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14. Surah Ibrahm سورة إبراهيم

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This Surah (Revealed) Meccan, except for the two verses 28 and 29, which are Medinese; it consists of 52, 54 or 55 verses.263 (Ibrhm)
 
Ayah   14:1   الأية الأولي
بِسْم ِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَٰنِ الرَّحِيمِ
Ayah First   1   الأية الأولي
Tafseer
 
Alif lām rā: God knows best what He means by these [letters]. This Qurān is, a Book We have revealed to you, O Muhammad (s), that you may bring forth mankind from darkness, [from] unbelief, into light, [into] faith, by the leave, by the command, of their Lord (ilāl-nūr, into light, may be substituted by [the following ilā sirāt]), to the path, the way, of the Mighty, the Victor, the Praised, the One who is [constantly] praised.
 
Ayah   14:2   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
God (Allāhi, read in the genitive as a substitution or an explicative supplement, with what follows being an adjectival qualification; or [read as] Allāhu in the nominative as a subject, the predicate of which is [what follows]) to Whom belongs all that is in the heavens and all that is in the earth, as possessions, creatures and servants. And woe to the disbelievers from a terrible chastisement,
 
Ayah   14:3   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
those who (alladhīna is a description) prefer, choose, the life of this world over the Hereafter, and bar, people, from Gods way, [from] the religion of Islam, and seek to make it, that is, the path, crooked those, they are far astray, from the truth.
 
Ayah   14:4   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
And We have not sent any Messenger except with the tongue, with the language, of his people, that he might make [the Message] clear to them, that he might make them understand what he brings to them; God then sends astray whomever He will and He guides whomever He will; and He is the Mighty, in His kingdom, the Wise, in His actions.
 
Ayah   14:5   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
And verily We sent Moses with Our signs, the nine [signs], and We said to him: Bring forth your people, the Children of Israel, out of darkness, [out of] unbelief, into light, [into] faith, and remind them of the Days of God, of His graces. Surely in that, reminder, are signs for every man enduring, in obedience [to God], thankful, for [His] graces.
 
Ayah   14:6   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
And, mention, when Moses said to his people, Remember Gods grace to you when He delivered you from the folk of Pharaoh, who were inflicting upon you a dreadful chastisement, and were slaughtering your sons, the new-born, and sparing, keeping alive, your women this was because some of the priests [of Egypt] had stated that a child born among the Israelites shall be the cause of the destruction of Pharaohs kingdom; and in that, deliverance or [in that] chastisement was a tremendous trial, grace or [a tremendous] test from your Lord.
 
Ayah   14:7   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
And when your Lord proclaimed, [when] He made it known that: If you are thankful, for My graces, through affirmation of [My] Oneness and obedience [to Me], then assuredly I shall give you more; but if you are thankless, [if] you deny [the truth of] the grace, through disbelief and disobedience, then assuredly I shall chastise you as is indicated by [His following words] My chastisement is indeed severe .
 
Ayah   14:8   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
And Moses said, to his people: If you are thankless, you and all who are on earth, lo! assuredly God is Independent, [without need] of His creatures, Praised, praiseworthy in what He does with them. 264
 
Ayah   14:9   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
Has there not come to you (an interrogative meant as an affirmative) the tidings, the news, of those who were before you the people of Noah, and Ād the people of Hūd and Thamūd the people of Sālih and those after them? None knows them save God. [This is] on account of their multitude. Their messengers brought them clear signs, with lucid arguments demonstrating their truthfulness; but they, that is, the communities, thrust their hands into their mouths, to bite on them, out of extreme spite, and said, Lo! we disbelieve in that wherewith you have been sent, according to what you claim, and lo! we are in grave doubt concerning that to which you call us, [doubt] creating [great] uncertainty.
 
Ayah   14:10   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
Their messengers said, Can there be doubt concerning God (an interrogative meant as a denial), in other words, there can be no doubt concerning His Oneness, given the manifest proofs of it, the Originator, the Creator, of the heavens and the earth? He calls you, to obedience of Him, so that He might forgive you your sins (min dhunūbikum: min is extra, since through submission [to the One God] all that may have been committed previously is forgiven (or else it [min, some of] is partitive, intended to state that [forgiveness] which is due to [Gods] servants) and defer you, without chastisement, to an appointed term, the term of death. They said, You are but mortals like us, desiring to bar us from that which our fathers used to worship, in the way of idols. So bring us a clear warrant, a manifest argument demonstrating your truthfulness.
 
Ayah   14:11   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
Their messengers said to them, We are but mortals like you, as you have said; but God is gracious to whomever He will of His servants, by way of [assigning] prophethood. And it is not ours to bring you any warrant save by the leave of God, by His command, for we are servants, enthralled; and in God let believers put their trust, [let them] have confidence in Him.
 
Ayah   14:12   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
And why, indeed, should we not put our trust in God, in other words, there is nothing to prevent us from [doing] this, when He has guided us our ways? And we shall surely endure the hurt you do us. And in God let the trusting put their trust.
 
Ayah   14:13   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
And those who disbelieved said to their messengers, We will assuredly expel you from our land, or you will surely return, you will [surely] end up [returning], to our creed, our religion. Then their Lord inspired them [saying]: We shall surely destroy the evildoers, the disbelievers,
 
Ayah   14:14   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
and We shall surely make you dwell in the land, their land, after them, after they have been destroyed that, victory [over them] and bequest of the land [to you] is, for whoever fears the standing before Me, that is, [whoever fears] when he comes to stand before Me, and fears My threat, of chastisement.
 
Ayah   14:15   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
And they sought victory, the messengers sought assistance from God against their people; and every tyrant, disdaining obedience to God, rebellious, obstinate to the truth, was brought to nothing;
 
Ayah   14:16   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
beyond him, that is, in front of him, is Hell, which he will enter, and he is given to drink, in it, of festering 265 fluid which is what issues out of the insides of the people of the Fire, mixed with pus and blood
 
Ayah   14:17   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
which he sips, gulping it repeatedly, because of its acridity, but can scarcely swallow, [scarcely] ingest because it is so foul and disgusting; and death, that is, those causes of it that necessarily bring it about, in the way of [different] types of chastisement, comes to him from every side, yet he cannot die; and still beyond him, after that chastisement, there is a harsh chastisement, a severe one, following on [from the previous one].
 
Ayah   14:18   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
The likeness, the description, of those who disbelieve in their Lord (alladhīna kafarū bi-rabbihim: the subject, substituted by [the following, amāluhum,]): their works, the righteous ones, such as kindness [to kin] or an act of charity in the way that no benefit can be derived from them [it is because these works] are as ashes over which the wind blows hard on a tempestuous day, one in which the winds blow violently, making them as scattered dust, over which none can have power (the genitive [clause beginning with ka-ramādin, as ashes] constitutes the predicate of the [above-mentioned] subject); they, that is, the disbelievers, have no power over anything that they have earned, [anything] that they had done in [their] life on earth, in other words, they shall find no reward for it, since this was never a precondition. That is extreme error, [extreme] perdition!
 
Ayah   14:19   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
Have you not seen, have you not observed, O you being addressed (this is an interrogative meant as an affirmative) that God created the heavens and the earth in truth? (bil-haqq is semantically connected to [the action of the verb] khalaqa, created). If He will, He can take you away, O mankind, and bring [about] a new creation, in your place.
 
Ayah   14:20   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
And that for God is surely no great, [no] difficult, matter.
 
Ayah   14:21   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
And they, that is, [all] creatures, sally forth to God (wa-barazū: this, and what follows, is expressed in the past tense because it will come to pass) all together; then the weak, the followers, say to those who were arrogant, those who were followed: Indeed we were your followers (tabaan is the plural of tābi). Will you then avail, defend, us against the chastisement of God in any way? (min adhābiLlāhi min shayin: the first min is explicative, while the second one is partitive). They, the ones followed, say, If God had guided us, we would have guided you, we would have called you to [right] guidance. It is the same for us whether we rage [impatiently] or patiently endure; we do not have any asylum, [any] refuge (min mahīs, any asylum, min is extra).
 
Ayah   14:22   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
And Satan, Iblīs, says, when the issue has been decided, and the people of Paradise are in Paradise and those of the Fire are in the Fire, and they [the people of the Fire] have gathered round him: Truly God promised you a promise of truth, regarding resurrection and requital, fulfilling [it] to you; whereas I promised you, that this would not be, then failed you, for over you I had no warrant (min sultān: min is extra), [no] power or capacity, to compel you to follow me, except that I called you and you responded to me. So do not blame me, but blame yourselves, for having responded to me. I cannot heed your [distress] call, [I cannot] bring aid to you, nor can you heed mine (read bi-musrikhiyya or bi-musrikhī). Lo! I disbelieved in your making me an associate of God formerly, during life on earth. God, exalted be He, says: Truly for the evildoers, the disbelievers, there shall be a painful chastisement. 266
 
Ayah   14:23   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
And those who believed and performed righteous deeds, they are admitted to gardens underneath which rivers flow, abiding (khālidīna is a circumstantial qualifier of an implied situation) therein by the leave of their Lord, their greeting therein, from God and from the angels, and between themselves: Peace!.
 
Ayah   14:24   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
Have you not seen, observed, how God has struck a similitude? (mathalan is substituted by [the following words, kalimatan tayyibatan]): a goodly saying, which is, there is no god but God, is as a goodly tree, a palm tree, its root set firm, in the ground, and its shoots, its branches, are in heaven;
 
Ayah   14:25   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
it gives its produce, its fruit, every season by the leave of its Lord, by His will. Similarly, the words of faith are set firm in the heart of the believer; his works are raised up to heaven and he receives the blessings and reward therefrom all the time. And God strikes, He makes clear, similitudes for mankind, so that they might remember, be admonished, and therefore believe.
 
Ayah   14:26   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
And the similitude of a bad saying, that is, the word of unbelief, is as a bad tree, a colocynth, uprooted from upon the earth, having no stability, [no] fixing or foundation. Similarly, the word of unbelief has no foundation, and no shoot or blessing.
 
Ayah   14:27   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
God confirms those who believe by a firm saying, namely, the profession of [His] Oneness, in the life of this world and in the Hereafter, that is, in the grave, when the two angels question them about their Lord, their religion and their Prophet, and they respond correctly, as [reported] in the hadīth of the two Shaykhs [alBukhārī and Muslim]; and God sends astray the evildoers, the disbelievers, and therefore they are not guided to the correct response, saying instead, We do not know, as [reported] in the hadīth; and God does what He will.
 
Ayah   14:28   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
Have you not seen, observed, those who exchanged Gods grace, that is, the thanks [due] for it, for unthankfulness these were the disbelievers of Quraysh and who, by leading them astray, caused their people to take up residence in the Abode of Ruin?
 
Ayah   14:29   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
Hell (jahannama: a supplement, functioning as an explicative): to which they shall be exposed, admitted an evil place to settle!
 
Ayah   14:30   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
And they have set up rivals to, associates [with], God, that they might lead [others] astray (read li-yadillū or li-yudillū) from His way, the religion of Islam. Say, to them: Enjoy!, this world of yours for a short time. For lo! your journeys end, your return, shall be to the Fire!.
 
Ayah   14:31   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
Tell My servants who believe that they establish prayers and expend of that which We have provided them, secretly and openly, before a day comes wherein there will be neither bargaining, ransoming, nor befriending, that is, [when there will not be] any friendship of any benefit: this is the Day of Resurrection. 267
 
Ayah   14:32   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
God it is Who created the heavens and the earth, and He sends down water from the heaven and with it He brings forth fruits as sustenance for you. And He has disposed for you the ships, that they may run upon the sea, [laden] with passengers and cargo, at His commandment, by His leave, and He has disposed for you the rivers.
 
Ayah   14:33   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
And He has disposed for you the sun and the moon, constant, moving in their courses without pause; and He has disposed for you the night, that you may rest therein, and the day, that you may seek of His bounty therein.
 
Ayah   14:34   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
And He gives you of all that you ask of Him, according to your [individual] best interests. And if you were to enumerate Gods graces, meaning His bestowal of graces, you could never number it, you would not be able to count it. Lo! man, the disbelieving [man], is verily a wrong-doer and unthankful!, ever wronging his own soul through [acts of] disobedience and ungratefulness towards Gods grace.
 
Ayah   14:35   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
And, mention, when Abraham said, My Lord, make this land, Mecca, secure God granted him this petition and thus made it [Mecca] a sanctuary in which no human blood is shed, no person is wronged, prey is not hunted and one which is never deserted in any of its parts and turn me and my sons away from serving idols.
 
Ayah   14:36   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
My Lord, truly they, idols, have led many of mankind astray, because of their [mankinds] worship of them. So whoever follows me, believing in the Oneness of God, verily belongs with me, belongs with those who follow my religion; and whoever disobeys me, truly You are Forgiving, Merciful: this was before he was aware of the fact that God does not forgive idolatry.
 
Ayah   14:37   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
Our Lord, indeed I have made some of my seed, that is, Ishmael and his mother Hagar, to dwell in a valley where there is no sown land, namely, Mecca, by Your Sacred House, which had been there since before the Flood, our Lord, that they may establish prayer. So make some of the hearts of men yearn, incline and long, towards them Ibn Abbās said, Had He said: Make [all] the hearts of men , assuredly the Persians, the Byzantines and all of mankind would have yearned towards them. And provide them with fruits, that they might be thankful: and this [petition] was granted, for [the town of] al-Tāif was transferred to that [land].
 
Ayah   14:38   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
Our Lord, You know what we hide, keep secret, and what we proclaim. And nothing (min shayin: min is extra) is hidden from God in the earth or in the heaven: these may constitute Gods words or the words of Abraham.
 
Ayah   14:39   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
Praise be to God Who has given me, despite [my] old age, Ishmael born to him when he [Abraham] was 99 years old and Isaac born to him when he was 112 years old. Lo! my Lord is indeed the Hearer of supplication. 268
 
Ayah   14:40   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
My Lord, make me an establisher of prayer, and, make, of my seed, those who will establish it (the use of [partitive] min [in min dhurriyatī, of my seed] is because God informed him that some of them [his seed] would be disbelievers). Our Lord! And accept my supplication, the [supplication] mentioned.
 
Ayah   14:41   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
Our Lord, forgive me and my parents this was before their enmity towards God, Mighty and Majestic, became clear; but it is also said that his mother submitted [to God], (the alternative reading [here] being the singular wālidī [my father]; or [yet another variant reading being] waladī, my son) and [forgive] believers on the day when the reckoning shall come to pass, [the day] it shall be effected. God, exalted be He, says:
 
Ayah   14:42   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
And do not suppose that God is heedless of what the evildoers, the disbelievers from among the people of Mecca, do. He but gives them respite, without chastisement, until a day when eyes shall stare wide-open, because of the terror of what they see (one says shakhasa basaru fulān to mean he opened them [his eyes] and did not shut them);
 
Ayah   14:43   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
as they come hastening (muhtiīna is a circumstantial qualifier) with their heads turned upwards, to the heaven, their gaze, their sight, returning not to them, and their hearts as air, devoid of any sense, because of their being terror-stricken.
 
Ayah   14:44   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
And warn, make [them] have fear, O Muhammad (s), mankind, the disbelievers, of the day when chastisement will come upon them, namely, the Day of Resurrection, and those who did evil, who disbelieved, will say, Our Lord, give us respite, by returning us to the world, for a brief while, that we might respond to Your call, by affirming [Your] Oneness, and follow the messengers. It is then said to them in rebuke: But did you not use to swear formerly, in the world, that for you there would be no passing [away]? (min zawālin: min is extra) from this [world] to the Hereafter?
 
Ayah   14:45   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
And you dwelt, in it, in the dwelling-places of those who wronged themselves, through unbelief, [those] from among communities of old, and it became clear to you how We dealt with them, by way of punishment but you were not restrained [thereby] and We struck, made clear, similitudes for you, in the Qurān, but you did not take heed.
 
Ayah   14:46   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
And verily they plotted, against the Prophet (s), their plot when they desired to kill him, or detain him [in his house] or banish him but their plotting is with God, that is to say, knowledge or the requital thereof [is with God], and their plotting, even though it be great, was not such whereby mountains should be moved, meaning that it is not of any importance, but that they are only harming themselves thereby. It is said that the use of mountains here is meant to be literal; alternatively, it is also said [to be a reference to] the laws of Islam, which are likened to these [mountains] in the way that they are established and fixed (a variant reading has la-tazūlu [instead of li-tazūla], with in softened [from inna, verily], in which case the intended meaning is that [the extent of] their plotting is great. It is said that plotting here is [actually a reference to] their unbelief. This second [reading] is consonant with [Gods saying]: Whereby the heavens are almost torn and the earth split asunder and the mountains fall crashing [Q. 19:90]; according to the former [reading], however, one should read it as [if it were] wa-mā kāna, and [their plotting] was not such ). 269
 
Ayah   14:47   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
So do not suppose that God will fail [to keep] His promise, of victory, to His messengers. Truly God is Mighty, Victor, nothing able to escape Him, Lord of Retribution, against those who disobey Him.
 
Ayah   14:48   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
And mention, the day when the earth will be changed to other than the earth and the heavens, namely, the Day of Resurrection: mankind shall be gathered onto a white clear earth, as [reported] in the hadīth of the two Shaykhs [al-Bukhārī and Muslim]. Muslim relates the following hadīth: The Prophet (s) was asked, Where will people be on that day? He said, On the Bridge (sirāt) ; and they shall come forth, they shall exit from [their] graves, to God, the One, the Almighty.
 
Ayah   14:49   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
And you shall see, O Muhammad (s), the sinners, the disbelievers, on that day coupled, chained together with their [individual] devils, in chains, manacles or collars,
 
Ayah   14:50   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
their shirts [made] of pitch, because it ignites fire more intensely, and their faces are engulfed by the Fire,
 
Ayah   14:51   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
that God may requite (li-yajziya is semantically connected to [the verb] barazū, they shall come forth) every soul for what it has earned, of good and evil. Truly God is swift at reckoning He shall reckon with all creatures in about half a day of the days of this world, as one hadīth states to that effect.
 
Ayah   14:52   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
This, Qurān, is a Proclamation for mankind, in other words, it was revealed in order to proclaim to them, and so that they may be warned thereby, and that they may know, by way of the arguments contained in it, that He, namely, God, is One God, and that people of pith, possessors of intellect, may remember (yadhdhakkara: the original tā [of yatadhakkara] has been assimilated with the dhāl), [that they] may be admonished.





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