller undertakes all management needed for the purchase and also bears the risk for the goods until they have been delivered to the buyer. (i.i.q)

Murabit ()
a person who is on the road spreading Islam.
(c.m.j.e)

Murabit ()
"One who is garrisoned", originally, in north africa, someone living in a ribat, a fortified stronghold serving both religious and military functions. (t.p)

Murad ()
The one who is pulled by Allah from his own will. all things are arranged for him so that he passes through the stations without any exertion. (t.p)

Muraqaba ()
Vigilance; recollection; an aspect of reflection (tafakkur); waiting on a spiritual presence; permanent state of awareness, not a spiritual exercise. (t.p)

Muraqqa'a ()
Patched cloak worn by sufis. (cf. khirqa). (t.p)

Murid ()
Disciple. he is the one who is stripped of his will (irada) and hands himself over to his shaykh, his guide. murshid: a spiritual guide. (t.p)

Murith ()
Person leaving the estate. (t.p)

Murji'ites ()
The opponents of the kharijites. they held that it is faith and not actions which are important and so they suspend judgement on a person guilty of major sins. they had a number of sub-groups. (t.p)

Murn'a ()
Manly virtue or moral probity, behaving in a manner which comprises all the virtues: manliness, courage, generosity, honour, refraining from doing secretly what one would be ashamed to do publicly, etc. (t.p)

Mursal ()
A hadith in which a man in the generation after the companions quotes directly from the prophet without mentioning the companion from whom he received it. (see irsal). (t.p)

Mursal ()
A hadath in which a man in the generation after the companions quotes directly from the prophet without mentioning the companion from whom he received it. (see irsal). (t.p)

Mursalun ()
"Those sent", meaning the messengers. mushaf (plural masahif): a copy of the qur'an. (t.p)

Murtadd ()
An apostate, recanter. (t.p)

Muru'a ()
(Also muruwwa) manliness, the sum total of virtuous virile qualities. (t.p)

Musa ()
The prophet moses. (t.p)

Musa (moo-sa)
Moses, an eminent prophet in Islam. The Qur'an contains accounts similar to those in the Hebrew Bible regarding Moses' early life and upbringing. Muslims believe Moses was chosen as a prophet by God, and his mission was to call Pharoah and the Egyptians to believe in One God and cease oppression of the Hebrew peoples. Muslims believe the Torah, a divine scripture, was given to Moses as a guidance for those who heeded his leadership. (c.i.e)

Musabbib al-asbab ()
The causer of causes, i.e. Allah. (t.p)

Musad'affn ()
Weak and oppressed people. (t.p)

Musad'afin (MUSADAFIN)
a weak and oppressed person.
(c.m.j.e)

Musaddiq ()
The person discharging voluntary charity. (i.i.q)

Musafir ()
Traveller, one who travels with his intellect through intelligible matters. (t.p)

Musahhaf ()
Traditions which have a mistake in the words or letters of the isnad or the matn, e.g. hasan is written as hashan. (t.p)

Musalaymah ()
Undefined.
(c.m.j.e)

Musalla ()
A place for praying. `id prayers are normally held outside the mosque at a musalla; the term is sometimes used for a prayer mat. (t.p)

Musalla ()
Place for praying. `id prayers are normally held outside the mosque at a musalla. (t.p)

Musalsal ()
"Uniformly-linked" isnad, one in which all the reporters use the same manner of transmission. (t.p)

Musamara ()
Night talk, when Allah addresses the gnostics from the world of the secrets and the unseen, as when the angel brings it into the heart. hence it often cannot be expressed verbally and communicated to others. (t.p)

Musannaf ()
By `abdu'r-razzaq ibn humam (d. 211/826). this is the earliest musannaf work in existence. it is divided into topical chapters, ending with the virtues of the prophet Muhammad (shamd'il). a more exhaustive example is the thirteen volume musannaf by ibn abi shayba (d. 235/849). (t.p)

Musannaf ()
A hadith collection arranged in topical chapters. the muwatta' of imam malik is an example of this. (t.p)

Musaqa ()
Sharecropping contract; tending to an existing plantation in exchange for a share of the yield. (t.p)

Musawama ()
Sale of goods at any price mutually agreed upon by the buyer and seller. (t.p)

Mushabbiha ()
Anthropomorphists. (t.p)

Mushaf ()
(Plural masahif) a copy of the quran. (t.p)

Mushaf ()
a copy of the Quran.
(c.m.j.e)

Mushahada ()
Witnessing, contemplation, vision within the heart, seeing things as evidence of tawhid, or grasping an indication; the fruit of muraqaba. (t.p)

Musharaka ()
Partnership. (t.p)

Musharakah ()
A temporary equity participation agreement between a bank and a client for effecting a certain operation within an agreed period of time. Both parties contribute to the capital of the operation in varying degree and agree to divide the net profits or losses in proportions agreed upon in advance. (i.i.q)

Mushawara ()
Consultation. (t.p)

Mushawarah ()
means consultation.
(c.m.j.e)

Mushawir ()
Consultant, the mufti appointed to assist the qadi. (t.p)

Mushkil ()
Difficult, also a category of unclear words. (t.p)

Mushkil ()
Containing difficult words or meanings. (t.p)

Mushrik ()
(Plural mushrikun) someone who commits shirk. (t.p)

Mushrik ()
a polythiest. A person who ascribes partners to Allah.
(c.m.j.e)

Mushtaq ()
One who yearns. (t.p)

Mushtarak ()
Homonym, a word or phrase imparting more than one meaning. (t.p)

Mushtarak ()
With ambiguous words. (t.p)

Mushtari ()
A seller. (t.p)

Musi ()
The one who makes a will. (t.p)

Muslim ()
Abu'l-husayn muslim ibn al-hajjaj al-qushayri an-nisaburi, born in nishapur in 204/820. he was a shafi`i scholar and hadith master. he came to baghdad more than once and transmitted hadith there. he composed his sahih from 3,000 hadiths, and it is said to be the soundest book of hadith. he died in 261/875. (t.p)

Muslim (moos-lim)
Literally (and in the broadest sense), the term means "one who submits to God." More commonly, the term describes any person who accepts the creed and the teachings of Islam. The word "Muhammadan" is a pejorative and offensive misnomer, as it violates Muslims' most basic understanding of their creed - Muslims do not worship Muhammad, nor do they view him as the founder of the religion. The word "Moslem" is also incorrect, since it is a corruption of the word "Muslim." (c.i.e)

Muslim ()
Someone who follows the way of islam, not abandoning what is obligatory, keeping within the bounds set by Allah, and following the sunna as much as possible. (t.p)

Musnad ()
A collection of hadith arranged according to the first authority in its isnad; also a hadith which can be traced back through an unbroken isnad to the prophet. (t.p)

Musnad ahmad ()
Collected by ahmad ibn hanbal (d. 241/855). it is the most important and exhaustive of the musnad works. his aim was to collect all traditions which were likely to prove genuine if tested and could serve as a basis for argument. he never claimed that all it included was genuine or reliable, but anything not in it had no force. his musnad was respectively transmitted by his son `abdullah (d.290/903) and the latter's student, abu bakr al-qati`i (d. 368/979), both of whom added some hadiths. it contains a total of 30,000 hadiths (with 10,000 repetitions) narrated by 700 companions. (t.p)

Musnad of abu dawud at-tayalisi ()
(D. 201/818). it contains 2,767 hadiths with full isnads on the authority of 281 companions, and is said to be the first musnad. the hadiths are arranged by names, beginning with the first four khalifs, then those who were at the battle of badr, the muhajirun, the ansar, women, and the youngest companions. this arrangement was done by his student ibn habib who compiled the hadiths he had received from him. if there is any doubt in the text, it is pointed out. sometimes the character of the transmitters is mentioned and sometimes comments about the transmissions are made. it is the oldest musnad still extant. (t.p)

Musnid ()
Also musnidi someone who collected hadiths into a musnad. (t.p)

Musta'man ()
A non-muslim who has entered dar al-islam under an aman or safe-conduct. (t.p)

Mustadrak ()
A collection of hadith in which the compiler, accepting the preconditions of a prior compiler, collects other traditions which fulfil those conditions but were missed out. (t.p)

Mustahab ()
Recommended, but not obligatory. (i.i.q)

Mustahabb ()
What is recommended, but not obligatory in acts of worship in the shari `a. (t.p)

Mustahilat ()
(The plural of mustahil), impossible things. (t.p)

Mustakhraj ()
A collection of hadith in which a later compiler collects fresh isnads for traditions. (t.p)

Mustalah al-hadith ()
Classification of the hadith as weak, strong, etc. (t.p)

Mut'a ()
Temporary marriage, which is forbidden in sunni fiqh; severance gift after divorce. (t.p)

Muta'ahhib ()
"Prepared, ready", someone with the right spiritual aptitude following the sufic path. (t.p)

Mutaba`a ()
"Following": following up to see if a hadith is reported from someone else. (t.p)

Mutabarikun ()
"Those who want a blessing," people who join in a tariqa merely for the blessing and are passive members. (t.p)

Mutafahhish ()
A person who conveys evil talk. (t.p)

Mutafaqqih ()
A beginner in a madrasa. (t.p)

Mutahayyiz ()
Spatially confined, a property of physical things. (t.p)

Mutakallim ()
Someone who studies the science of kalam, the science of investigating and articulating religious belief. (t.p)

Mutamakkin ()
One who is steadfast and does not waver in his station. (t.p)

Mutashabih ()
Intricate, unintelligible, referring to a word or text whose meaning is not totally clear. (t.p)

Mutatawi`a ()
Those who enforce obedience, vigilantes who enforce the prayer and beat people for moral laxity. (t.p)

Mutawatir ()
A hadith which is reported by a large number of reporters at all stages of the isnad. (t.p)

Mutawatir ()
A hadath which is reported by a large number of reporters at all stages of the isnad. (t.p)

Mutawwif ()
A pilgrim's guide, traditionally a resident of makka. (t.p)

Mutlaq ()
Unrestricted, unqualified, absolute, simple. (t.p)

Muttaqun ()
Pious and righteous persons who fear Allah much (and so abstain from all kinds of sins and evil deeds which he has forbid den), and love Allah much (and so perform all kinds of good deeds which he has ordained). (t.p)

Muttaqun ()
Pious and righteous persons who fear Allah much (abstain from all kinds of sins and evil deeds which he has forbidden) and love Allah much (perform all kinds of good deeds which he has ordained). (t.p)

Muttasil ()
"Continuous", a hadith which has an uninterrupted isnad. (t.p)

Mutun ()
The plural of matn. (t.p)

Muwafat ()
A person's state of faith at the moment of death. (t.p)

Muwahhid ()
Unifier. (t.p)

Muwaqqat ()
Contingent on a time limit. (t.p)

Muzabana ()
A forbidden sale in which something whose number, weight, or measure is known is sold for something whose number, weight or measure is not known. (t.p)

Muzaffer ()
Shaykh muzaffer was born in istanbul in 1334/1916. his father, hajji mehmed effendi of konya, a scholar and teacher at the court of sultan 'abdal-hamid ii, died when he was only six. thereafter he was looked after by shaykh seyyid samiyyi saruhani, the leader of the qadiri, naqshbandi, ushaki and halvetiyye tariqas at the time. after learning from several shaykhs, he became the leader of the halvetiyye-jerrahi tariqa. despite the attempts of ataturk and his successors to destroy the sufis and islam in turkey, shaykh muzaffer continued to teach until his death in 1406/1986. (t.p)

Muzara`a ()
Farming partnership, in which someone allows his land to be cultivated in exchange for a portion of the produce. (cf. musaqa). (t.p)

Muzayada ()
Auction. (t.p)

Muzdalifa ()
A place between 'arafa and mina where the pilgrims returning from 'arafa spend a night in the open between the ninth and tenth day of dhu'l-hijja after performing maghrib and 'isha' there. (t.p)

Muzdalifah ()
A site between 'Arafat and Mina where the Hujjaj (pilgrims) spend the night on the 9th of Dhu'l-Hijjah (after coming down from 'Arafat) during the Hajj period. (i.i.q)

 

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Arabic English Dictionary

                       

Alphabetical Entries Indexed For Arabic-English Dictionary Of Sheikh Adelabu (Ph. D. Damas) :: ألفبيات مادّات مفهرسة للقاموس العربي الإنجليزي للشيخ أديلابو - دكتوراه من دمسق

                       

مباني الكلمات على الألف الفعلية من الأفعال والمصادر المصروفة ومن مجردّات الأفعال ومجرّدات الأسماء وغيرها

أ إِئْتِمَانِيَّة أَب أَبْيَض أَتَى أَتْيَس أثُّ أَثِيم أَج أَجْيَد
أَح إِحْيَان إِذ أُذَيْنَة أَرَى أَرِيكَة أَخ أَخْيَمَ أَز إِزِّيَان
أَد أَدِيم أَس إِسْتِخْوَال إِسْتَدَّ إِسْتِضْلاَل إِسْتَطَاب إِسْتِكْوَاء إِسْتَل إِسْتِيمَان
أَسْجَى أُسَيْلِم أَشَائِم أَشْيَم أَص أَصِيلَة أَضَاءَ أَضْيَك أَط أَطِيط
أَظْأَر إِظْهَار أَعَادَ أَعْيَن أَغَابَ أَغْيَن أَف أَفْيُون أَقَاء أُقَيْحِيَانَة
أَكَادِيد أَكِيل أَل أَلِيم أَم أَمْيَه أَن إِنْخِنَاق أَنَد إِنْضِوَاء
أَنَطّ إِنْكِمَاش أَنْمَى أَنِين أَه أَهْيَم أَو أَوْهَنَ إِيْهَان أَيْهَم
                       

مباني الكلمات على التاء الفعلية من الأفعال والمصادر المصروفة ومن مجردّات الأفعال ومجرّدات الأسماء وغيرها

ت تَأَيُّد تَب تَبَيُّن تَتَابَع تَتَوُّق تَثَائَبَ تَثْنِيَة تَجَابَّ تَجَيُّف
تَحَابَّ تَحَيُّن تَخَّ تَخَيُّم تَدَابَر تَدَيُّيُن تَذانَب تَذَيُّل تَرَّ تَرِيكَة
تَزَابَنَ تَزَيُّن تَسَائَلَ تَسَيُّف تَشَائَم تَشَيُّم تَصَائَى تَصَيُّف تَضَائَلَ تَضَيُّق
تَطَابَق تَطَيُّن تَظَارَفَ تَظَنُّن تَعَاتَبَ  تَعَيُّن تَغَابَى تَغَيُّم تَفَّ تَفَيْهُق
تَقَى تًقَيُّن تَكَّ   تَكَيُّف تَلَّ تَلَيُّن تَمَّ تَمِيمَة تُن تَنِّين
تَهَاتَرَ تَوَاؤُم تَوّاب تَوَيُّل تَيَّار تُيُوقِرَاطِيَّة  
                       

مباني الكلمات على الميم المصدرية الفاعلية والمفعولية من الأفعال الألفية

مُبيئ مُبْيَضَّ مُتِّي مُتِّهَم مُثيب   مُثِّنِي مُجيئ مُجْهِم مُحيب مُحْيِن
مُخيب مُخْيَم مُدِّي مُذيب مُذَاب مُذْيَل مُرِي مُرْيِف مُزيت مُزِّيَن
مُسيئ مُسْتِخْوَل مُسْتَدَّ مُسْتِغْيَل مُسْتَفّ مُسْتِكْوِي مُسْتَلَّ مُسْتَيْمِن مُسْجِي مُسْوَغ
مُشيب مُشوَك مُصيب مُصِّيَّف مُضيئ مُضْوِي مُطيئ  مُطْيَب مُظْأِر مُظْهَر
مُعيد مُعْيَل مُغيب مُغْيِم مُفيئ مُقَاس مُقيل مُقْوَل مُكْأِب مُكهِم
مُلِيح مُلْيَل مُمِيئ   مُمْوَه مُنيئ مُنْخِنَق مُنَدَّ مُنْضِوِي مُنْطَاد مُنْكِمَش
مُنْمِي مُنْوَك مُنْثِي مُنْوَك مُهيب مُوقَن مُومِن مُونَع  
                       

مباني الكلمات على الميم المصدرية الفاعلية والمفعولية من الأفعال التائية

مُتَآج مُتَأَوُّه مُتَآجَّ   مُتَأَوُّه مُتَبَائِس مُتَتَابِع مُتَتَرِّب مُتَتَوُّق مُتَثَائِب مُتَثَنٍّ
مُتَجَاب مُتَجَيِّف مُتَحَابَّ مُتَحَيِّن مُتَخَابِث مُتَخَيِّم مُتَدَابِر مُتَدَيِّن مُتَذَائِب مُتَذَيِّل
مُتَرَائِي مُتَرَيِّق مُتَزَابِن مُتَزَيِّن مُتَسَائِل مُتَسَيِّف مُتَشَائِم مُتَشَيِّم مُتَصَائِي مُتَصَيِّف
مُتَضَائِل مُتَضَيِّق مُتَطَابِق مُتَطَيِّن مُتَظَارِف مُتَظَنُّن مُتَعَاتِب مُتَعَيِّن مُتَغَابِي مُتَغَيِّم
مُتَفَاؤُل مُتَفَيِّل مُتَقَابِض مُتَقَيِّن مُتَكَاب مُتَكَيِّف مُتَلِّي مُتَلَيِّن مُتَمَاتِن مُتَمَيِّل
مُتَنَائِي مُتَنَيِّق مُتَهَاتِر مُتَهَيِّم مُتَوَائِم مُتَوَيِّل مُتَيَاسِر مُتَيَمُّن  
                       

The materials provided here are ONLY extracts of Arabic-English Dictionary Of Sheikh Adelabu (Ph. D. Damas).  Fully edited versions and better formats are available upon written requests from awqafafrica.com and Awqaf Africa Muslim Open College, London.

Conjugal Formulas :: الموازن الصرفية

                       
 

Conjugal Verbus (Verb Formulas) :: موازن الفعليات

 

Conjugal Nomen Verbi (Verbal Noun Formulas) :: موازن المصدريات

Conjugal Agentis (Active Noun Formulas) :: موازن الفاعليات

Conjugal Patentis (Passive Noun Formulas) :: موازن المفعوليات

Conjugal Cognitus (Cognitive Formulas)  :: موازن المجردات

                       

 Studying Grammars And Linguistics Of The Kitaab And Sunnah Under Sheikh Adelabu, Ph. D. Damas

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