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16. Surah An-Nahl سورة النحل

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This Surah (Revealed) Meccan, except for the last three verses, which are Medinese; it consists of 128 verses, revealed after [sūrat] al-Kahf.(An-Nahl)
 
Ayah   16:1   الأية الأولي
بِسْم ِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَٰنِ الرَّحِيمِ
Ayah First   1   الأية الأولي
Tafseer
 
When the idolaters found chastisement slow in coming, the following was revealed: Gods commandment has come, that is, the Hour [has come] ([this verb] atā is in the past tense because it means that [the event therein described] will come to pass) in other words, it [Gods commandment] is close at hand, so do not seek to hasten it, do not demand it before its [due] time, for it will come to pass without doubt. Glory be to Him an affirmation of His transcendence and exalted be He above what they associate, with Him, in the way of others.
 
Ayah   16:2   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
He sends down the angels, namely, Gabriel, with the Spirit, with the Revelation, of His command, by His will, to whomever He will of His servants, and these are the prophets, [saying] that (an is explicative): Warn, threaten the disbelievers with chastisement and make them aware, that there is no God save Me: so fear Me, fear Me. 279
 
Ayah   16:3   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
He created the heavens and the earth with the Truth, that is, with the purpose of [manifesting] truth. Exalted be He above what they associate, with Him in the way of idols.
 
Ayah   16:4   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
He created man from a drop of fluid, of sperm, until He makes him strong and tough, yet behold! he is disputatious, extremely quarrelsome, openly, making this [disputatiousness] clear in his rejection of resurrection, contending: Who shall revive the bones when they are decayed? [Q. 36:78].
 
Ayah   16:5   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
And the cattle, camels, cows and sheep (al-anāma, cattle, is in the accusative because of the implied verb [governing it], as explained by [the following words, khalaqahā lakum]), He created them for you, [you being] included among the number of mankind. In them there is warmth, that by which you keep warm in the way of clothes and garments, [taken] from their hairs and wools, as well as [other] uses, such as [their] offspring, milk and for you to ride, and of them you eat (the adverbial clause [wa-minhā, of them] precedes [the verb] for the purpose of [establishing harmony with] the end-rhyme [of the Qurānic verse]);
 
Ayah   16:6   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
and for you there is in them beauty, adornment, when you bring them [home] to rest, [when you] return them to their resting places in the evening, and when you drive them forth to pasture, when you bring them out to the grazing pastures in the morning.
 
Ayah   16:7   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
And they bear your burdens, your baggage, to a land which you could not reach, without being on camelback, save with great trouble to yourselves, [save by] straining them. Indeed your Lord is Gentle, Merciful, to you, in having created these for you.
 
Ayah   16:8   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
And, He created, horses and mules and asses, that you may ride them, and for adornment (wa-zīnatan is an object denoting reason; the use of both of these reasons [to ride and for adornment] as illustrations of [Gods] graces does not preclude that they may have been created for other purposes, such as for consumption in the case of horses which is established [as lawful] by a hadīth in both Sahīhs [of Bukhārī and Muslim]); and He creates what you do not know, of marvelous and strange things.
 
Ayah   16:9   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
And Gods is the direction of the way, that is, to point out the straight path, and some of them, that is, the paths, are deviant, swerving away from straightness. And had He willed, to guide you, He would have guided you, to seek the way, all, so that you would be [rightly] guided of your own choice.
 
Ayah   16:10   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
He it is Who sends down water from the heaven, whence you have drink, for you to drink, and whence are trees, which grow because of this [water], whereat you let your animals graze.
 
Ayah   16:11   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
With it He makes the crops grow for you, and olives and date-palms and vines and all kinds of fruit. Surely in that, which is mentioned, there is a sign, indicating His Oneness, exalted He be, for people who reflect, 280 upon His handiwork and therefore believe.
 
Ayah   16:12   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
And He disposed for you the night and the day and the sun (wal-shamsa, read in the accusative as a supplement to what precedes it; or read wal-shamsu in the nominative as a subject [of a new sentence]) and the moon and the stars (also read both ways) are disposed (musakhkharātin, read in the accusative as a circumstantial qualifier, or in the nominative [musakhkharātun] as a predicate) by His command, by His will. Surely in that there are signs for people who understand, [a people] who reflect.
 
Ayah   16:13   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
And, He has disposed for you, whatever He has created for you in the earth, of animals, plants and otherwise, diverse in hue, such as red, yellow, green and otherwise. Surely in that there is a sign for people who remember, [a people who] are admonished.
 
Ayah   16:14   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
And He it is Who disposed the sea, [He it is Who] subdued it, that it might be sailed upon and dived in, that you may eat from it fresh meat, that is, fish, and bring forth from it ornaments which you wear, namely, pearls and coral. And you see, observe, the ships ploughing therein, ploughing through the water, that is, cleaving it as they sail upon it, coming and going with the same wind; and that you may seek (wa-litabtaghū is a supplement to li-takulū, that you may eat) of His bounty, exalted He be, by way of commerce, and that you might be thankful, to God for [all] that.
 
Ayah   16:15   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
And He cast into the earth firm mountains, lest it should shake, move, with you, and, He made therein, rivers, such as the Nile, and ways, roads, so that you might be guided, to your destinations,
 
Ayah   16:16   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
and landmarks [as well], by which you might find the roads, [landmarks] such as mountains, during the day, and by the star, meaning, by the stars, they are guided, to the roads and to the direction of prayer (qibla) by night.
 
Ayah   16:17   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
Is He then Who creates namely, God as he who does not create, namely, idols, so that you associate them with Him in worship? No. Will you not then remember, this, and so become believers?
 
Ayah   16:18   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
And if you were to count Gods grace you could never reckon it, number it precisely, let alone be able to give thanks for it. Indeed God is Forgiving, Merciful, since He bestows graces upon you despite your shortcomings and your [acts of] disobedience.
 
Ayah   16:19   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
And God knows what you keep secret and what you disclose.
 
Ayah   16:20   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
And those whom you invoke (tadūna, or read yaduna they invoke) besides God, namely, the idols, do not create anything, but are themselves created, fashioned from stones and other [materials]. 281
 
Ayah   16:21   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
They are dead, possessing no life (amwātun, dead, is a second predicate), not living (an emphasis), and they, the idols, are not aware when, is the time [in which], they shall be raised, that is, creatures: so how can they be worshipped? For, only the Creator, the Living, the Knower of the Unseen can be a God.
 
Ayah   16:22   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
Your God, the One deserving of your worship, is One God, without [any] equal in [terms of] His essence or His attributes, and this is God, exalted He be. But as for those who do not believe in the Hereafter their hearts are in denial, rejecting the Oneness [of God], and they are arrogant, scorning to believe in it.
 
Ayah   16:23   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
Without doubt, verily, God knows what they keep secret and what they disclose, and will requite them for it. Indeed He does not love the arrogant, meaning, He will punish them.
 
Ayah   16:24   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
The following was revealed regarding al-Nadr b. al-Hārith: And when it is said to them, What is it (mā is an interrogative particle; dhā is a relative particle) that your Lord has revealed?, to Muhammad (s), they say, [that] these [revelations] are, fables, lies, of the ancients, in order to lead people astray.
 
Ayah   16:25   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
That they may bear, at the conclusion of the matter, their burdens, their sins, complete, none of them expunged, on the Day of Resurrection and also, [bear] some, of the burdens of those whom they lead astray without any knowledge, because they summoned them to error and they [the latter] followed them, and thus both share in the sin. How evil, awful, is the burden they bear, this load [of sins] of theirs which they carry.
 
Ayah   16:26   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
Those before them had indeed plotted, [those] such as Nimrod he built a lofty tower that he might ascend through it to the heavens and wage war against its inhabitants; then God came at, He aimed at, their edifice from the foundations, from the base, unleashing against it winds and earthquake, which demolished it; and so the roof collapsed upon them from above them, that is, while they were beneath it, and the chastisement came upon them whence they were not aware, from a direction which would not have occurred to them:
 
Ayah   alternatively] it is said that this [description] is a simile for [demonstrating] the thwarting of that which they had settled on in the way of plots against [Gods] messengers.
 
Ayah   16:27   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
Then on the Day of Resurrection He will disgrace them, humiliate them, and He, God, will say, to them by the tongues of the angels, in rebuke: Where are those associates of Mine, as you [were wont to] claim, concerning whom, for whose sake, you used to make breaches?, you used to opposed the believers. Those who were given knowledge, from among the prophets and believers, will say, Truly disgrace on this day, as well as misfortune, are for the disbelievers they say this rejoicing at their [the disbelievers] misfortune
 
Ayah   16:28   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
those whom the angels take [in death] (read [feminine person] tatawaffāhum or [masculine] yatawaffāhum) while they are wronging themselves, through disbelief. Then they will offer submission, becoming compliant and submitting themselves [to belief in God] upon death, saying: We were not doing any evil, [any] associating others with God, whereat the angels say: Nay! Surely God is Knower of what you used to do, and will requite you for it. 282
 
Ayah   16:29   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
And it will also be said to them: So enter the gates of Hell, to abide therein! Evil indeed is the lodging, the abode, of the arrogant.
 
Ayah   16:30   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
And it is said to those who fear, idolatry, What has your Lord revealed? They will say, Good! For those who were virtuous, by [embracing] faith, in this world, there will be a virtuous [reward], namely, a goodly life; and truly the abode of the Hereafter, that is, Paradise, is better, than the world and all that is in it. God says [the following] regarding it: And truly excellent is the abode of the God-fearing, it [the Hereafter] is.
 
Ayah   16:31   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
Gardens of Eden, as a [place of] residence (jannātu Adnin is a subject, the predicate of which is [what follows]) which they will enter, [Gardens] underneath which rivers flow, wherein they shall have whatever they wish. So, [with such] a reward, God rewards the God-fearing,
 
Ayah   16:32   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
those whom (alladhīna is a description) the angels take away [in death] while they are goodly, pure of any unbelief, saying, to them upon death: Peace be on you!, and it is said to them in the Hereafter: Enter Paradise because of what you used to do.
 
Ayah   16:33   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
Do they, the disbelievers, await anything but that the angels should come to them (read [feminine person] tatīhim or [masculine] yatīhim) to seize their spirits, or that there should come your Lords command?, chastisement, or the resurrection that entails it. So, just as these have done, did those before them, from among the [former] communities: they denied their messengers and were therefore destroyed. And God did not wrong them, destroying them for no sin, but they used to wrong themselves, through disbelief.
 
Ayah   16:34   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
So that the evils of what they did smote them, that is, the requital of these [evil things smote them], and there besieged, it was sent down [against], them that which they used to mock, namely, the chastisement.
 
Ayah   16:35   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
And the idolaters, from among the Meccans, say, Had God willed we would not have worshipped anything besides Him neither we, nor our fathers nor would we have deemed anything sacred besides Him, in the way of those [camels] called bahīras and sāiba. In other words, our idolatry and our deeming [these animals] sacred are [effected] by His will; therefore He must be satisfied with this. God, exalted He be, says: So did those before them, that is, they denied their messengers regarding that which they [the messengers] brought them. Yet are messengers charged with anything save plain conveyance [of the Message]? It is not their duty to guide.
 
Ayah   16:36   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
And verily We sent forth among every community a messenger, just as We have sent you forth among these [Meccans], [to say]: Worship God, profess [belief in] His Oneness, and shun false deities, graven images, and do not worship them. Then among them were some whom God guided, and they believed, and among them were some who deserved to be in error, according to Gods knowledge, and so they did not believe. So travel, O disbelievers of Mecca, in the land and observe the nature of the consequence of those who denied, their messengers, in that they were destroyed. 283
 
Ayah   16:37   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
If you, O Muhammad (s), are eager for them to be guided, when God has already made them go astray, you will not be able to achieve this: For God does not guide (read passive lā yuhdā [?], or active lā yahdī) he whom He has [already] sent astray, he whom He desires to send astray, and they will have no helpers, [no] protectors from Gods chastisement.
 
Ayah   16:38   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
And they swear by God their most earnest oaths, in other words, with their utmost earnestness therein, that God will not resurrect the dead. God, exalted be He, says: Nay, He will resurrect them: it is a promise binding upon Him (both wadan and haqqan are verbal nouns, used for emphasis, and are in the accusative because of the verbal actions implicit in them; in other words, He promised that and made it a binding truth) but most people, that is, the people of Mecca, do not know, that.
 
Ayah   16:39   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
That He may make clear to them (li-yubayyina is semantically connected to an implied yabathuhum, He will resurrect them) what they differ, with believers, in, of matters of religion, by punishing them and rewarding the believers, and that the disbelievers may know that they were liars, when they denied the Resurrection.
 
Ayah   16:40   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
All that We say to a thing, when We will it, that is, when We will that it come into existence (qawlunā is a subject, the predicate of which is [what follows]) is to say to it Be, and it is, in other words, and that [thing] is (a variant reading [for fa-yakūnu] has fa-yakūna as a supplement to naqūla). The verse is intended as an affirmation of the power [of God] to resurrect.
 
Ayah   16:41   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
And those who emigrated for Gods cause, to establish His religion, after they had been wronged, through harm, [those] from among the people of Mecca these were the Prophet (s) and his Companions truly We shall lodge them in this world in a goodly lodging, namely, Medina, and the reward of the Hereafter, that is, Paradise, is surely greater, grander, did they but know, that is, the disbelievers or those who stayed behind and did not emigrate [did they but know] the honour that belongs to emigrants, they would have followed them.
 
Ayah   16:42   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
They are, those who endure, the harm inflicted by the idolaters and [endure] the emigration in order to make manifest the religion, and put their trust in their Lord, so that He provides for them whence they do not reckon.
 
Ayah   16:43   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
And We did not send before you anything other than men, to whom We revealed, and [sent] not angels: So ask the followers of the Remembrance, those knowledgeable in the Torah and the Gospels; if you do not know, that, then they know it, and you are more likely to believe them than the believers are to believe Muhammad (s),
 
Ayah   16:44   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
[We sent them] with clear signs (bil-bayyināt is semantically connected to an omitted [verb]), namely, We sent them with clear arguments, and the Books and We have revealed to you the Remembrance, the Qurān, that you may make clear to mankind what has been revealed to them, therein, in the way of [what is] lawful 284 and unlawful, and that perhaps they might reflect, upon this and take heed.
 
Ayah   16:45   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
Do they feel secure, those who have schemed evil, schemes against the Prophet (s) at the Council Assembly, [schemes] such as detaining him, killing him or banishing him, as mentioned in [sūrat] al-Anfāl [Q. 8:30], that God will not cause the earth to swallow them, as [God did] with Qārūn [Q. 28:81], or that the chastisement will not come upon them whence they are not aware of?, that is, in a way which would not occur to them. Indeed, they were destroyed at Badr even though they had never anticipated it.
 
Ayah   16:46   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
Or that He will not seize them in their going to and fro, during their travels for commerce, whereupon they will not be able to escape?, [whereupon] they will not be able to elude the chastisement.
 
Ayah   16:47   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
Or that He will not seize them amid [growing] fear?, [amid] a gradual diminishing [of their numbers] little by little, until all are destroyed (alā takhawwufin is a circumstantial qualifier referring to the subject of the verb [God] or the object). Indeed then your Lord is Gentle, Merciful, insofar as He does not hasten for them their punishment.
 
Ayah   16:48   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
Or have they not observed the things which God has created, which cast a shadow, such as trees or a mountain, how their shadows incline to the right and to the left (shamāil is the plural of shimāl), in other words, towards both sides, at the beginning of the day and at its end, prostrating to God (sujjadan is a circumstantial qualifier), that is to say, subservient to Him with respect to what is required of them, and [how] they, the shadows, are subject?, humbled: they [the shadows] are likened to rational beings [in this description].
 
Ayah   16:49   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
And to God prostrates whatever is in the heavens and whatever is on the earth of living creatures, that is, [of] every single thing that moves thereupon; in other words, to Him it [everything] is subservient in terms of what is required of it most of what is given [by way of example] is non-rational, since these are [the more] numerous and the angels [also prostrate] these are singled out for mention because of their merit and they are not arrogant, they do [not] disdain to worship Him.
 
Ayah   16:50   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
They, that is, the angels, fear (yakhāfūna is a circumstantial qualifier referring to the person governing [the verb] yastakbirūna, they are [not] arrogant) their Lord from above them (min fawqihim is a circumstantial qualifier referring to [the suffixed pronoun] -hum [of fawqihim]) in other words, [they fear their Lord], being High above them with the power to subjugate, and they do what they are commanded, to [do].
 
Ayah   16:51   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
And God has said: Do not choose two gods (ithnayn is for emphasis). Truly there is only One God He has added this [statement] to affirm [His] Divinity and Oneness so be in awe of Me [alone]: fear Me, to the exclusion of anyone else herein is a shift from the third person [to the first].
 
Ayah   16:52   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
And to Him belongs whatever is in the heavens and the earth, as possessions, creatures and servants. And to Him belongs the religion, the obedience, that endures, the [one] everlasting (wāsiban, is a circumstantial 285 qualifier referring to al-dīn, the religion, and is operated by the sense of the adverbial clause). Will you then fear any other than God?, when He is the True God, other than Whom there is no god (the interrogative is a [statement of] rejection and rebuke).
 
Ayah   16:53   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
Whatever grace you have, it is from God, none but He brings it (mā, whatever, is either a conditional or relative [particle]). Then when misfortune, poverty or illness, befalls you, to Him you cry for help, [to Him] you raise your voices with pleas for help and supplications, and you do not call upon any other than Him.
 
Ayah   16:54   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
Then when He has rid you of the misfortune, behold, a group of you attribute partners to their Lord,
 
Ayah   16:55   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
in order to deny that, grace, which We have given them. So enjoy, that consent of yours to worship idols (an imperative meant as a threat): for soon you shall know, the consequence of this.
 
Ayah   16:56   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
And they, that is, the idolaters, assign, to what they do not know, that they cause harm and cannot benefit [them] namely, the idols a portion of that which We have provided them with, of crops and cattle, saying that this is for God and this is for our partners. By God, you will indeed be questioned (a questioning of rebuke; there is a shift herein from the third [to the second] person) about what you used to fabricate, against God, such as [claiming] that He commanded you to [do] this.
 
Ayah   16:57   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
And they assign to God daughters, by claiming that the angels are the daughters of God Be He glorified! a declaration that He is [exalted] above that which they claim while they will have what they desire, namely, sons (the status of this sentence is either independent [nominative], or that of an [accusative] object of [the verb] yajalūna, they assign). The meaning is that to Him they assign daughters, to whom they are averse, when [in any case] He is [exalted] beyond having offspring, while to themselves they assign sons, of their own choosing, so that the best is theirs exclusively like where God says, Now, ask them: are daughters to be for your Lord, while sons are to be for them? [Q. 37:149].
 
Ayah   16:58   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
And when one of them is given the tidings of a girl, that will be born to him, his face becomes darkened, transformed like that of one [suddenly] struck by grief, and he chokes inwardly, filled with anguish: so how is it that daughters are attributed to Him, exalted be He?
 
Ayah   16:59   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
He hides, disappearing, from people, that is, [from] his people, out of distress at the tidings given to him, fearing mockery, unsure what to do with it [the newborn]: shall he retain it refrain from killing it in humiliation, [enduring] shame and disgrace, or trample into the dust, by burying it alive. Verily wretched is what they judge, [evil is] this judgement of theirs, in which they ascribe to their Creator [that His are the] daughters, who have such a [lowly] status in their eyes.
 
Ayah   16:60   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
For those who do not believe in the Hereafter, namely, [for] the disbelievers, there is an evil description, in other words, [theirs is] the most evil attribute, meaning, the most vile, which is their burying alive of [newborn] girls, despite the fact that they are needed for the purposes of marriage; and the loftiest 286 description belongs to God, [His is] the attribute most sublime, namely, that there is no god except Him. And He is the Mighty, in His kingdom, the Wise, in His creation.
 
Ayah   16:61   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
And if God were to take mankind to task for their wrongdoing, [wrongdoing] through acts of disobedience, He would not leave upon it, that is, [upon] the earth, any living being, any single [living] thing moving upon it; but He gives them respite until an appointed term; and when their term comes they will not defer, from it, by a single hour nor advance, it.
 
Ayah   16:62   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
Still, they assign to God what they dislike, for themselves such as daughters, partners in power, and the mistreatment of messengers. And their tongues, despite this, relate, tell, the lie, which is, that theirs will be the best reward, with God, namely, Paradise, as He [God] states [in their words elsewhere]: And in case I am returned to my Lord, I will indeed have the best reward with Him [Q. 41:50]. But God, exalted be He, says: Without any doubt verily theirs shall be the Fire and they shall be abandoned therein, or [it, mufratūn, means that] they shall be foremost in [entering] it (a variant reading [for mufratūn] has mufritūn, meaning that they transgress the bounds).
 
Ayah   16:63   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
By God, We verily sent to communities before you, messengers. But Satan adorned for them their deeds, [their] evil [deeds], so that they considered them to be good [deeds] and therefore they denied the messengers. So he is their patron, the guardian of their affairs, today, that is, [now] in this world, and for them there will be a painful chastisement, in the Hereafter. It is also said that by al-yawm, today, is meant the Day of Resurrection, narrating the events as though they are taking place [now]. In other words, they have no guardian other than him [in other words, Satan], and as he is incapable of helping himself, how could he possibly help them?
 
Ayah   16:64   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
And We have not revealed to you, O Muhammad (s), the Book, the Qurān, except [for the purpose] that you may make clear to them, to mankind, that wherein they differ, in the matter of religion, and as a guidance (wa-hudan is a supplement to wa-li-tubayyina, and that you may make clear) and as a mercy for a people who believe, in it.
 
Ayah   16:65   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
And God sends down water from the heaven and therewith revives the earth, with plants, after its death, [after] its drying up. Surely in that, which is mentioned, there is a sign, indicating the [truth of the] Resurrection, for a people who listen, listening and then reflecting.
 
Ayah   16:66   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
And truly for you there is in the cattle a lesson, an example to learn from. We give you to drink [this introduces] the explanation of the lesson of that which is in their bellies, the cattles [bellies], from (min indicates a new subject and is semantically connected to nusqīkum, We give you to drink) between the refuse, the intestinal waste, and the blood, pure milk, uncontaminated by either the refuse or the blood, neither in its taste, odour or colour, even though it [the milk] is [situated] between the two, palatable to drinkers, easily passing down their throats, not causing any choking.
 
Ayah   16:67   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
And of the fruits of date-palms and vines, [comes forth] a fruit, from which you draw an intoxicant, a wine that intoxicates it [the wine] is referred to by the verbal noun [sakaran, intoxicant], and this [verse] 287 came before it was prohibited and goodly provision, such as dates, raisins, vinegar, and molasses. Surely in that, which is mentioned, there is a sign, indicating His power, exalted be He, for a people who understand, [a people who] reflect.
 
Ayah   16:68   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
And your Lord revealed to the bee, a revealing [effected] through inspiration, [saying] (an, that, is either explicative or relates to the verbal noun): Choose among the hills habitations, to which you can resort, and among the trees, [also] habitations, and among the trellises which they raise, that is, the places which humans build for you for otherwise it [the bee] would not resort to these [places].
 
Ayah   16:69   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
Then eat from every [kind of] fruit, and follow, enter, the ways of your Lord, [follow] His paths in seeking pastures, [ways] made easily accessible (dhululan is the plural of dhalūl, and is a circumstantial qualifier referring to al-subul, the ways, in other words, [those paths] disposed for you, such that they pose no difficulty for you, even if it should be rough [terrain], and [such that] you would not lose your way when returning therefrom, even if it be far away; it [dhululan] is also said to be [a circumstantial qualifier] referring to the person of [the pronominal suffix of] faslukī, you follow, meaning [in this case] [follow those paths] in compliance with what is required of you). There comes forth from their bellies a drink, namely, honey, of diverse hues, wherein is a cure for mankind, from [all] ailments; it is also said [that it means that it is a cure only] for some [ailments], as indicated by the indefinite [noun] shifāun, a cure; or [that it is a cure] for all [ailments] when supplemented with some other [remedy]; or without these [other remedies] but with the resolve (niyya) [to get better]. The Prophet (s) used to prescribe it for anyone suffering from stomach pains, as reported by the two Shaykhs [Bukhārī and Muslim]. Surely in that there is a sign for a people who reflect, upon Gods handiwork, exalted be He.
 
Ayah   16:70   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
And God has created you, when you were nothing, then He takes you [in death], when your terms [of life] are concluded; and there are some among you who are relegated to the most abject stage of life, that is, the most diminished, because of old-age and senility, so that he knows nothing after [having possessed] some knowledge. Ikrima said, Whoever recites the Qurān will not come to such a predicament. God is Knowing, of how to manage [the affairs of] His creation, Powerful, in [doing] what He will.
 
Ayah   16:71   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
And God has favoured some of you above others in [respect of] provision, thus, some of you are poor, some are rich, some owners, others are owned. Now those who have been [more] favoured, namely, the masters, would not hand over their provision to those [slaves] whom their right hands possess, that is, they would not assign that wealth and other things which We have given them as something to be shared [equally] between them and their slaves, so that they, that is, the slaves and [their] masters, become equal, partners, in respect thereof. The meaning is: they do not have partners from among their slaves in respect of their wealth, so how can they make certain of Gods servants partners of His? Is it then the grace of God that they deny?, [that] they reject, when they ascribe partners to Him?
 
Ayah   16:72   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
And God made for you mates from your own selves, thus He created Eve from Adams rib and [created] all mankind from the seminal fluids of men and women, and made for you, from your mates, children and grandchildren, and He provided you with the good things, of [all] kinds of fruits, seeds and animals. Is it then in falsehood, [in] the idol, that they believe and in the grace of God that they disbelieve?, when they associate others [with God]?
 
Ayah   16:73   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
288 And they worship besides God, that is, other than Him, what has no power to give them any [sort of] provision from the heavens, such as water, and the earth, such as plants (shayan, any[thing], is a substitute for rizqan, provision) nor do they have the capacity, [nor] are they able to do anything and these are the idols.
 
Ayah   16:74   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
So do not strike any similitude for God, [do not] ascribe to God likenesses and then associate them with Him [in power]. Truly God knows, that there is nothing like Him, and you do not know, this.
 
Ayah   16:75   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
God strikes a similitude (mathalan, this is substituted by [the following, abdan mamlūkan]) a slave who is a chattel (mamlūkan, an adjective to distinguish him [this type of slave] from a free man, who is the servant of God [alone]) having no power over anything, since he has no mastery, and one on whom (man, is an indefinite [noun], adjectivally qualified, in other words, a free man) We have bestowed a fair provision from Us, such that he spends thereof secretly and openly, that is, disposing of it as he wishes: the first similitude is for the idols, while the second is His, exalted be He. Are they equal?, the powerless slaves and the dispensing free men? No. Praise belongs to God, alone. But most of them, that is, the people of Mecca, do not know, the chastisement they will come to, and so they associate others with God.
 
Ayah   16:76   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
And God strikes a similitude (mathalan, this is substituted by [the following, rajulayn]) two men, one of whom is dumb [from birth], having no power over anything, as he cannot understand nor be understood, and who is a liability, burdensome, to his master: the [legal] guardian of his affairs wherever he directs him, he does not bring, therefrom, any good, he does [not] succeed, and this is the similitude of the disbeliever. Is he, that is, the dumb one mentioned, equal to one who enjoins justice, that is, to one who is able to speak, of benefit to people, since he enjoins it [justice] and encourages [others to] it, and follows a path, a way, that is straight? this being the second [man], the believer No [he is not equal to him]. It is also said that this [last similitude] is a similitude of God, while the [similitude of the] dumb one is of the idols, so that the preceding [verse] contains the similitude of the disbeliever and the believer.
 
Ayah   16:77   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
And to God belongs the Unseen of the heavens and the earth, in other words, the knowledge of what is hidden in them. And the matter of the Hour is but as the twinkling of an eye, or it is [even] nearer, since it takes place as a result of the words, Be and it is (kun fa-yakūn). Truly God has power over all things.
 
Ayah   16:78   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
And God brought you forth from the bellies of your mothers while you did not know anything (the statement [lā talamūna shayan, while you did not know anything] is a circumstantial qualifier), and He gave you hearing and sight and hearts that perhaps you might give thanks, to Him for this [gift] and become believers.
 
Ayah   16:79   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
Have they not observed the birds [how they are] made subservient, disposed to [be able to] fly, in the air of heaven?, that is, in the air between the heaven and the earth. Nothing holds them, when they draw in their wings or open them, lest they fall, except God, by His power. Indeed in that there are signs for a people who believe, [the signs] which are that they have been created in a way that enables them to fly, as well as the creation of the air in such a way that it allows for flight, and the holding of them [up in the air so that they do not fall].
 
Ayah   16:80   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
289 And it is God Who has made for you your homes as a place of rest, a place that you can inhabit, and He has made for you out of the skins of the cattle homes, such as tents and pavilions, which you find light, to carry, on the day of your migration, your travel, and on the day of your halting; and of their wool, that is, the sheeps, and their fur, that is, the camels, and their hair, that is, the goats, [He has made for you] furniture, chattels such as rugs and blankets, and wares, for you to use, for a while, until they perish.
 
Ayah   16:81   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
And it is God Who has made for you, from what He created, of houses, trees and clouds, shade (zilāl is the plural of zill) to protect you from the heat of the sun; and He has made for you, in the mountains, places of refuge (aknān is the plural of kinn, which is [a places] where one can seek shelter [istakanna], such as a cave or a tunnel); and He has made for you garments, shirts, that protect you from the heat, that is, and [also] from the cold, and garments that protect you from your [mutual] violence, [your] warring, in other words, [to protect you] from stabbed or struck during these [instances], [garments] such as coats of mail and armour plates. So, in the same way that He has created these things, He perfects His favour in this world to you, by creating that of which you have need, so that you, O people of Mecca, might submit, [that you might] affirm His Oneness.
 
Ayah   16:82   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
But if they turn away, [if] they reject Islam, your duty, O Muhammad (s), is only to convey [the Message] plainly this was [revealed] before the command to fight [the disbelievers].
 
Ayah   16:83   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
They recognise Gods grace, that is, they affirm that it comes from Him, and then deny it, by associating others [with Him], and most of them are ungrateful.
 
Ayah   16:84   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
And, mention, the day We shall raise up from every community a witness, and this will be it [that communitys] prophet, to bear witness for it and against it, and this [day] is the Day of Resurrection; then the disbelievers will not be given permission, to make excuses, nor will they be asked to make amends, that is, [nor will they be asked] to [repent and] return to that which pleases God.
 
Ayah   16:85   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
And when those who did wrong, [those who] disbelieved, behold the chastisement, the Fire, it shall not be lightened for them, the chastisement, nor will they be granted any respite, [any] deferment from it when they see it.
 
Ayah   16:86   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
And when the idolaters behold their associates, of devils and others, they will say, Our Lord, these are our associates whom we used to invoke, [whom we used] to worship, besides You. But they will fling to them the saying, that is, they will say to them: You are indeed liars!, when you say that you used to worship us as is stated [by them] in another verse: It was not us that they worshipped [Q. 28:63]; [and also in the verse] They will deny their worship of them [Q. 19:82].
 
Ayah   16:87   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
And they will offer submission to God on that day, that is, they will have surrendered to His judgement, and that which they used to invent, in the way of [claiming that] their gods intercede for them, will fail, forsake, them. 290
 
Ayah   16:88   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
Those who disbelieve and bar, people, from the way of God, [from] His religion, them, We shall add chastisement to [their] chastisement, that [chastisement] which they have merited for their disbelief Ibn Masūd said, [Their chastisment will consist of] scorpions whose fangs are [as long] as the tallest palm trees because of the corruption they used to cause, by their barring people from belief.
 
Ayah   16:89   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
And, mention, the day We shall raise up from every community a witness against them from among themselves, and this will be their [that communitys] prophet, and We shall bring you, O Muhammad (s), as a witness against these, namely, your people. And We have revealed to you the Book, the Qurān, as a clarification of all things, that people [might] need concerning the Law, and as a guidance, from error, and a mercy and good tidings, of Paradise, to those who submit, [those who] affirm the Oneness [of God].
 
Ayah   16:90   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
Indeed God enjoins justice [that is] affirmation of [His] Oneness, or [actually] being fair, and virtue, performance of the [religious] obligations, or that you should worship God as if you were able to see Him, as [reported] in the hadīth; and giving to kinsfolk He has singled it [kinship] out for mention by way of [highlighting] its importance and He forbids lewdness, fornication, and abomination, with regard to the [stipulations of the] Law, [abomination] such as disbelief and acts of disobedience, and aggression, wrongdoing against people He also singles this out for mention by way of [showing] its importance; just as He began with [the mention of] lewdness, in this way, He admonishes you, through commands and prohibitions, so that you might remember, [that you might] be admonished (tadhakkarūna, you [might] remember, the original tā [of tatadhakkarūna] has been assimilated with the dhāl). In the Mustadrak [of alHākim al-Naysābūrī] it is reported from Ibn Masūd that [he said]: This [verse] is the most comprehensive verse in the Qurān in terms of [what is] good and [what is] evil.
 
Ayah   16:91   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
And fulfil Gods covenant, [effected] by way of pledges of allegiance and oaths and in other ways, when you made a covenant, and do not break [your] oaths after pledging them and having made God surety over you, that you will fulfill [the covenant], for you have sworn [the oath] by Him (the sentence wa-qad jaaltumuLlāha alaykum kafīlan, and having made God surety over you, is a circumstantial qualifier). Truly God knows what you do [this is] a threat for them.
 
Ayah   16:92   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
And do not be like her who undoes, spoils, her yarn, that which she has spun, after having made it strong, [having] set and spun it, [breaking it up] into fibres (ankāthan is a circumstantial qualifier, [ankāth is] the plural of nikth, and means that which is undone [yunkathu]) this was an imbecile Meccan woman who used to spin all day and then undo it by making (tattakhidhūna is a circumstantial qualifier referring to the person of [the verb] takūnū, [do not] be like), in other words, [what is meant is] do not be like her by making, your oaths a [means of] deceit, (dakhal, is what enters [yadkhulu] into something but does not belong to it), in other words, as [a means of causing] mischief or as trickery, between you, by breaking these [oaths], so that one group may become more numerous than [another] group. They used to enter into an alliance with a given group, but if they encountered another more numerous and more powerful [group], they would renege on their alliance with the former and forge a [new] alliance with these [latter]. God only tries, tests, you thereby, in other words, by that which He enjoins, in the way of fulfilling the covenant, so that He may observe the obedient and the disobedient among you, or when [it is the case that] one group is more numerous [than another], that He may observe whether you fulfil [your obligation to them] or not; and certainly He will make clear to you on the Day of Resurrection that wherein you used to differ, during [the life of] this world, with regard to covenants and otherwise, by punishing he who reneged and rewarding he who was faithful [to his covenant]. 291
 
Ayah   16:93   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
For if God had willed, He could have made you one community, people of a single religion, but He leads astray whom He will and guides whom He will, and you will surely be questioned, on the Day of Resurrection, a questioning of rebuke, about what you used to do, so that you might be requited for it.
 
Ayah   16:94   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
And do not make your oaths a [means of] deceit between you He repeats this [here] for emphasis lest a foot should slip, that is, [lest] your feet [should slip] off the path of Islam, after being steady, having been set upon it, and [lest] you should taste evil, that is, chastisement, forasmuch as you barred [people] from the way of God, in other words, for your refraining to fulfil covenants or barring others from [doing] this, since your custom [once established] will be followed [by others], and there be a tremendous chastisement for you, in the Hereafter.
 
Ayah   16:95   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
And do not sell Gods covenant for a small price, of this world, so that you break it in return for this [small price]. For truly what is with God, of reward, is better for you, than all that is in this world if you should know, this, then do not break it.
 
Ayah   16:96   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
That which is with you, of [the things of] this world, will come to an end, will perish, but that which is with God remains, [it is] everlasting. And He shall surely pay (read la-yajziyanna or la-najziyanna, We shall surely pay) those who were patient, in fulfilling their covenants, their reward according to the best of what they used to do, the best [here] means the good.
 
Ayah   16:97   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
Whoever acts righteously, whether male or female, and is a believer, him verily We shall revive with a goodly life. This is said to be life in Paradise; or it is life on earth, [when it is] one of contentedness or one of wholesome (halāl) provision. And We shall surely pay them their reward according to the best of what they used to do.
 
Ayah   16:98   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
And when you recite the Qurān, that is, when you intend to recite it, seek refuge in God from Satan the outcast, in other words, say aūdhu biLllāhi min al-shaytān al-rajīm, I seek refuge in God from the accursed Satan.
 
Ayah   16:99   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
Indeed he has no power, sway, over those who believe and put their trust in their Lord.
 
Ayah   16:100   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
His [Satans] power is only over those who choose him as [their] patron, by obeying him, and those who ascribe partners to Him, that is, to God.
 
Ayah   16:101   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
And when We exchange a verse in place of a [different] verse, by abrogating it and revealing another, for the welfare of [Gods] servants and God knows best what He reveals they say, that is, the disbelievers [say] to the Prophet (s): You are just a fabricator, a liar, making it up yourself. Nay, most of them do not know, the true nature of the Qurān and the benefit [to Gods servants] of abrogation. 292
 
Ayah   16:102   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
Say, to them: The Holy Spirit, Gabriel, has revealed it from your Lord with truth (bil-haqq, this is semantically connected to nazzala, he [Gabriel] has revealed [it]) to confirm [the faith of] those who believe, by their believing in it [when it is revealed], and as guidance and good tidings for those who have submitted [to God].
 
Ayah   16:103   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
And verily (wa-laqad is for confirmation) We know that they say, It is only a human that is teaching him, the Qurān this was a Christian blacksmith whom the Prophet (s) used to frequent. God, exalted be He, says: The tongue, the language, of him to whom they refer, to whom they incline, [with the accusation] that he is [the one] teaching him, is foreign; while this, Qurān, is [in] a clear Arabic tongue, one of lucidity and clarity: so how can a foreigner be teaching him?
 
Ayah   16:104   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
Indeed those who do not believe in Gods signs God shall not guide them and there is a painful chastisement for them.
 
Ayah   16:105   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
Only those invent falsehood who do not believe in Gods signs, the Quran, by saying that these are the words of a human, and it is they who are the liars (the emphasis is [effected] by way of repetition; wa-inna, and indeed, and other [combinations of inna] are [used] in refutation of their saying, You are just a fabricator [above, Q. 16:101]).
 
Ayah   16:106   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
Whoever disbelieves in God after [having affirmed] his faith except for him who is compelled, to pronounce [a statement of] unbelief and so pronounces it, while his heart is at rest in faith (man, whoever, is [either] a subject or a conditional, and so the predicate [of this subject], or the response [to this conditional], is [an implied] lahum waīdun shadīd, there is for them a severe threat [of chastisement]; this is indicated by [the statement that follows]) but he who opens up his breast to unbelief, that is, [he who] opens it up and expands it [with unbelief], meaning that his soul is content with it, upon such shall be wrath from God, and there is a great chastisement for them.
 
Ayah   16:107   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
That, threat [of chastisement] for them, is because they have preferred the life of this world, they have chosen it [in preference], to the Hereafter, and because God does not guide the disbelieving folk.
 
Ayah   16:108   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
They are the ones on whose hearts God has set a seal, and on their hearing and their sight [as well], and it is they who are heedless, of what [punishment] is being prepared for them.
 
Ayah   16:109   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
Without a doubt verily in the Hereafter they are the ones who will be the losers, because their journeys end shall be the Fire, in which they shall be perpetually.
 
Ayah   16:110   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
Then indeed your Lord as for those who emigrated, to Medina, after they were persecuted, [after] they 293 were tortured and [compelled to] pronounce [words of] unbelief (a variant reading [for futinū, they were persecuted] has fatanū, in other words, [after] they disbelieved, or [after] they turned people away from belief), and then struggled and were patient, in obedience indeed your Lord after that, that is, [after] such a trial, is Forgiving, of them, Merciful, to them (the predicate of the first inna, indeed, is indicated by the predicate of the second one).
 
Ayah   16:111   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
Mention, the day when every soul will come pleading, arguing, for itself, not concerned for any other [soul] this is the Day of Resurrection and every soul will be repaid, the requital [of], what it has done and they will not be wronged, at all.
 
Ayah   16:112   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
And God strikes a similitude (mathalan is substituted by [the following, qaryatan]) a town, Mecca meaning its inhabitants secure, from any raids, never becoming agitated, and peaceful, without anyone ever needing to emigrate from it, on account of anxiety or fear, its provision coming to it plenteously, abundantly, from every place. But it rejected Gods graces, by denying the Prophet (s), so God made it taste the garb of hunger, and so they suffered seven years of drought, and fear, as a result of the raiding parties of the Prophet (s), [all] because of what they used to do.
 
Ayah   16:113   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
And verily there came to them a messenger from among them, Muhammad (s), but they denied him, and so the chastisement, of hunger and fear, seized them while they were evildoers.
 
Ayah   16:114   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
So eat, O believers, of the lawful and good food which God has provided you, and be thankful for Gods grace, if it is Him that you worship.
 
Ayah   16:115   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
He has forbidden you only carrion, blood, the flesh of swine, and that which has been hallowed to other than God. Yet whoever is compelled, neither craving nor transgressing, then truly God is Forgiving, Merciful.
 
Ayah   16:116   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
And do not say, concerning that which your own tongues qualify, falsehood [such as] This is lawful, and this is unlawful, for what God [respectively] has not made lawful, and what He has not made unlawful, in order to invent lies against God, by attributing such [claims] to Him. Truly those who invent lies against God will not prosper.
 
Ayah   16:117   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
For them [there will be], a brief enjoyment, in this world, and for them, in the Hereafter, there will be a painful chastisement.
 
Ayah   16:118   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
And to those of Jewry, that is, the Jews, We forbade that which We have related to you already, in the verse, And to those of Jewry We forbade every beast with hoof to the end [Q. 6:146]; and We did not wrong them, by forbidding [them] that, but they used to wrong themselves, by committing acts of disobedience which necessarily bring about such [consequences].
 
Ayah   16:119   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
294 Then indeed your Lord to those who did evil, associating others [with God], out of ignorance, and then repented, returned [to Gods way], after that and made amends, in their actions indeed your Lord after that, that is, [after] that ignorance, or that repentance, is Forgiving, of them, Merciful, to them.
 
Ayah   16:120   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
Truly Abraham was a community, a leader (imām), a [good] example, comprising [in his character] all the good traits, obedient to God, a hanīf, inclining towards the upright religion, and he was not of the idolaters;
 
Ayah   16:121   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
grateful [as he was] for His graces, He chose him, elected him, and guided him to a straight path.
 
Ayah   16:122   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
And We gave him (herein is a shift [to the first person plural] from the third person) in this world good, which is handsome praise [of him] by members of all [three] religions, and in the Hereafter he will indeed be among the righteous, for whom there will be the highest degrees [of reward].
 
Ayah   16:123   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
Then We revealed to you, O Muhammad (s), [saying]: Follow the creed, the religion, of Abraham, a hanīf, and he was not of the idolaters: this [remark] is repeated in order to refute to the claim of the Jews and Christians that they follow his religion.
 
Ayah   16:124   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
The Sabbath was only prescribed, in other words, its consecration was made obligatory [only], for those who differed concerning it, with their prophet these were the Jews. They were commanded to devote themselves solely to worship on Friday, but they said, We do not want it, and chose Saturday; consequently thereon [the observance of] it was enforced strictly on them; and lo! your Lord will judge between them on the Day of Resurrection, concerning that wherein they used to differ, with regard this matter [of the Sabbath], by rewarding the obedient and chastising the one who disobeyed by [his] violating its sanctity.
 
Ayah   16:125   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
Call, mankind, O Muhammad (s), to the way of your Lord, [to] His religion, with wisdom, [with] the Qurān, and fair exhortation, its [the Qurāns] fair exhortations, or with gentle words, and dispute with them by way of that which, that is, by way of that [manner of] disputation which, is best, such as calling [them] to God by way of His signs and calling [them] to His definitive arguments. Truly your Lord knows best, that is, He is fully knowledgeable [of], those who stray from His way and He knows best those who are guided, and will requite them this was [revealed] before the command to fight [them].
 
Ayah   16:126   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
After Hamza [b. Abd al-Muttalib] had been killed and mutilated, and the Prophet (s) had seen him and said, Verily I will mutilate 70 of them for you, the following was revealed: And if you retaliate, retaliate with the like of what you have been made to suffer; and yet if you endure patiently, [refraining] from revenge, verily that, namely, [that] enduring, is better for the patient. Thus the Prophet (s) refrained [from taking revenge] and made atonement for his oath, as reported by al-Bazzār.
 
Ayah   16:127   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
So be patient, and your patience is only by [the help of] God, [only] by His assistance. And do not grieve for them, that is, [for] the disbelievers if they do not believe, despite your eagerness that they believe, nor be in 295 distress because of that which they scheme, in other words, do not be concerned with their scheming, for I [God] will make victorious over them.
 
Ayah   16:128   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
Truly God is with those who fear, [falling into] unbelief and [committing] acts of disobedience, and those who are virtuous, by way of obedience and patience, [granting them] assistance and victory.





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