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24. Surah An-Nr سورة النّور

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This Surah (Revealed) Medinese, consisting of 62 or 64 verses.(An-Nr)
 
Ayah   24:1   الأية الأولي
بِسْم ِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَٰنِ الرَّحِيمِ
Ayah First   1   الأية الأولي
Tafseer
 
This is, a sūra which We have revealed and prescribed (read faradnāhā, or [the intensive form] farradnāhā, on account of the large number of prescriptions contained in it) and wherein We have revealed manifest signs, [signs] containing clear indications, that perhaps you might remember (tadhakkarūna: the second tā [of tatadhakkarūna] has been assimilated with the dhāl), that you might be admonished.
 
Ayah   24:2   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
As for the fornicatress and the fornicator, that is, of those not in wedlock because those [in wedlock] are stoned according to the Sunna (the al [in al-zāniya, the fornicatress, and al-zānī, the fornicator] according to some mentioned [opinions] is a relative [particle]; the clause [al-zāniyatu wal-zānī] is a subject, and because of its similarity to a conditional, the fā has been inserted into the predicate, which is [the following, fajlidū]): strike each of them a hundred lashes, [a hundred] strikes (one says jaladahu to mean daraba jildahu, he struck him on the skin). According to the Sunna, in addition to this [punishment] there is also banishment for a whole year. The slave, however, receives half of the mentioned [punishment]. And do not let any pity for them overcome you in Gods religion, that is to say, in [the fulfilment of] His rulings, by disregarding any part of their prescribed punishment, if you believe in God and the Last Day, namely, the Day of Resurrection: in this [statement] there is an incitement to [abide by] what was [mentioned] before the conditional [above] and it also constitutes the response to the latter, or [at least is] an indication of the response to it. And let their punishment, the flogging, be witnessed by a group of the believers some say [that this should be a group of] three; some say four, as in the number of witnesses testifying to an act of fornication.
 
Ayah   24:3   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
The fornicator shall not marry anyone but a fornicatress or an idolatress, and the fornicatress shall be married by none except a fornicator or an idolator, in other words, what is suitable for each of the two [for the purposes of marriage] is the above-mentioned; and that, namely, marrying of fornicators, is forbidden to believers, who are better [than those]. This was revealed when the poor among the Emigrants resolved to marry the wealthy whores of the idolaters, so that they [the women] would provide for them. Thus it is said that the prohibition applies specifically to them; but it is also said to apply in general; but it was abrogated by Gods words: Marry off the spouseless among you [Q. 24:32].
 
Ayah   24:4   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
And those who accuse honourable women [in wedlock], who are chaste, of fornication, and then do not bring four witnesses, to testify as eyewitnesses to their fornication, strike them eighty lashes, that is, each one of them, and do not accept any testimony from them ever, in anything; and those, they are the 391 immoral, for committing a grave sin (kabīra);
 
Ayah   24:5   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
except those who repent thereafter and make amends, in their deeds, for God is indeed Forgiving, of their [unsubstantiated] accusations, Merciful, to them, in inspiring them to make repentance whereby their immorality is curbed and their testimony becomes [once again] acceptable some say, however, that it can never be accepted [thereafter], if the proviso is taken to refer to the last clause.
 
Ayah   24:6   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
And those who accuse their wives, of fornication, but have no witnesses, to [substantiate] this, except themselves which happened with some Companions then the testimony of one of them (fa-shahādatu ahadihim, the subject) shall be to testify [swearing] by God four times (arabaa shahādātin, is in the accusative as a verbal noun) that he is indeed being truthful, in accusing his wife of committing fornication,
 
Ayah   24:7   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
and a fifth time that Gods wrath shall be upon him if he were lying, in this (the predicate of the subject [fashahādatu ahadihim, then the testimony of one of them] is [the implicit] will spare him the prescribed [legal] punishment for [false] accusation).
 
Ayah   24:8   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
And the punishment, namely, the prescribed [legal] punishment for fornication that is established upon his testimony, shall be averted from her if she testify [swearing] by God four times that he is indeed lying, in accusing her of having fornicated;
 
Ayah   24:9   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
and a fifth time that Gods wrath shall be upon her if he were being truthful, therein.
 
Ayah   24:10   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
And were it not for Gods bounty to you and His mercy, in shielding you [from being exposed] in such [situations], and that God is the Relenting, in His acceptance of repentance in such [situations] and otherwise, Wise, in the rulings He has given for this and other matters, that He might make clear the truth therein and hasten punishment for those deserving it.
 
Ayah   24:11   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
Truly those who initiated the slander, the worst calumny against Āisha mother of the believers, may God be pleased with her accusing her [of fornication], are a band from among yourselves, a group from among the believers. She said [that these were] Hassān b. Thābit, Abd Allāh b. Ubayy, Mistah [b. Uthātha], and Hamna bt. Jahsh. Do not suppose, O you believers other than the [mentioned] band, that it is bad for you; rather it is good for you, for God will reward you for it and reveal Āishas innocence and [the innocence of] the one who [is supposed to have] committed it with her, namely, Safwān [b. al-Muattal]. She [Āisha] related: I accompanied the Prophet (s) during a raid, and this was after the [requirement to wear the] veil had been revealed. When he was through with it [the raid], he headed back [to the campsite] and one night, having drawn close to Medina, he announced that all should march off [home]. So I walked a distance [away from the campsite] and relieved myself. But when I came back to the campsite, [I realised that] my necklace (iqd meaning qilāda) had snapped. So I went back to look for it. In the meantime they had strapped my litter in which one rides thinking that I was inside, for in those days women were slight and ate very small portions (ulqa). [Finally] I found my necklace, but when I went back to where I had been staying overnight, they had already departed. I sat in the place where I had camped; I assumed that the group would notice my absence and come back for me. But my eyes were overcome [by 392 drowsiness] and I fell asleep. Safwān had pitched camp behind the army to rest for some of the night (arrasa), then set off while it was still night until he reached the site of the camp. He saw what looked like a person sleeping and recognised me when he [eventually] saw me, having seen me on numerous occasions before the [requirement of the] veil. I woke up to the sound of him saying, To God we belong and to Him we shall surely return (innā liLlāhi wa-innā ilayhi rājiūn), for he had recognised me. So I concealed my face with my gown (jilbāb) in other words, I covered it up with my wrap (mulāa). By God he did not so much as say a word to me, nor did I hear him say anything other than the words, To God we belong and to Him we shall surely return, as he brought his camel to its knees and pressed with his foot against its foreleg [for me to mount it]. I then mounted it and he set off leading me back on the camel until we reached the army which had stopped because of the extreme midday heat; some had died [searching] for me. The one who bore the greater share of it [the sinful accusation] was Abd Allāh b. Ubayy b. Salūl her [Āishas] words end here; this was reported by the two Shaykhs [al-Bukhārī and Muslim]. God, exalted be He, says: Upon every man of them shall be the [onus of the] sin which he has earned, in this [affair], and as for him who bore the greater share thereof, that is, [him who] assumed most of [the responsibility for] it, having initiated it and made it public, namely, Abd Allah b. Ubayy: there will be an awful chastisement for him, namely, the Fire in the Hereafter.
 
Ayah   24:12   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
Why, when you [first] heard about it, did the believing men and women not think good of themselves, that is, [why did] some [not] think good of others, and say, This is a manifest calumny?, [this is] a patent lie? (there is a shift here in the address from the second to the third person), in other words, [why did] you [not] assume [good of them], O band [of believers] and say:
 
Ayah   24:13   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
Why did they, that is, this band [of accusers], not produce four witnesses to it?, who had witnessed it. And since they did not produce the witnesses, those, in Gods sight, in His judgement, they are liars, in this [matter].
 
Ayah   24:14   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
And were it not for Gods bounty to you and His mercy in the life of this world and the Hereafter there would have befallen you, for what you, O band [of accusers], engaged in, [for] what you indulged in, an awful chastisement, in the Hereafter;
 
Ayah   24:15   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
when you were receiving it [welcomingly] with your tongues, that is to say, [when] you were reporting it one from the other (one of the two letters tā has been omitted from the verb [tatalaqqawnahu, you were receiving it]; idh, when, is dependent because of massakum, befallen you, or afadtum, engaged in) and were uttering with your mouths that whereof you had no knowledge, supposing it to be a light matter, a sinless [act], while with God it was grave, in sinfulness.
 
Ayah   24:16   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
And why, when you heard it, did you not say, It is not for us to speak about this. Glory be to You! this [exclamation] here is meant to indicate amazement This is an awful calumny?, [an awful] lie?
 
Ayah   24:17   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
God admonishes you, He forbids you, lest you should ever repeat the like of it, if you are [in truth] believers, [then] you will be admonished by this.
 
Ayah   24:18   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
393 And God clarifies for you the signs, through commands and prohibitions, and God is Knower, of what He enjoins and what He prohibits, Wise, therein.
 
Ayah   24:19   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
Truly those who love that indecency should be spread, by the tongue, concerning those who believe, by its being associated with them and the ones [meant] are the band theirs will be a painful chastisement in the life of this world, by way of the prescribed [legal] punishment for [false] accusation, and the Hereafter, by way of the Fire, as is Gods due, and God knows, that such [indecency] does not apply in their case, and you, O band [of accusers], as regards the calumny of which you spoke, do not know, whether such [indecency] took place among them.
 
Ayah   24:20   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
And were it not for Gods bounty to you, O band [of accusers] and His mercy and that God is Gentle, Merciful, to you, He would have surely hastened to [bring about] your punishment.
 
Ayah   24:21   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
O you who believe, do not follow in the steps of Satan, that is, his ways of making things seem attractive. For whoever follows in the steps of Satan, assuredly he, the one being followed, enjoins indecency, that is, [he enjoins] vile acts, and what is reprehensible, if followed, according to the Law. And were it not for Gods bounty to you and His mercy not one of you, O band [of accusers], would ever have grown pure, after the calumny of which you spoke, that is to say, [not one of you] would have ever been reformed or purified from this sin by repenting of it. But God purifies whom He will, from sin, by accepting his repentance from him, and God is Hearer, of what you have said, Knower, of your intentions.
 
Ayah   24:22   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
And do not let those of you who possess bounty, the wealthy, and the affluent swear not to give to the near of kin and the poor and those who emigrate in the way of God this was revealed regarding Abū Bakr who swore to provide no more for Mistah, his maternal cousin, a destitute Emigrant who had fought at [the battle of] Badr, because of his involvement in the calumny, when thitherto he had provided for him. And [it was revealed also regarding] certain Companions who swore not to give voluntary alms to those who had participated in [spreading] the calumny in any way. Let them forgive and excuse, them in this matter. Do you not love that God should forgive you? And God is Forgiving, Merciful, to believers. Abū Bakr said: Indeed. I would love that God forgive me, and he restored [thereafter] to Mistah what he used to expend on him.
 
Ayah   24:23   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
Truly those who make accusations, of fornication, against honourably married, chaste, women who are unaware, of indecent acts since it would never occur to them to commit such [acts] who believe, in God and His Messenger, shall be cursed in this world and the Hereafter; and there will be an awful chastisement for them
 
Ayah   24:24   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
on the day (yawma is in the accusative because of the [implicit sense of] permanence to which lahum, for them, is semantically connected) when their tongues and their hands and their feet shall testify against them (read [feminine person] tashhadu or [masculine person] yashhadu, testify) concerning what they used to do, in terms of speech and action this [day] is the Day of Resurrection.
 
Ayah   24:25   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
On that day God will pay them in full their just due, He will requite them with the requital they deserve, and 394 they shall know that God is the Manifest Truth, since He will have realised for them that requital of His whereof they had been in doubt. Among such [people] is Abd Allāh b. Ubayy. The honourable women mentioned above are the Prophets (s) wives, regarding whom no repentance has been mentioned [as being possible] in the case of their being falsely accused; those women regarding whom repentance has been mentioned, however, at the beginning of the sūra [verses 4-5], in the case of their being falsely accused, are women other these [wives of the Prophet].
 
Ayah   24:26   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
Vile women, and [vile] words, are for vile men, and vile men for vile women, and the mentioned [vile words]. Good women, and as mentioned [good words], are for good men, and good men for good women, and the mentioned [good words], that is to say, what suits something vile is its like, and what suits something good is its like such, good men and women, the like of Āisha and Safwān, are absolved of what they say, [what] the corrupt men and women [say] about them. For them, for good men and women, will be forgiveness and a glorious provision, in Paradise. Āisha felt honoured by some of the things [mentioned] in this [verse], namely, that she was created a good woman and was promised forgiveness and a glorious provision.
 
Ayah   24:27   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
O you who believe, do not enter houses other than your houses until you have [first] asked permission and greeted their occupants. So a person must say, Peace be upon you, may I enter?, as is stated in one hadīth. That is better for you, than entering without permission, that perhaps you might remember (tadhakkarūna: the second tā [of tatadhakkarūna] has been assimilated with the dhāl) the superiority of such [conduct] and so follow it.
 
Ayah   24:28   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
And if you do not find anyone in them, to give you permission, [still] do not enter them until permission has been given to you. And if it is said to you, when you are seeking permission, Go away, then go away, for this, going away, is purer, that is, better, for you, than sitting [and waiting] at the doorstep. And God knows what you do, whether you enter with permission or without it, and He will requite you for it.
 
Ayah   24:29   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
You would not be at fault if you enter [without permission] uninhabited houses wherein is comfort, some benefit, for you, in the way of finding shelter and so on, as in the case of travellers inns and charitable hostels. And God knows what you disclose, [what] you do openly, and what you hide, what you do secretly when entering houses other than your own, be it for a righteous purpose or otherwise. It will be mentioned shortly that they should bid themselves peace when entering their own houses.
 
Ayah   24:30   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
Tell believing men to lower their gaze, from what is unlawful for them to look at (min [of min absārihim, their gaze] is extra) and to guard their private parts, from doing with them what is unlawful [for them to do]. That is purer, in other words, better, for them. Truly God is Aware of what they do, with their gazes and private parts, and He will requite them for it.
 
Ayah   24:31   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
And tell believing women to lower their gaze, away from what is not lawful for them to look at, and to guard their private parts, from what is not lawful for them to do with them, and not to display their adornment except for what is apparent, namely, the face and the hands, which may be seen by a stranger, when there is no danger of [either or both falling into] temptation this being one of two opinions. The second [of these] is that [even] this is forbidden because there is a presumption that these [parts] will cause temptation and this is the preferred opinion, if one must settle this topic [with a definitive opinion]; and 395 let them draw their veils over their bosoms, that is, let them cover up their heads, necks and chests with veils, and not reveal their, hidden, adornment, namely, all that is other than the face and the hands, except to their husbands (buūl is the plural form of bal, male spouse) or their fathers, or their husbands fathers, or their sons, or their husbands sons, or their brothers, or their brothers sons, or their sisters sons, or their women, or what their right hands own, all of whom are permitted to look thereat, except for the part from the navel down to the knees, which is unlawful for any other than their husbands to see; their women, however, excludes disbelieving women, for it is not permitted for Muslim women to reveal themselves to these; what their right hands own comprises slaves; or such men who are dependant, on what food may be left over, not (ghayri, read as an adjective, or read ghayra as an exceptive) possessing any sexual desire, [not] those men who are in [sexual] need of women, so for example those whose male member cannot become erect; or children who are not yet aware of womens private parts, in [the context of] sexual intercourse, and so to these they may reveal themselves except for that part from the navel to the knees. And do not let them thump with their feet to make known their hidden ornaments, as in a rattling anklet [and the like]. And rally to God in repentance, O believers, [repenting] of the occasions on which you may have looked at what is forbidden [to look at] of such [parts] and otherwise, so that you might be prosperous, [so that you might] be saved from such [sinful acts] when your repentance thereof is accepted in this verse the prevalent address is to males over females.
 
Ayah   24:32   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
And marry off the spouseless among you (ayāmā is the plural form of ayyim, namely, a spouseless female, whether she be a virgin or one previously married, or a spouseless male), this [stipulation] relates to free men and free women, and the righteous ones, the believers, among your male slaves and your female slaves (ibād is one plural form of abd). If they, the free men, are poor, God will enrich them, through marriage, out of His bounty. God is Embracing, of [the needs of] His creatures, Knowing, of them.
 
Ayah   24:33   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
And let those who cannot find the means to marry be continent, [those who do not have] the bridal money or the means for financial support needed for marriage, [let them restrain themselves] from fornication, until God enriches them, [until] He improves their means, out of His bounty, and they marry. And those who seek a written contract [of emancipation], from among those whom your right hand owns, of male slaves and female slaves, contract with them accordingly, if you know in them any good, such as trustworthiness and the ability to earn [income] in order to fulfil the amount stated in the written contract, which might be worded for example thus: I contract you for [the amount of] two thousand to be paid over a period of two months, at one thousand a month, and if you fulfill this, you are a free man, and the other would say, I accept; and give them this is a command for the [slaves] owners out of the wealth of God which He has given you, in the measure that will help them to fulfill their commitment to you (the action of ītā, giving, here suggests that some of the amount to which they have committed themselves should be waived). And do not compel your slave-girls, your handmaidens, to prostitution, fornication, when they desire to be chaste, to abstain therefrom (this desire is the cause of the [act of] compulsion, so that the statement is not properly a conditional), that you may seek, through such compulsion, the transient things of the life of this world this was revealed regarding Abd Allāh b. Ubayy, who used to force his slave-girls to earn money through fornication. And should anyone compel them, then surely God, after their compulsion, will be Forgiving, to these [slave-girls], Merciful, to them.
 
Ayah   24:34   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
And verily We have revealed to you clear verses (read mubayyanāt or mubayyināt), in this sūra, [verses] in which [if read mubayyanāt] what is mentioned is [already] clear, or which [if read mubayyināt] are clarificatory of [that which is mentioned], and an example, a curious tale, namely, that of Āisha, of those who passed away before you, that is to say, of their kind of example, that is, [an example] of their curious tales, such as the tales of Joseph and Mary, and an admonition for those who fear God, in what He, exalted be He, has said: And do not let any pity for them overcome you in Gods religion [verse 2, above]; and, Why, when you [first] heard about it, did the believing men [and women] not think [good of themselves] to the end [of verse 12, above]; and, And why, when you heard it, did you not say to the end [of verse 396 16, above]; and, God admonishes you lest you should ever repeat [the like of it] to the end [of verse 17, above]. This [admonition] is specifically for those who fear God because they are the ones to benefit from such [an admonition].
 
Ayah   24:35   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
God is the Light of the heavens and the earth, in other words, He illumines both of them with the sun and the moon. The likeness of His Light, that is, the description of it [as it resides] in the heart of a believer, is as a niche wherein is a lamp. The lamp is in a glass this [glass] is the [case for the] lantern and the misbāh is the torch, that is, the wick that is lit; al-mishkāt is a recess that does not penetrate [to the other side], in other words, the tube inside the lantern, the glass, with the light inside it [is], as it were a glittering star, that is, a light-giving [star] (read dirrīun or durrīun, derived from al-dar, to repel, because it repels darkness; or read durriyyun, derived from al-durr, pearls) kindled, is this lamp (read past tense tawaqqada; a variant reading has the imperfect tense of awqada, in the passive voice: yūqadu; another reading has tūqadu, in which case the reference is to al-zujāja, the glass) from, the oil of, a Blessed Tree, an olive neither of the east nor of the west, but in between the two, so that no harmful cold or heat affects it; whose oil would almost glow forth [of itself], though no fire touched it, because of [the extent of] its purity. Light, by Him, upon light, by fire; the light of God is His guidance of the believer, light upon the light of faith. God guides to His Light, that is, [to] the religion of Islam, whom He will. And God strikes, He illustrates, similitudes for men, by approximating [such similitudes] to their comprehension, so that they might take heed and believe; and God is Knower of all things, including [knowledge of] how to strike similitudes.
 
Ayah   24:36   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
In houses (fī buyūtin is semantically connected to yusabbihu, glorify, that will follow) [whose status] God has allowed to be raised, [houses He has allowed] to be venerated, and wherein His Name is remembered, through the affirmation of His Oneness, therein [they] make glorifications (read yusabbahu, glorifications are made, or yusabbihu, meaning [therein] pray) to Him in the mornings (al-ghuduww is a verbal noun, meaning al-ghadawāt, the early mornings) and the evenings, the darkness, after sunset,
 
Ayah   24:37   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
men (rijālun, the subject of the verb yusabbihu, make glorifications; if [the passive is] read, yusabbahu, glorifications are made, it [rijālun, men] substitutes for the [impersonal] subject of lahu, to Him, so that rijālun, men, is the subject of an implied verb in response to an implied question as if one had asked: who makes glorifications to Him?) whom neither trading, purchase, nor sale distracts from the remembrance of God and the observance of prayer (the [final] hā of iqāmat, the observance, has been omitted to facilitate [the reading]) and payment of the alms. They fear a day when hearts and eyes will be tossed about, in fear, the hearts [tossed about] between [the hope of] deliverance and [the fear of] destruction, and the eyes to the right and to the left [out of anxiety] this is the Day of Resurrection;
 
Ayah   24:38   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
so that God may reward them for the best of what they did, that is, [reward them] the reward for it (ahsana means husna), and give them more out of His bounty; and God provides whomever He will without [any] reckoning (one says [of someone] yunfiqu bi-ghayri hisābin, to mean that such [a person] is so generous that it is as though he does not [need to] reckon what he spends).
 
Ayah   24:39   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
And as for those who disbelieve, their works are like a mirage in a plain (qīa is the plural of qā, that is to say, fulāt, an open space). [A mirage is] a kind of radiation which one might observe therein at midday during extreme heat, resembling running water which the thirsty man supposes to be water until he comes to it and finds it to be nothing, like what he had supposed. Likewise is [the case of] the disbeliever who supposes that his deeds, such as some voluntary alms, will benefit him; but when he dies and comes before his Lord he will not find his deed, in other words, it will be of no benefit to him; and he finds God 397 there, namely, in the place of his deeds, Who pays him his account in full, that is, He requites him for it in this world; and God is swift at reckoning, that is, at requiting.
 
Ayah   24:40   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
Or, [it is that] those who disbelieve, their evil deeds are, as the manifold darkness on a deep sea, covered by a billow, above which, that is, [above which] billow, there is [another] billow, above which, second billow, there are clouds, these being the, manifold [layers of] darkness, one on top of another, the darkness of the sea, the darkness of the first billow, the darkness of the second together with the darkness of the clouds. When he, an observer, holds out his hand, in such layers of darkness, he can scarcely see it, in other words, he would not [even] come close to seeing it. And he whom God has not granted any light has no light, that is to say, he whom God does not guide cannot be guided.
 
Ayah   24:41   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
Have you not seen that God is glorified by all who are in the heavens and the earth, prayer being one form of glorification, and the birds (tayr is the plural of tāir), between the heaven and the earth, spreading their wings? (sāffātin is a circumstantial qualifier). Of each [one of them] He, God, verily knows its prayer and its glorification; and God knows what they do the statement is predominantly directed to rational beings.
 
Ayah   24:42   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
And to God belongs the kingdom of the heavens and the earth, the treasuries of rain, provision and vegetation, and with God is the journeys end, the [final] return.
 
Ayah   24:43   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
Have you not seen how God drives the clouds, moves them along gently, then composes them, joining some with others and making scattered pieces as one, then piles them up, some on top of others, whereat you see the rain issuing from the midst of them, [from specific] outlets in them? And He sends down from the heaven out of the mountains (min jibālin: min is extra) that are therein, in the heaven (fīhā substitutes [for minal-samāi, from the heaven] with the repetition of a genitive preposition) hail, that is, [He sends down] some [hail], and smites with it whom He will and turns it away from whom He will. The brilliance of its lightning, its flashing, would almost take away the eyes, that look at it, in other words, [it would almost] snatching them away.
 
Ayah   24:44   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
God alternates the night and the day, that is, He brings one in place of the other. Surely in that, alternation, there is a lesson, an indication, for those who see, those possessing insight, [an indication] of Gods power, exalted be He.
 
Ayah   24:45   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
And God has created every beast, that is, [every] animal, from fluid, [from] a sperm-drop. Among them are some that creep upon their bellies, such as snakes and reptiles, and among them are some that walk on two feet, such as human beings and birds, and among them are some that walk on four, such as [four-legged] beasts and cattle. God creates whatever He will. Truly God has power over all things.
 
Ayah   24:46   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
And verily We have revealed manifest signs, namely, the Qurān; and God guides whomever He will to a straight path, [a straight] route, and that is the religion of Islam.
 
Ayah   24:47   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
398 And they, the hypocrites, say, We believe in, we affirm [the truth of], God, [of] His Oneness, and the Messenger, Muhammad (s), and we obey, them in what rulings they [God and Muhammad] give. Then after that a party of them turn away, they are averse to it, and those, those who are averse, they are not believers, as [believers] should be, [believers] whose hearts agree with [the words of] their tongues.
 
Ayah   24:48   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
And when they are summoned to God and His Messenger, who conveys His words, that he may judge between them, behold, a party of them are averse, to come to him.
 
Ayah   24:49   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
But if right be on their side they would come to him willingly, hastening compliantly.
 
Ayah   24:50   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
Is there a sickness, disbelief, in their hearts? Or are they in doubt, are they uncertain of his prophethood, or do they fear that God and His Messenger will be unjust to them?, in judgement, in other words, that they will be wronged therein? No! Rather, those, they are the wrongdoers, for shunning him.
 
Ayah   24:51   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
All that the believers say, when they are summoned to God and His Messenger, that he may judge between them, is that they say, in other words, the saying that befits them is [to say]: We hear and we obey, by responding [to the summons]. And those, then, are the successful, the ones who will be saved.
 
Ayah   24:52   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
And he who obeys God and His Messenger, and fears God and fears Him (read yattaqh or yattaqhi), by being obedient to Him, those, they are the winners, of Paradise.
 
Ayah   24:53   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
And they swear by God solemn oaths that if you order them, to [participate in the] struggle, they will surely go forth. Say, to them: Do not swear! Acknowledged obedience, to the Prophet is better than the oaths to which you are not true. Surely God is Aware of what you do, when you say you will obey but act otherwise.
 
Ayah   24:54   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
Say: Obey God, and obey the Messenger. But if you turn away, from obedience to him (tawallaw, you turn away: one of the two tā letters [in tatawallaw] has been omitted; an address to them), [know that] he is only responsible for that with which he has been charged, of conveying [the Message], and you are responsible for that with which you have been charged, of obedience to him. And if you obey him, you will be [rightly] guided. And the Messengers duty is only to convey [the Message] clearly.
 
Ayah   24:55   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
God has promised those of you who believe and perform righteous deeds that He will surely make them successors in the earth, in place of the disbelievers, just as He made those, Children of Israel, who were before them successors, in place of the [ruling] tyrants ([the verb may be] read as active istakhlafa, He made [them] successors, or as passive istukhlifa, were made successors) and He will surely establish for them their religion which He has approved for them, namely, [the religion of] Islam, by making it prevail over all religions and enrich them throughout the land, so that they become masters thereof, and that He will give them in exchange (read wa-la-yubdilannahum or wa-la-yubaddilannahum) after their fear, of disbelievers, security. And God fulfilled His promise to them in the way mentioned, and He praises them with His words: They worship Me, without associating anything with Me (yabudūnanī lā yushrikūna bī shayan is 399 an [independent] new sentence, standing as a justification [for His promise]). And whoever is ungrateful after that, bestowal of grace, from among them, [whoever is ungrateful] for it, those, they are the immoral. The first to show ingratitude for that [grace of God] were the murderers of Uthmān [b. Affān], may God be pleased with him, and they began to kill one another [henceforth] after having been brothers.
 
Ayah   24:56   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
And establish prayer and pay the alms, and obey the Messenger, that perhaps you may find mercy, that is to say, [do so] hoping for mercy.
 
Ayah   24:57   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
And do not suppose (read tahsabanna or yahsabanna, the subject of the verb being the Messenger) that those who disbelieve can escape, Us, in the land, by eluding us. For their abode will be, their return will be [to], the Fire, and it is surely an evil destination, it is an [evil] place of return.
 
Ayah   24:58   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
O you who believe, let those whom your right hands own, of male slaves and female slaves, and those of you who have not reached puberty, from among the free men, and who have not become [sexually] aware of women, ask leave of you three times: at three times [of the day]: before the dawn prayer, and when you put off your garments at noon, and after the night prayer. [These are] three periods of privacy for you (read thalāthu [awrātin lakum] with nominative inflection as the predicate of an implied subject followed by a genitive annexation, with the annexed term standing in place thereof [of the predicate], in other words [the implied predicate followed by the annexation is] hiya awqāt, these are times of ; or read thalātha [awrātin lakum] in the accusative, the implication being that awqāta is itself in the accusative as a substitute for the [syntactical] status of what precedes it, in place of which stands the annexed term). It is because clothes are taken off that private parts are revealed during such [periods]. Neither you nor they, namely, slaves and young boys, would be at fault, in entering upon you without asking leave, at other times, that is, after the three times of day [specified]; they frequent you, to provide service, [as] some of you [do] with others (this sentence corroborates the preceding one). So, just as He has clarified what has been mentioned, God clarifies for you the signs, the rulings; and God is Knower, of the affairs of His creatures, Wise, in what He has ordained for them. It is said that the permission verse (āyat al-istiidhān) was abrogated; but it is also said that it was not [abrogated], but that people thought little of neglecting to seek permission [in such situations].
 
Ayah   24:59   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
And when the children among you, O free men, reach puberty, let them seek permission, at all times, just as those, [now] older free men, sought permission before them. So God clarifies His signs for you, and God is Knower, Wise.
 
Ayah   24:60   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
And as for menopausal women, who have ceased to menstruate or to bear children because of old age, who do not expect to marry, for that reason, they would not be at fault if they put off their clothes, such a robe, a cloak, or the facial mask over a head veil, in such a way as not to display adornment, that is hidden, such as a necklace, a bracelet or an anklet; but to refrain [from doing so], by not putting them off, is better for them; and God is Hearer, of what you say, Knower, of what is in your hearts.
 
Ayah   24:61   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
There is no blame upon the blind, nor any blame upon the lame, nor any blame upon the sick, that they be ones table companions, nor, any blame, upon yourselves if you eat from your own houses, that is, [from] the houses of your offspring, or your fathers houses, or your mothers houses, or your brothers houses, or your sisters houses, or the houses of your paternal uncles or the houses of your paternal aunts, or the 400 houses of your maternal uncles or the houses of your maternal aunts, or [from] that whereof you hold the keys, [from] that which you safeguard on behalf of others, or [from] those of your [faithful] friends (sadīq is [so called] because he is faithful (sadaqa) to you in his affection). In other words: one is permitted to eat from the houses of those mentioned, even if they are not present, provided that they consent to it. You would not be at fault whether you eat together, in a group, or separately, individually (ashtāt is the plural of shatt). This was revealed concerning those who felt inhibited about eating alone and [who] when they could not find a table companion they would refrain from eating. But when you enter houses, that are yours, [houses] wherein there is no one, bid peace to yourselves, say, Peace be upon us and upon Gods righteous servants, for the angels will return your greeting; and if there is family therein bid peace to them, with a salutation (tahiyyatan is the verbal noun from hayyā, he saluted) from God, blessed and good, and for which one is rewarded. So God clarifies the signs for you, that is to say, He sets out for you in detail the [ritual] ceremonies of your religion, that perhaps you might comprehend, in order for you to understand this.
 
Ayah   24:62   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
Only they are believers who believe in God and His Messenger and who, when they are with him, namely, the Messenger, in a collective affair, such as [during] the Friday sermon, do not leave, when they have an excuse, until they have asked leave of him. Truly those who ask leave of you it is they who believe in God and His Messenger. So when they ask leave of you for some affair, [some] matter, of theirs, give permission to whom you will of them, to leave, and ask God to forgive them. Truly God is Forgiving, Merciful.
 
Ayah   24:63   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
Do not, among yourselves, consider the calling of the Messenger to be like your calling of one another, by saying, O Muhammad! (s), but say, O Prophet of God, or, O Messenger of God! gently, respectfully and in a low voice. Verily God knows those of you who slip away surreptitiously, that is, those who leave the mosque secretly during the sermon without asking leave, hiding behind something (qad, verily, is for confirmation). So let those who contravene His command, that is, Gods command, or that of His Messenger, beware lest an ordeal, a trial, befall them, or there befall them a painful chastisement, in the Hereafter.
 
Ayah   24:64   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
Lo! surely to God belongs all that is in the heavens and the earth, by way of possession, creation and servitude. He is ever aware of how you, O you who are obligated to [the prescriptions of] the Law, are behaving, with regard to faith or hypocrisy, and, He knows, the day when they shall be returned to Him (there is a shift here from the second person address [to that of the third person]), in other words, [He knows] when this [day] will be He will inform them, thereupon, of what they did, of good and evil, and God is Knower of all things, which they do and otherwise.




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