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11. Surah Hd سورة هود

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This Surah (Revealed) Meccan, except for verses 12, 17, and 114, which are Medinese; it consists of 123 verses, and was revealed after Yūnus.(Hd)
 
Ayah   11:1   الأية الأولي
بِسْم ِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَٰنِ الرَّحِيمِ
Ayah First   1   الأية الأولي
Tafseer
 
Alif lām rā: God knows best what He means by these [letters]; this is, a Book whose verses have been set clear, through marvellous arrangement and wonderful meanings, and then detailed, expounded, through rulings, stories and admonitions, from One Wise, Informed, that is, [from] God.
 
Ayah   11:2   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
[Saying:] Worship none but God. Truly I am to you a warner from Him, of chastisement, if you disbelieve, and a bearer of good tidings, of reward, if you believe.
 
Ayah   11:3   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
And [bidding you]: Ask forgiveness of your Lord, for [your] idolatry, then repent, return, to Him, through [acts of] obedience, and He will give you, in this world, fair enjoyment, in the way of pleasant living and abundant provision, until a time appointed, namely, death, and He will give, in the Hereafter, every person of merit, in deed, [the due for] his merit, his reward. But if you turn away (tawallaw: one of the two tā letters [of tatawallaw] has been omitted), in other words, if you object, I fear for you the chastisement of an awful day, namely, the Day of Resurrection.
 
Ayah   11:4   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
Unto God is your return, and He has power over all things, including reward and chastisement.
 
Ayah   11:5   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
227 As reported by al-Bukhārī [by way of an isnād] from Ibn Abbās, the following was revealed regarding those who were embarrassed to withdraw [to relieve nature] or to have sexual intercourse [without their clothes] and become exposed to the heaven. It is also said:
 
Ayah   that it was revealed] regarding the hypocrites: Lo!, they fold up their breasts that they may hide from Him, that is, [from] God; lo! the moment they cover themselves with their garments, wrapping themselves up therewith, He, God, exalted be He, knows what they keep hidden and what they proclaim, and so their hiding is to no avail. Truly He knows what is in the breasts [of men], that is, what is in the hearts.
 
Ayah   11:6   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
And there is not (wa-mā min: min is extra) a creature (dābba is that [creature] which treads [dabba]) in the earth but the sustenance thereof rests on God, [sustenance] which He has undertaken [to provide], out of His bounty, exalted be He. And He knows its habitation, its dwelling-place in this world or in the loins and its repository, after death, or in the womb. All, that which is mentioned, is in a manifest, a clear, Book, which is the Preserved Tablet (al-lawh al-mahfūz).
 
Ayah   11:7   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
And He it is Who created the heavens and the earth in six days, the first of which was Sunday and the last, Friday and His Throne, before creating them, was upon the water, borne by the winds that He might try you (li-yabluwakum is semantically connected to khalaqa, He [Who] created), in other words, He created them and all that is beneficial and good for you in them, in order to test you: which of you is best in conduct, that is, [which of you] is most obedient to God. And if you were to say, O Muhammad (s), to them: Truly you shall be raised again after death, those who disbelieve will say, This, Qurān that speaks of resurrection or, [this] that you are saying is nothing but manifest, clear, sorcery (sihrun: a variant reading has sāhirun, sorcerer, in which case the reference is to the Prophet (s).
 
Ayah   11:8   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
And if we postpone the chastisement for them until, the arrival of, a reckoned time, [reckoned] moments, they will surely say, in mockery: What is detaining it?, what is preventing it from being sent down? God, exalted be He, says: Verily on the day when it comes to them, it cannot be averted, warded off, from them, and that, chastisement, which they derided shall surround them, [it] shall come down upon them.
 
Ayah   11:9   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
And if We cause, the disbelieving, man to taste some mercy from Us, [such as] wealth and [good] health, and then wrest it from him, lo! he is despairing, having lost hope of Gods mercy, ungrateful, intensely ungrateful to Him.
 
Ayah   11:10   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
But if We cause him to taste prosperity after some misery, [such as] impoverishment and hardship, that had befallen him, assuredly he will say, The ills, the afflictions, have gone from me, when he had not anticipated that they would go away; yet still he does not give thanks for this; lo!, he is exultant, wanton, boastful, to people of what he has been given;
 
Ayah   11:11   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
save, but, those who endure, misery, [patiently] and perform righteous deeds, during times of comfort; theirs will be forgiveness and a great reward, which is Paradise.
 
Ayah   11:12   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
Perhaps, O Muhammad (s), you might [think to] leave out some of what is revealed to you, such that you do not convey it to them, for they do not take it seriously, and that your breast should be straitened by it, by 228 reciting it to them, because they say, Why has a treasure not been sent down for him, or an angel not come with him?, to confirm his sincerity, as we had requested? You are but a warner, and yours is only to convey [the Message], not to produce what they have requested; and God is Guardian over all things, He is Preserver [of all things], so He will requite them [accordingly].
 
Ayah   11:13   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
Or do they say, He has invented it?, that is, the Qurān. Say: Then bring ten sūras the like thereof, in terms of clarity and rhetorical excellence, invented, for you are Arabs who speak [Arabic] eloquently, like myself he challenged them to these [ten sūras] first, and then to one sūra and call, in order [for them] to assist you, upon whom you can beside God, that is, [on] other than Him, if you are truthful, about it [the Qurān] being an invention of lies.
 
Ayah   11:14   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
Then, if they, that is, those on whom you call for assistance, do not answer you, know, this address is to the idolaters, that it has been revealed, enwrapped, only in Gods knowledge, not as an invention of lies against Him, and that (an is softened, in other words [understand it as] annahu) there is no god save Him. Will you then submit?, after this definitive argument; in other words: Submit!
 
Ayah   11:15   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
He who desires the life of this world and its adornment, by persisting in idolatry it is said that this was [revealed] regarding the dissimulators We shall repay them their deeds, that is, the requital of any good that they did, such as charity or kindness to kin, in it, by giving them abundant provision, and therein, that is, in this world, they shall not be defrauded, they shall [not] be made to suffer diminution in anything.
 
Ayah   11:16   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
Those are they for whom there is nothing in the Hereafter but the Fire; what they contrive will have failed, [will] be invalid, therein, that is, in the Hereafter, and will not be rewarded, and useless is that which they used to do.
 
Ayah   11:17   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
Is he who relies on a clear proof, a clear statement, from his Lord, meaning the Prophet (s), or the believers; it [the proof] being the Qurān, [a clear proof] which is followed by a witness, to it of its veracity [as being], from Him, that is, from God; he [the witness] being Gabriel, and before it, [before] the Qurān, was the Book of Moses, the Torah, also a witness to it, as an example and a mercy? (imāman wa-rahmatan is a circumstantial qualifier) [is such a person] like one who is not so? No! Those, that is, the ones who rely on a clear proof, they believe in it, that is, in the Qurān, and so for them will be Paradise; but he who disbelieves in it of the partisans, [namely] all the disbelievers, the Fire shall be his appointed place. So do not be in doubt, in uncertainty, concerning it, concerning the Qurān. Truly it is the Truth from your Lord, but most of mankind, that is, the people of Mecca, do not believe.
 
Ayah   11:18   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
And who, that is, none, does greater wrong than he who invents a lie concerning God?, by ascribing to Him partner and child. Those, they shall be brought before their Lord, on the Day of Resurrection, amid [the rest of] creation, and the witnesses (ashhād is the plural of shāhid) namely, the angels, who will bear witness that the messengers conveyed [the Message] and that the disbelievers denied [them], will say, These are they who lied concerning their Lord. Surely the curse of God is upon the wrong-doers, the idolaters;
 
Ayah   11:19   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
they who bar [people] from Gods way, [from] the religion of Islam, desiring [to have] it, seeking that the 229 way be, crooked; and in the Hereafter they (hum, they, is [reiterated] for emphasis) are disbelievers.
 
Ayah   11:20   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
Such will not escape, God, in the earth and, beside God, other than Him, they [can] have no allies, [no] helpers to protect them against His chastisement. For them the chastisement will be double, for their having led others astray. They could not hear, the truth, nor did they use to see, it; that is to say, because of their extreme aversion to it, it is as though they did not have the [physical] capacity for it.
 
Ayah   11:21   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
Such are they who have lost their souls, for their journeys end shall be to the Fire, made everlasting for them; and that which they used to invent, [of lies] concerning God, in the way of claiming [that He has] a partner, has failed them, is absent [before them].
 
Ayah   11:22   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
Without doubt, verily, they will be the greatest losers in the Hereafter.
 
Ayah   11:23   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
Truly those who believe and perform righteous deeds and humble themselves, [who] are at peace and feel reassured, or [who] repent, before their Lord: such will be the inhabitants of Paradise, abiding therein.
 
Ayah   11:24   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
The likeness, the description, of the two parties, the disbelievers and the believers, is as the blind and the deaf, this being the likeness of the disbeliever, and the one who sees and the one who hears, this being the likeness of the believer, are they equal in likeness? No! Will you not then remember? (tadhakkarūn: the original tā [of tatadhakkarūn] has been assimilated with the dhāl) [will you not then] be admonished?
 
Ayah   11:25   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
And verily We sent Noah to his people [and he said]: I am (annī: a variant reading has innī, in which case he said has been omitted) for you a clear warner, one whose warning is plain.
 
Ayah   11:26   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
That, you worship none but God. Lo! I fear for you, should you worship other than Him, the chastisement of a painful day, painful in this world and in the Hereafter.
 
Ayah   11:27   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
The council, the respected elders, of his people who disbelieved, said: We see you but a mortal like us, and you have no merit over us, and we see not that any follow you save the vilest among us, the riffraff among us, such as the weavers and the shoemakers, [through] rash opinion (bādiyal-raya: read with hamza or without [in both cases]), in other words, impulsively, without thinking you over (it [bādiyal-raya] is in the accusative because it is an adverbial clause, that is to say: at the time that their opinion first came into being). We do not see that you have any merit over us, for which you would deserve our following you; nay, we deem you liars, with regard to your claim to [be bringing] a Message: they [the disbelievers] included his folk with him in their address [to him].
 
Ayah   11:28   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
He said, O my people, have you considered: inform me if I am [acting] upon a clear proof, a clear statement, from my Lord and He has given me mercy prophethood from Him, and it has been 230 obscured, concealed, from you (amiyat, obscured, a variant reading has the passive ummiyat), can we compel you to it, are we [able] to force you to accept it, while you are averse to it? We are not able to do that.
 
Ayah   11:29   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
And O my people, I do not ask of you any wealth, which you should give me, for this, for conveying the Message. My wage, my reward, falls only upon God and I will not drive away those who believe, as you have commanded me; they shall surely meet their Lord, at the Resurrection, and He will requite them and exact vengeance for them from those who wronged them and drove them away. But I see you are a people who are ignorant, of the consequence of your affair.
 
Ayah   11:30   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
And O my people, who would help, [who would] defend, me against God, that is, [against] His chastisement, if I drive them away?, in other words, there is none to help me. Will you not then remember? (tadhakkarūn: the original second tā [in tatadhakkarūn] has been assimilated with the dhāl), [will you not then] be admonished?
 
Ayah   11:31   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
And I do not say to you, I possess the treasure houses of God nor, I have knowledge of the Unseen; nor do I say, I am an angel, nay, I am human like you. Nor do I say to those whom your eyes scorn that God will not give them any good God knows best what is in their souls, [in] their hearts. Lo! if I were to say this, then indeed I would be of the evildoers.
 
Ayah   11:32   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
They said, O Noah, you have disputed with us and disputed with us at length, so bring upon us that wherewith you are threatening us, in the way of chastisement, if you are of the truthful.
 
Ayah   11:33   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
He said, Only God will bring it upon you, if He wills, to hasten it on for you, for the decision is His, not mine; and you cannot escape Him, elude God.
 
Ayah   11:34   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
And my counsel will not benefit you if I desire to counsel you when God desires to keep you astray (the response to the conditional is indicated by wa-lā yanfaukum nushī, and my counsel will not benefit you). He is your Lord and to Him you will be brought back.
 
Ayah   11:35   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
God, exalted be He, says: Or do they, the disbelievers of Mecca, say, He has invented it?, Muhammad (s) has invented the Qurān? Say: If I have invented it, then my crime will be upon me, my sin [will be upon me], that is, the punishment for it; and I am innocent of what you commit, of crime, when you attribute invention to me.
 
Ayah   11:36   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
And it was revealed to Noah that: None of your people will believe except he who has already believed. Do not be distressed, grieved, because of what they do, in the way of idolatry. So, he [Noah] invoked God against them with the words: My Lord, leave not [one of the disbelievers] upon the earth [Q. 71:26]. God responded to this invocation of his and said: 231
 
Ayah   11:37   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
Build the Ark, the ship, under Our eyes, under Our watch and protection, and by Our inspiration, [by] Our command, and do not address Me concerning those who have done evil, [those who] have disbelieved, [by asking] that I should refrain from destroying them; lo! they shall be drowned.
 
Ayah   11:38   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
And he was building the Ark (yasna is narrating a past state [in the present tense]) and whenever a council, a group, of his people passed him, they scoffed at him, mocked him. He said, Though you scoff at us, yet we scoff at you, even as you scoff, when we are saved, while you drown;
 
Ayah   11:39   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
and you shall know to whom (man introduces the relative clause which constitutes the direct object of the [action of] knowing) will come a chastisement degrading him, and upon whom an enduring, an everlasting, chastisement will fall.
 
Ayah   11:40   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
Such that when (hattā represents the objective for [the action of] building) Our command came, for their destruction, and the, bakers, oven gushed forth, with water this was the sign for Noah We said, Load therein, in the ship, of every kind, [of every] male and female, that is, of every species of these two, two, a male and a female (ithnayn constitutes the direct object). According to the story, God gathered for Noah all the beasts of prey and birds and other [animals]; he [Noah] would go through every species [to select them] with his hands, and his right hand would fall upon a male and the left upon a female, whereupon he would take them aboard the ship; and your family that is, his wife and children save those against whom the Word has already gone forth, from among them, that they be destroyed: this was his wife and his son Canaan, in contrast with Shem, Ham and Japheth, whom he took aboard together with their three wives, and those who believe. And none but a few believed with him: it is said that these were six men and their wives; it is also said that the number of all those aboard the ship was eighty, half of whom were men and the other half, women.
 
Ayah   11:41   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
And he, Noah, said, Embark therein! In the Name of God be its course and its mooring (read majrāhā and marsāhā, or mujrāhā and mursāhā, both being verbal nouns, meaning, the length of its course and where it docks, in other words, the entire journey). Truly my Lord is Forgiving, Merciful, for He did not destroy us.
 
Ayah   11:42   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
And it sailed with them amid waves like mountains, in terms of their height and size, and Noah called out to his son, Canaan, who was standing away, from the ship, O my son, embark with us and do not be with the disbelievers!
 
Ayah   11:43   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
He said, I shall take refuge in a mountain that will protect me, preserve me, from the water. Said he, This day there is none that can protect from Gods command, [from] His chastisement, except but him on whom He, God, has mercy, he will be protected. God, exalted be He, says: And the waves came between them, so he was among the drowned.
 
Ayah   11:44   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
And it was said, O earth, swallow your waters, that have sprung forth from you and it reabsorbed it [all] except for what came down from the sky and formed rivers and seas and O heaven, abate!, withhold the 232 rain, and it did. And the waters subsided, decreased. And the affair was accomplished, the matter of the destruction of Noahs people was complete, and it settled, [and] the ship came to rest, upon al-Jūdī, a mountain in Mespotamia (al-jazīra), near Mosul; and it was said: Away with perish the evildoing, the disbelieving, folk!
 
Ayah   11:45   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
And Noah called out to his Lord and said, My Lord, lo! my son, Canaan, is of my family, and You promised me that they would be saved, and truly Your promise is the Truth, which never fails, and You are the Most Just of Judges, the most knowledgeable and the fairest of them.
 
Ayah   11:46   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
He, [God] exalted be He, said: O Noah, lo! he is not of your family, of those [who will be] saved, or of the followers of your religion; lo! it, that is, your asking me to save him, is not a righteous deed, for he is a disbeliever and there is no deliverance for disbelievers (āmalun ghayru sālihin, it is not a righteous deed: a variant reading has āmila, the verb, with ghayra in the accusative, in which case the person governing [the verb amila] is his son). So do not ask of Me (read either fa-lā tasalanni, or fa-lā tasalni) that whereof you have no knowledge, in respect to saving your son. I admonish you lest you be among the ignorant, when you ask about what you do not know.
 
Ayah   11:47   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
He said, My Lord, I seek refuge in You, from [the sin], that I should ask of You that whereof I have no knowledge. Unless You forgive me, my excess, and have mercy on me I shall be among the losers.
 
Ayah   11:48   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
It was said, O Noah, go down, disembark from the ship, in peace, in safety, or with a greeting, from Us and blessings, good things, upon you and upon some communities [that will spring] from those with you, in the ship, that is, from their children and their seed, those who are [and those who will be] the believers. And [there will be other] communities (read umamun), [to spring] from those with you, to whom We shall give enjoyment, in this world, and then a painful chastisement will befall them, in the Hereafter, and these will be the disbelievers.
 
Ayah   11:49   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
Those, that is, these verses, containing [stories such as] the story of Noah, are of the tidings of the Unseen, [of] the tales of that which was hidden from you, which We inspire in you, O Muhammad (s). You yourself did not know it, nor did your people [know it] before this, Qurān. So be patient, in conveying [the Message] and in [enduring] your peoples hurt, as Noah endured. Truly the, praiseworthy, sequel is for those who are God-fearing.
 
Ayah   11:50   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
And, We sent, to Ād their brother, from the tribe, Hūd. He said, O my people, worship God!, affirm His Oneness. You have no god (min ilāhin: min is extra) other than He. You, in your worship of graven images, do but invent, [you do but] invent lies against God.
 
Ayah   11:51   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
O my people, I do not ask of you any wage for it, for the affirmation of His Oneness. Lo! my wage falls only upon Him Who originated me, created me. Will you not understand?
 
Ayah   11:52   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
233 And, O my people, ask forgiveness of your Lord, for [your] idolatry, then turn, return, to Him repentant, through obedience; He will release the sky, [He will release] the rain for they had been denied it upon you in abundance, with abundant rainfall, and He will add to you strength to your strength, through wealth and children. Do not turn away as sinners, idolaters.
 
Ayah   11:53   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
They said, O Hūd, you have not brought us any clear proof, [any] evidence for what you say, and we are not going to forsake our gods on [the basis of] your saying, that is, because of what you say, and we are not believers in you.
 
Ayah   11:54   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
We say nothing, concerning you, save that one of our gods has possessed you in some evil way, rendering you insane, for your having cursed them, and so you are raving. He said, Lo! I call God to bear witness, for me, and you, bear witness also, that I am innocent of what you associate, with Him,
 
Ayah   11:55   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
beside Him; so plot against me, devise ways to destroy me, all together, you and your graven images, then give me no respite, grant me [no] reprieve.
 
Ayah   11:56   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
Truly I have put my trust in God, my Lord and your Lord; there is no (mā min: min is extra) creature, no living thing that treads upon this earth, but He takes it by the forelock, that is, [but] He is its possessor and subjugator, so that no benefit or harm occurs except by His permission the forelock is specifically used here because he who is taken by his forelock suffers the ultimate humiliation. Surely my Lord is on a straight path, that is, [on] the way of truth and justice.
 
Ayah   11:57   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
And if you turn away (tawallaw: one of the two tā letters [of tatawallaw] has been omitted), that is, if you object, still I have conveyed to you that wherewith I was sent to you, and my Lord will set in place of you a folk other than you. You cannot injure Him in any way, by your idolatry. Truly My Lord is Preserver, Watcher, over all things.
 
Ayah   11:58   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
And when Our command, Our chastisement, came to pass We delivered Hūd and those who believed with him by a mercy, by guidance, from Us, and We delivered them from a harsh, a severe, chastisement.
 
Ayah   11:59   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
And that was Ād [this is] an allusion to their remains; in other words, go forth in the land and look at these [remains]. God then describes their case, saying: they knowingly denied the signs of their Lord and disobeyed His messengers (rusulahu is in the plural, because when a person disobeys a messenger he has [effectively] disobeyed all of them, since they share a common principle in that [Message] with which they come, namely, [the principle of] Gods Oneness); and they, that is, the riffraff, followed the command of every rebellious tyrant, [every] leader of theirs who is obstinate with regard to the truth.
 
Ayah   11:60   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
And a curse was made to follow them in this world, from people, and on the Day of Resurrection, a curse [will follow them] for all creatures to see. Lo! Ād disbelieved in, they knowingly denied, their Lord. Lo! away, [far] from Gods mercy, with Ād, the folk of Hūd! 234
 
Ayah   11:61   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
And, We sent, to Thamūd their brother, from the tribe, Sālih. He said, O my people, worship God!, affirm His Oneness. You have no god other than He. He it is Who produced you, [Who] began your creation, from the earth, by creating your father Adam from it, and has given you to live therein, He has made you inhabitants, living therein; so ask forgiveness of Him, from idolatry, then turn, return, to Him repentant, through [acts of] obedience. Truly my Lord is Near, to His creation by [virtue of] His knowledge, Responsive, to those who ask of Him.
 
Ayah   11:62   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
They said, O Sālih, you had been one of promise among us, that is to say, we had hoped that you would become [our] chief, before this, that has issued from you. Do you forbid us to worship what our fathers worshipped?, in the way of graven images? Truly we are in grave doubt, [doubt] creating [great] uncertainty, concerning that to which you are calling us, in the way of [affirming] Gods Oneness.
 
Ayah   11:63   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
He said, O my people, have you considered: if I am [acting] upon a clear proof, a [clear] statement, from my Lord, and He has given me from Him mercy, prophethood, who will help me, [who will] defend me, against God, [against] His chastisement, if I disobey Him? You would only be adding, by commanding me to do that, to my loss, [my] misguidance.
 
Ayah   11:64   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
And, O my people, this is the she-camel of God, a sign for you (āyatan is a circumstantial qualifier operated by the demonstrative noun [hādhihi, this]). Leave her to eat in Gods earth and do not cause her any harm, [by] hamstringing [her], lest you be seized by a near chastisement, if you do hamstring her.
 
Ayah   11:65   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
But they hamstrung her, Qudār hamstrung her at their command, and he, Sālih, said, Enjoy [yourselves], live, in your dwellings for three days, whereafter you will be destroyed. That is a promise that will not be belied.
 
Ayah   11:66   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
So, when Our command came, for their destruction, We delivered Sālih and those who believed with him, they numbered 4000, by a mercy from Us, and, We delivered them, from the ignominy of that day (read yawmiidhin [if understood] as declinable, or read yawmaidhin on the basis of it [yawm, day] being annexed to an invariable [idhin, that], which is the majority view). Truly your Lord is the Strong, the Mighty, the Victor.
 
Ayah   11:67   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
And those who did evil were seized by the Cry, so that they ended up lying lifeless prostrate in their habitations, keeled over their knees, dead,
 
Ayah   11:68   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
as if (ka-an had been softened and its subject omitted, in other words [understand it as] kaannahum) they had not dwelt there, in their dwelling-place: Lo! Thamūd disbelieved in their Lord, lo! away with Thamūd! (this may be read, declined, li-Thamūdan, or left, as indeclinable, li-Thamūda, referring to the district or the tribe). 235
 
Ayah   11:69   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
And verily Our messengers came to Abraham with good tidings, of [the birth of] Isaac and, after him, Jacob. They said, Peace! (salāman is a verbal noun). He said, Peace!, be upon you, and did not delay to bring a roasted calf.
 
Ayah   11:70   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
And when he saw their hands not reaching to it, he was suspicious of them and conceived, he kept secret in himself, a fear of them. They said, Fear not. Lo! we have been sent to the people of Lot, to destroy them.
 
Ayah   11:71   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
And his wife, that is, Abrahams wife, Sarah, standing by, serving them, laughed, at the good tiding of their destruction; and so We gave her the good tiding of Isaac, and, after Isaac, of Jacob, his son, whom she would live to see.
 
Ayah   11:72   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
She said, Woe to me! (yā waylatā is an expression used in [reaction to] a serious matter; the alif [suffixed in waylatā] substitutes for the yā of the genitive annexation [waylatī, my woe]). Shall I bear a child when I am an old woman, 99 years old, and this my husband is an old man?, 100 or 120 years old (shaykhan is in the accusative because it is a circumstantial qualifier, operated by the demonstrative import of dhā, this). Truly this is a strange thing, that a child should be born to such an aged couple.
 
Ayah   11:73   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
They said, Are you astonished by Gods command?, [by] His power? The mercy of God and His blessings be upon you, O, people of the House!, the House of Abraham. Truly He is Praised, Glorious!, Generous.
 
Ayah   11:74   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
And when the awe, the fear, departed from Abraham and the good tiding came to him, of a child, he began to plead with Us, pleading with Our messengers, concerning the, matter of the, people of Lot.
 
Ayah   11:75   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
Assuredly Abraham was forbearing, long-suffering, imploring, penitent, always returning [to God] in repentance: thus he said to them, Would you destroy a town in which there are 300 believers? They said, No. He said, Would you destroy a town in which there are 200 believers? They said, No. He said, Would you destroy a town in which there are 40 believers? They said, No. He said, Would you destroy a town in which there are 14 believers? They said, No. He said, What if there were one believer in it? They said, No. He said, Lot is in it. They said, We know full well who is in it to the end [of the narrative].
 
Ayah   11:76   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
When he had pleaded with them at length, they said: O Abraham, desist from this, pleading. Truly your Lords command, for their destruction, has gone forth, and truly there will come upon them a chastisement which cannot be repelled.
 
Ayah   11:77   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
And when Our messengers came to Lot, he was distressed, he was grieved on their account, and felt constrained in his power to protect them, because they had handsome faces and were dressed as [visiting] guests, and so he feared for them from his people, and he said, This is a distressful, a very difficult, day. 236
 
Ayah   11:78   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
And his people, when they became aware of them, came to him, running, hastening, towards him and previously, before they came, they had been committing abominations, namely, penetrative sexual intercourse with men. He, Lot, said, O my people! Here are my daughters, marry with them; they are purer for you. So fear God, and do not degrade me, [do not] disgrace me, before my guests. Is there not among you any upright man?, to enjoin decency and forbid indecency?
 
Ayah   11:79   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
They said, You know full well that we have no right to, no need of, your daughters, and you know well what we desire, in the way of sexual intercourse with men.
 
Ayah   11:80   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
He said, Would that I had strength, power, to resist you or could resort to some strong support!, [to] some clan that would help me, I would surely fall upon you. So, when the angels saw this,
 
Ayah   11:81   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
they said, O Lot, truly we are messengers of your Lord. They shall not reach you, with any harm, so travel with your family during a part of the night, and let not one of you turn round, lest they see the terrible predicament that will befall them, except for your wife: (read illā imraatuka, in the nominative, as a substitute for ahadun; a variant reading has illā imraataka, in the accusative, as [her being] an exception among [his] family, in other words, do no take her along when you travel) lo! she shall be smitten by that which smites them: it is said that he did not take her along with him; it is also said that she did set out [with them] and turned round, and so exclaimed, Woe is my people!, at which point a stone struck her and killed her. When he [Lot] asked them about the time of their destruction, they replied: Truly their tryst is [for] the morning, and when he said, I want it to be sooner, they said: is the morning not nigh [enough]?
 
Ayah   11:82   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
So when Our command, for their destruction, came to pass We made their uppermost, that is, their cities, the nethermost when Gabriel raised them to the sky and dropped them upside down to the earth, and We rained upon them stones of baked clay, clay baked in fire, one after another,
 
Ayah   11:83   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
marked, [each one of them] with the name of the person it would strike, with your Lord (inda rabbik is an adverbial qualifier for these [stones]), and they, the stones or their lands are not far from the evildoers, that is, [from] the people of Mecca.
 
Ayah   11:84   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
And, We sent, to Midian their brother Shuayb. He said, O my people, worship God!, affirm His Oneness. You have no god other than He. And diminish not the measure or the weight. I see you in prosperity, [enjoying] a grace which precludes any need for stinting [people]; and I fear for you, should you not believe, the chastisement of a besetting day, [besetting] you, destroying you (the attribution of this term [besetting] to a day [as opposed to the chastisement] is figurative, for it [the chastisement] will take place thereupon).
 
Ayah   11:85   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
O my people, give full measure and weight, fulfil [the due of] both of these, in justice, and do not defraud people in respect of their goods, do not diminish anything of their due, and do not be degenerate in the land, working corruption, by killing or otherwise ([lā tathaū] derives from athiya, meaning afsada, he 237 corrupted; mufsidīn, working corruption, is a circumstantial qualifier reiterating the import of the term operating it, tathaū, [do not] be degenerate).
 
Ayah   11:86   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
The remainder [which is] from God, that provision of His which remains for you after you have given full measure and weight, is better for you, than fraud, if you are believers; and I am not a guardian over you, a watcher, that I should requite you for your deeds: I was sent only as a warner.
 
Ayah   11:87   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
They said, to him mockingly: O Shuayb, does your [way of] prayer command you, with the obligation [to make sure], that we should leave what our fathers [used to] worship, of idols, or, that we should cease, to do as we will with our goods?, meaning that such a command is an absurdity which no person calling to good would commend. You are indeed the forbearing, the right-guided: they said this in mockery.
 
Ayah   11:88   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
He said, O my people, have you considered that I might be [acting] upon a clear proof from my Lord and that He has provided me with fair, wholesome, sustenance from Him?, should I then blemish it with what is unlawful, in the way of fraud or stinting? And I do not desire to be inconsistent, and then partake, in what I forbid you, thus committing the same. I desire only to set things right, in your case, by way of [enjoining] justice, so far as I am able. My success, my ability to do this [successfully] and [to enjoin] other acts of obedience, is only with God. In Him I trust and to Him I turn, I return, [repentant].
 
Ayah   11:89   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
And, O my people, let not the breach with me, the dispute [you have] with me (shiqāqī, the breach with me, is the subject of the verb yajrimannakum, make you deserve, in which the [suffixed] pronoun [-kum, you] constitutes the first direct object, the second being [what follows]) make you deserve, earn you [as punishment], that there befall you the like of what befell the people of Noah, or the people of Hūd, or the people of Sālih, in the way of chastisement; and the people of Lot, that is, their dwelling-places or the era in which they were destroyed, are not far away from you, so take heed [of this].
 
Ayah   11:90   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
And ask forgiveness of your Lord, then repent to Him. Truly my Lord is Merciful, to believers, Affectionate, loving towards them.
 
Ayah   11:91   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
They said, in proclamation of their lack of concern: O Shuayb, we do not understand much of what you say. Truly we see you are weak, abject, among us, and were it not for your clan, we would have stoned you; for you are not, too, powerful, [too] venerable, for us, to stone, but it is your clan that is powerful.
 
Ayah   11:92   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
He said, O my people, is my clan more venerable in your sight than God?, such that you refrain from killing me because of them, instead of [your] protecting me for [being the Messenger of] God? And do you put Him, God, behind you, neglected?, rejected, behind your backs, not mindful of Him? Truly my Lord encompasses, in knowledge, what you do, and will requite you.
 
Ayah   11:93   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
And, O my people, act according to your ability, your circumstances, lo! I [too] am acting, according to mine. You will soon know upon whom (man is the relative particle introducing the direct object of [the action 238 of] knowing) will come the chastisement that will abase him, and who is a liar. And sit in watch, wait for the consequence of your affair: I too will be with you watching, waiting.
 
Ayah   11:94   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
And when Our command came, for their destruction, We delivered Shuayb and those who believed with him by a mercy from Us; and the Cry seized those who were evildoers Gabriel cried at them and they ended up lying lifeless prostrate in their habitations, keeled over on their knees, dead,
 
Ayah   11:95   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
as if (ka-an is softened, in other words [understand it as] ka-annahum) they had never dwelt there: Lo! Away with Midian, just as Thamūd was done away with!
 
Ayah   11:96   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
And verily We sent Moses with Our signs and a clear warrant, a manifest and evident proof,
 
Ayah   11:97   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
to Pharaoh and his council; but they followed Pharaohs command, and Pharaohs command was not rightguided, appropriate.
 
Ayah   11:98   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
He will go before his people on the Day of Resurrection, and they will follow him, as they did in this world, and he will lead them, he will admit them, to the Fire an evil place, it is, for those entering it!
 
Ayah   11:99   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
And a curse was made to follow them in this [world], as well as, a curse, on the Day of Resurrection evil is the assistance offered!, in their case.
 
Ayah   11:100   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
That, which is mentioned (dhālika is the subject, the predicate of which [follows]), is [something] of the tidings of the towns, which We relate to you, O Muhammad (s). Some of them, that is, [of] the towns, are standing, only its inhabitants having been destroyed, and some, of them, have been cut down, destroyed together with its inhabitants, such that there are no vestiges thereof, much like crops harvested with sickles.
 
Ayah   11:101   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
And We did not wrong them, destroying them for not having committed any sins, but they wronged themselves, through idolatry. Their gods did not avail, defend, them in any way (min shayin: min is extra), those [gods] upon whom they called, [whom] they worshipped, besides God, that is, other than Him, when the command of your Lord, His chastisement, came; and they [their gods] through their [the disbelievers] worship of these [gods], did not increase them in anything but ruin, [but] loss.
 
Ayah   11:102   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
Such, like that seizing, is the seizing of your Lord when He seizes the towns, meaning its inhabitants, while they are doing wrong, by way of sins: in other words, nothing can avail them in any way when He seizes them. Truly His seizing is painful, severe. The two Shaykhs [Bukhārī and Muslim] reported [by way of an isnād] from Abū Mūsā al-Asharī that he said, The Prophet (s) said, God gives [extended] respite to the evildoer, but when He seizes him there is no escape for him, whereupon the Prophet (s) recited the verse: Such is the seizing of your Lord [Q. 11:102, above]. 239
 
Ayah   11:103   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
There is indeed in that, which is mentioned of stories, a sign, a lesson, for him who fears the chastisement of the Hereafter: that, in other words, the Day of Resurrection, is a day to which, on which, mankind will be gathered, and that is a day witnessed, witnessed by all creatures.
 
Ayah   11:104   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
And We do not defer it but to a term [already] reckoned, [but] to a time predetermined by God.
 
Ayah   11:105   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
The day it, that day, comes, no soul shall speak (takallamu: one of the tā letters [of tatakallamu] has been omitted) except by His permission, exalted be He. Some of them, that is, [some] creatures, will be wretched, and [some], of them, joyous, each having been determined [to be thus] from pre-eternity.
 
Ayah   11:106   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
As for those who are damned, according to Gods [prior] knowledge, they will be in the Fire; their lot therein will be wailing, which is a loud sound, and sighing, which is a faint sound;
 
Ayah   11:107   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
abiding therein for as long as the heavens and the earth endure, that is, [for] the length of the duration of both in this world, except, other than, what your Lord may will, in the way of adding to the duration of these two, such that it [their abiding] becomes indefinite: meaning that they will abide therein forever. Truly your Lord is Doer of what He desires.
 
Ayah   11:108   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
And as for those who are fortunate (read saidū or suidū) they shall be in Paradise, abiding therein for as long as the heavens and the earth endure except, other than, what your Lord may will as mentioned already [of increasing the duration], which in their case is indicated by His words, an endless bounty, [one not] to be cut off. The interpretation given above seems to be the clear and obvious one, devoid of affectation, but God knows best what it means.
 
Ayah   11:109   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
So do not be, O Muhammad (s), in doubt, in uncertainty, concerning what these [folk] worship, of idols: We will indeed chastise them as We did those before them this is intended as solace for the Prophet (s). They worship only as their fathers worshipped that is, in the same way before, and indeed We chastised them; and We shall surely pay them, like those [fathers of theirs], their whole due, their portion of the chastisement, undiminished, that is, in full.
 
Ayah   11:110   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
And We verily gave Moses the Scripture, the Torah, but differences arose concerning it, some believing, others denying, just as [is the case] with the Qurān; and were it not for a word that went forth from your Lord, to defer the reckoning and the requital for creatures to the Day of Resurrection, the case would have been decided between them, in this world, regarding that over which they differed; and truly they, that is, those who deny it, are in grave doubt concerning it, [doubt] creating [great] uncertainty.
 
Ayah   11:111   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
And assuredly (read wa-in or wa-inna) to each, that is, to all creatures, verily (la-mā: the mā is extra and 240 the lām is in the place of an implied oath or a separator; a variant reading has lammā, with the sense of illā, but, making the [preceding] in for negation), your Lord will pay for his works, that is, the requital thereof, in full. Truly He is Aware of what they do, knowing the inner and outer aspects thereof.
 
Ayah   11:112   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
So remain upright, acting in accordance with the commandment of your Lord and supplicating Him, as you have been commanded, and, let him also remain upright, he who repents, [who] believes, with you; and do not transgress, [do not] overstep the bounds of God. Truly He sees what you do, and will requite you for it.
 
Ayah   11:113   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
And do not incline toward the evildoers, through affection or adulation, or [by showing] satisfaction with their actions, lest the Fire touch, smite, you, and you have, besides God, other than Him, no protectors (min awliyā: min is extra), to guard you from Him; and then you will not be helped, you will [not] be protected from His chastisement.
 
Ayah   11:114   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
And establish prayer at the two ends of the day, at first light and before sunset, that is, [pray] in the morning, at noon, and in the afternoon, and in some watches (zulafan is the plural of zulfa), a portion, of the night, that is, at sunset and late evening. Indeed good deeds, such as the five prayers, annul misdeeds, minor sins: this was revealed regarding one who kissed a female stranger and told the Prophet (s) about it, and then asked him, Is this [verse true] for me? and the Prophet said to him, It is [so] for every person of my community, as reported by the two Shaykhs [Bukhārī and Muslim]. That is a remembrance for the mindful, an admonition for those who heed them.
 
Ayah   11:115   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
And be patient, O Muhammad (s), in [enduring] the harm inflicted [upon you] by your people, or in [performing] prayer, for indeed God does not waste the wage of those who are virtuous, by patiently enduring through [acts of] obedience [to God].
 
Ayah   11:116   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
If only there had been among the generations, past communities, before you men possessing a remnant [of good sense], men of religion and virtue, forbidding corruption in the earth (this [statement] is intended to be a negation, in other words, there never were such [men] among them), except, but, a few of those whom (mimman: min is explicative) We delivered from among them, did forbid [corruption] and were thus delivered. But those who did wrong, through corruption and neglecting to forbid, followed that by which they were made profligate, and were sinners.
 
Ayah   11:117   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
Yet your Lord would never destroy the towns through injustice, on His part, against them, while their inhabitants were righteous, that is, believers.
 
Ayah   11:118   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
Had your Lord willed, He would have made mankind one community, people of one religion, but they continue to differ, in religion,
 
Ayah   11:119   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
except those on whom your Lord has mercy, [those] for whom He desires good, and so they do not differ in it and that is why He created them, that is, [He created] those of difference for that [in other words, so 241 that they should differ] and those deserving mercy for that [in other words, so that they should receive mercy]. And the Word of your Lord has been fulfilled, namely: I will surely fill Hell with jinn and mankind together.
 
Ayah   11:120   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
And all that (kullān is in the accusative because [it is the direct object] of naqussu, We relate; and the nunation compensates for a [missing] genitive annexation), that is, all that is necessary, We relate to you of the accounts of the messengers, that (mā substitutes for kullan, all that) with which We might strengthen, reassure, your heart. And in these, accounts, or verses, there has come to you the Truth and an admonition and a reminder to the believers: they are specifically mentioned here because they are the ones to benefit from them, through their belief [in them], in contrast to [the case with] the disbelievers.
 
Ayah   11:121   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
And say to those who do not believe: Act according to your ability, [according] to your status, we are acting, according to our status [this is] a threat for them.
 
Ayah   11:122   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
And wait, for the consequence of your affair, we are also waiting, for this.
 
Ayah   11:123   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
And to God belongs the Unseen of the heavens and the earth, that is, the knowledge of what is concealed within them, and to Him all matters are returned (read active yarjiu, meaning return, or passive yurjau, meaning [are] returned) and He will exact retribution from those who were disobedient. So worship Him, affirm His Oneness, and rely on Him, trust in Him, for He is sufficient for you, and your Lord is not heedless of what they do, but He defers [dealing with] them until their [appointed] time (a variant reading has tamalūn, [what] you do).





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