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28. Surah Al-Qasas سورة القصص

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This Surah (Revealed) Meccan, except verses 52 to 55, which are Medinese, and verse 85, which was revealed at al-Juhfa during the Hijra; it consists of 88 verses, revealed after [sūrat] al-Naml.(Al-Qasas)
 
Ayah   28:1   الأية الأولي
بِسْم ِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَٰنِ الرَّحِيمِ
Ayah First   1   الأية الأولي
Tafseer
 
Tā sīn mīm: God knows best what He means by these [letters].
 
Ayah   28:2   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
Those, namely, these signs, are the signs of the Manifest Book (the genitive annexation conveys the [partitive] sense of min, of [verses from the Manifest Book]), [the Manifest Book] which reveals truth from falsehood.
 
Ayah   28:3   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
We will recount, narrate, to you [something] of the tale of Moses and Pharaoh truthfully, for a people who believe, for their sake, since they are the ones to benefit from such [an account].
 
Ayah   28:4   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
442 Truly Pharaoh had exalted himself in the land, the land of Egypt, and reduced its people into sects, groups, to serve him, oppressing a group of them, namely, the Children of Israel, slaughtering their sons, the newborn, and sparing their women, keeping them alive for some of the [Egyptian] priests had told him, A new-born of the Children of Israel shall bring about the end of your kingdom. Indeed he was of those who cause corruption, through [the use of] slaughter and otherwise.
 
Ayah   28:5   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
And We desired to show favour to those who were oppressed in the land, and to make them exemplars (read aimmatan, pronouncing both hamzas, or by replacing the second one with a yā) whose good example would be followed, and to make them the inheritors, of Pharaohs kingdom;
 
Ayah   28:6   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
and to establish them in the land, the land of Egypt and Syria, and to show Pharaoh and Hāmān and their hosts (a variant reading has wa-yarā Firawnu wa-Hāmānu wa-junūduhumā, so that Pharaoh and Hāmān and their hosts might see, with all three [nouns] in the nominative) from them that of which they were apprehensive, [that which] they feared of the new-born [Israelite] who would bring about the end of their kingdom.
 
Ayah   28:7   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
And We revealed, by inspiration or in a dream, to the mother of Moses who was the said new-born; his sister was the only other person aware of his birth Suckle him, then, when you fear for him, cast him into the waters, namely, the Nile, and do not fear, that he should drown, or grieve, for being separated from him, for We will restore him to you and make him one of the messengers. She suckled him for three months during which he never cried. She then began to fear for him and so she placed him in a basket coated with pitch and made as a cradle for him on the inside. She then closed it and cast it into the waters of the Nile at night.
 
Ayah   28:8   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
Then Pharaohs folk, aids, picked him up, with him [still] in the basket, the morning following that night it was placed him in front of him [Pharaoh] and then opened and Moses was brought out of it, sucking milk from his thumb to be, at the end of the affair, an enemy, slaying their menfolk, and a [cause of] grief to them, enslaving their womenfolk (a variant reading [for hazanan] is huznan, both of which are alternative forms of the verbal noun, and it functions as an active participle, derived from hazanahu, which is like ahzanahu, he caused him grief). Truly Pharaoh and, his minister, Hāmān, and their hosts were sinners, that is, disobedient, and so they were punished at his [Mosess] hands.
 
Ayah   28:9   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
And Pharaohs wife said, after he and his aids had resolved to slay him: he is, A joyous sight for me and you. Do not slay him. Perhaps he will be of benefit to us, or we will adopt him as a son, and so they obeyed her [wish]. And they were not aware, of the sequel to their affair with him.
 
Ayah   28:10   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
And the heart of Mosess mother, when she found out that they had picked him up, became empty, of everything other than him. Indeed (in, softened from the hardened form, its subject omitted, in other words [understand it as] innaha) she was about to expose him, that is, as being her son, had We not fortified her heart, with patience, that is, We made it at peace, that she might be of the believers, [of] those who have faith in Gods promise (the response to [the conditional] lawlā, had not, is given by the preceding [statement]). 443
 
Ayah   28:11   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
And she said to his sister, Mary, Follow him, in other words, follow where he goes in order to find out his news. So she watched him from afar, from a distance, secretly, while they were not aware, that she was his sister, or that she was [even] watching him.
 
Ayah   28:12   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
And We had forbidden him to [take to the breasts of] fostermothers from before, that is to say, we prevented him from taking to the breasts of any suckling mother other than his own mother. Therefore he would not accept the breasts of any of the foster-mothers brought for him. So she, his sister, said, Shall I show you a household having seen their affection for him who will take care of him for you, by having him suckled and so on, and who will act in good faith towards him? (the [suffixed] pronoun in lahu has been interpreted as referring to the king, as a response to them [when they asked Mary how she could be sure]). Her suggestion was accepted. So she brought his mother and he took to her breast. She explained to them that he had taken to her [breast] because of her pleasant scent and the wholesome taste of her milk. Permission was given to her to breast-feed him in her own house and so she returned with him, just as God, exalted be He, says:
 
Ayah   28:13   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
Thus We restored him to his mother so that her eyes might delight, in seeing him [again], and not grieve, thereat, and that she might know that Gods promise, to restore him to her, is true; but most of them, that is, the people, do not know, about this promise, or of the fact that this was his sister and the other was his mother. He [Moses] remained with her until he was weaned during which time she was paid wages at one dinar per day. She took this because it was money from enemy territory (harbī). She then brought him [back] to Pharaoh in whose household he was raised, as God recounts of him in sūrat al-Shuarā [Q. 26:18], Did we not rear you among us as a child, and did you not stay with us for years of your life?
 
Ayah   28:14   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
And when he came of age, namely, at 30 or 33, and [then] was [fully] mature, that is, when he reached the age of 40, We gave him judgement, wisdom, and knowledge, comprehension of religious matters before he was sent as a prophet. And so, just as We rewarded him, do We reward those are virtuous, to their own souls.
 
Ayah   28:15   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
And he, Moses, entered the city, Pharaohs city, Memphis, having been absent from it for a while, at a time when its people were oblivious, the time of the afternoon nap, and found therein two men fighting, one of his own faction, namely, an Israelite, and the other of his enemies, in other words, an Egyptian, who was exploiting an Israelite to carry firewood to Pharaohs kitchen. So the one who was of his faction called to him for help against the one who was of his enemies, and so Moses said to him, Leave him be!, and it is said that he replied to Moses [thus]: I am truly considering making you carry this [firewood]!. So Moses punched him, that is, he hit him with his fist clenched he [Moses] was a strong man with a powerful strike, and did away with him, that is, he killed him, but he had not intended to kill him. He buried him in the sand. He said, This, killing of him, is of Satans doing, inciting my anger. Indeed he is an enemy, to the son of Adam, a manifest misleader, of him.
 
Ayah   28:16   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
He said, remorsefully, My Lord, I have indeed wronged myself, by killing him, so forgive me! So He forgave him. Truly He is the Forgiving, the Merciful, that is to say, the One Who has always possessed, and will always possess, these two attributes.
 
Ayah   28:17   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
444 He said, My Lord, forasmuch as You have been gracious to me, with forgiveness, protect me [so], I will never be a partisan, a supporter, of the criminals, the disbelievers henceforth, if you were to protect me.
 
Ayah   28:18   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
In the morning he was in the city, fearful, vigilant, waiting to see what would happen to him [in reaction] from the side of the slain man; when behold, the one who had sought his help the day before cried out to him for help [again], asking for his help against another Egyptian. Moses said to him, Clearly you are a trouble-maker!, whose trouble-making is evident, judging by what you did yesterday and today.
 
Ayah   28:19   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
But when (fa-lammā an: an is extra) he was about to strike the man who was an enemy to both of them, to Moses and the one seeking his help, he, the one seeking help, supposing that Moses was about to strike him, because of what he [Moses] had said to him, said: O Moses, do you want to slay me just as you slew a soul yesterday? You merely want to be a tyrant in the land, and you do not want to be of the reformers. The Egyptian heard this and realised that the slayer had been Moses. Thus he hurried off to Pharaoh to inform him of this. Pharaoh then ordered slaughterers to slay Moses, and they set off in his direction.
 
Ayah   28:20   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
And a man, who was the [only] believer among Pharaohs kinsfolk, came from the outskirts of the city, hastening, walking fast, via a route quicker than theirs. He said, O Moses, lo! the council, of Pharaohs folk, are conspiring, discussing [the means], to slay you. So leave, the city. Truly I am speaking to you in good faith, in bidding you to leave.
 
Ayah   28:21   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
So he departed from it, fearful, vigilant, lest any of the pursuers catch up with him, or [in the hope] that God might rescue him. He said, My Lord, deliver me from the evildoing people, Pharaohs people.
 
Ayah   28:22   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
And when he turned his face towards Midian, in the direction thereof and this [Midian] was the town of [the prophet] Shuayb, eight days journeying from Egypt, [so] named after Midian son of Abraham; he [Moses] did not know the route to it he said, Perhaps my Lord will show me the right way, that is to say, which route to follow, in other words, the simplest route to it. God thus sent forth to him an angel with a goat, which he [Moses] set off following towards it [the town].
 
Ayah   28:23   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
And when he arrived at the Water of Midian, [the name of] a well therein, he found a group of people there watering, their flocks, and he found, besides them, two women holding back their flock, from the water. He, Moses, said, to the two: What is your business?, that is, What is the matter with you, that you are not watering? They said, We do not water [our flock] until the shepherds have moved on (riāu, shepherds, the plural of rāin) that is to say, until they have returned from the watering, for fear of being crushed [by the throng], after which we go to water (a variant reading [for yasdiru, move on] is the 4th form [subjunctive] yusdira, to drive away, meaning, until they [the shepherds] have driven their flocks away from the water) and our father is a very old man, unable to [come and] water.
 
Ayah   28:24   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
So he watered [their flock] for them, from another well nearby, by lifting a rock from on top of it, which only ten men could have lifted; then he retreated to the shade, of an acacia tree (samura), because of the extreme heat of the sun and he was hungry, and said, My Lord, indeed I am in utter need of whatever 445 good, [whatever] food, You send down to me. The two women returned to their father quicker than usual and so he asked them why [it was so]. They told him about the man who had watered [their flock] for them. So he said to one of them, Summon him to [come to] me.
 
Ayah   28:25   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
God, exalted be He, says: Then one of the two women came to him, walking bashfully in other words, covering her face with the sleeve of her shirt, being shy of him and said, My father invites you, that he may pay you a wage for watering [our flock] for us. He accepted her invitation, while inwardly he disapproved of accepting any wage, for it was as though she sought to remunerate him and as though he were of those who would want it [which he was not]. She walked in front of him but when the wind began to blow off her dress and reveal her legs, he said to her, Walk behind me and show me the way, which she did. Finally he came to her father, Shuayb, peace be upon him, who was sitting with some supper in front of him. He said to him, Sit and have some supper. He [Moses] said, I hope that this is not [some sort of] compensation for having watered [their flock] for them? For we are People of a House and do not demand compensation for good deeds. He [Shuayb] said, No. It is [simply] a custom of mine and of my forefathers to be hospitable to guests and to offer them food. Thus, he [Moses] ate and informed him of his predicament. God, exalted be He, says: So when he came to him and recounted to him the story (al-qasas is a verbal noun with the sense of al-maqsūs, that which is recounted), of his slaying of the Egyptian and their intention to slay him and his fear of Pharaoh, he [their father] said, Do not be afraid. You have escaped from the evildoing people, as Pharaoh had no authority over Midian.
 
Ayah   28:26   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
One of the two women, the one that had been sent [by her father], either the elder or the younger, said, O my father, hire him, employ him in return for a wage, that he may tend our flock instead of us. Surely the best [man] you can hire is the strong, the trustworthy man, in other words, hire him on account of his strength and trustworthiness. He [Shuayb] asked her about him and she told him, as mentioned above, how he had lifted the rock off the well and that he had said to her, Walk behind me, in addition to his lowering his head when he realised that she was coming towards him, refusing to lift it [until she left]. He [Shuayb] therefore was keen to have him marry [one of his daughters].
 
Ayah   28:27   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
He said, I desire to marry you to one of these two daughters of mine, either the elder or the younger one, on condition that you hire yourself to me, that you are employed by me to tend my flock, for eight years. And if you complete ten, that is, the tending of ten years, that, completion, shall be of your own accord. I do not want to be hard on you, by making it [the marriage] conditional on ten [years service]. God willing [expressed] to seek [Gods] blessing you shall find me to be one of the righteous, of those who fulfil their covenants.
 
Ayah   28:28   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
He, Moses, said, That, which you have said, is [settled then] between me and you. Whichever of the two terms, the eight or the ten (the mā [in ayyamā, whichever of the two] is extra), in other words, the tending thereof, I complete, there shall be no injustice [done] to me, by demanding [of me] to do more [tending]. And God is Guardian, Keeper or Witness, over what we, you and I, say. The contract was agreed in this way. Shuayb bid his daughter to give Moses a staff with which to beat off predatory beasts from his sheep the staffs of the prophets were in his keeping. It was Adams staff, made from the myrtle of Paradise, that fell into her hands and so Moses took it, with Shuaybs knowledge.
 
Ayah   28:29   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
So when Moses had completed the term, of his tending of eight years, or of ten years, which is what is generally assumed and was travelling with his family, his wife, with the permission of her father, in the direction of Egypt, he saw in the distance on the side of the Mount [Tūr] a fire (al-Tūr is the name of a 446 mountain). He said to his family, Wait, here; I see a fire in the distance. Maybe I will bring you from it news, about [how to rejoin] the route [to Egypt] for he had strayed from it [along the way] or a brand (read with any of the three vowels [jadhwa, jidhwa, or judhwa], which [either] means a bundle, or a flame) from the fire, that you may warm yourselves (tastalūna: the tā replaces the tā of the
 
Ayah   8th verbal paradigm] iftaala of the verb saliya, or salaya).
 
Ayah   28:30   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
And when he reached it, a call came from the right bank, [the right] side, of the valley, to Moses, at the blessed spot, [blessed] for Moses, because of his hearing Gods speech therein, from the tree (minalshajarati substitutes for min shātii, from the [right] bank, and the preposition [min, from] has been repeated because it [the tree] grows there) the tree was a jujube, a bramble, or a boxthorn [saying] that (an here is explicative, and not in its softened form) O Moses! Indeed I am God, the Lord of the Worlds.
 
Ayah   28:31   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
And: Throw down your staff, and he threw it down. And when he saw it quivering, moving, as if it were a serpent (jānn: is a small snake [so called] because of the speed of its movement) he turned his back, to flee from it, and did not look back, in other words, he did not return, and so there called out [the voice]: O Moses! Come forward, and do not be afraid. Indeed you are safe.
 
Ayah   28:32   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
Insert your, right, hand, meaning, the palm, into your bosom (jayb is the neck [area] of the shirt) and [then] take it out, and it will emerge, not in its usual skin colour [but], white, without any blemish, any [vestige of] leprosy. So he inserted it and took it out and it shone as bright as the sun, blinding the eyes; and draw your arm [back] to your side [as a precaution] against fear (read rahab, rahb or ruhb), in other words, [against] the fear produced by the glow of the hand, so that you insert it [back] into your bosom and it is restored to its former state; it [the arm] is referred to as jināh, wing, because they are for humans what wings are for birds. These then (read fa-dhānika or fa-dhānnika) namely, the staff and the hand (both of which [asā and yad] are feminine nouns, but the demonstrative pronoun [dhānika] used for them, being the subject, is in the masculine because its predicate is masculine) shall be two proofs, to be sent, from your Lord to Pharaoh and his council; for surely they are an immoral people.
 
Ayah   28:33   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
He said, My Lord, I have indeed slain a soul among them the mentioned Egyptian and so I fear that they will slay me, because of him.
 
Ayah   28:34   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
And my brother Aaron is more eloquent, more intelligible, than me in speech. So send him with me as a helper, as an aid (a variant reading [for ridan, helper] is ridan) to confirm me (read [either] in apocopated form, yusadiqnī, as a response to the request, or [as an indicative] with damma inflection, yusadiqunī, as an adjectival qualification of ridan, helper), for I truly fear that they will deny me.
 
Ayah   28:35   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
He said, We will strengthen your arm, We will make you strong, by means of your brother, and We will give authority, victory, so that they will not be able to touch [either of] you, with any evil; go both of you, with Our signs the two of you, and those who follow you [two], will be the victors, over them.
 
Ayah   28:36   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
But when Moses brought them Our clear signs (bayyinātin, a circumstantial qualifier) they said, This is 447 nothing but concocted, invented, sorcery. And we never heard of such [a thing], to have [ever] existed, in, the days of, our forefathers.
 
Ayah   28:37   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
And Moses said, (wa-qāla, or qāla, without the and) My Lord knows best who brings guidance from Him (the suffixed pronoun [in indihi] refers to the Lord) and whose (man here is a supplement to the previous man) will be (read takūna or yakūna) the sequel of the [Blissful] Abode, that is to say, the praiseworthy sequel in the Abode of the Hereafter, in other words, it is I [Moses], in both cases, and I speak truthfully in what I have brought [you]. Truly the evildoers, the disbelievers, will not be successful.
 
Ayah   28:38   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
And Pharaoh said, O [members of the] council, I do not know of any god for you other than me. So kindle for me, O Hāmān, [a fire] over the clay, and bake for me bricks [of clay], and make me a tower, a lofty palace, that I may take a look at the god of Moses, to observe him and inspect him; for truly I consider him to be a liar, in his claim of [the existence of] some other god and that he is his messenger.
 
Ayah   28:39   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
And he and his hosts acted arrogantly in the land, the land of Egypt, without right, and thought they would not return to Us (read active yarjiūna, or passive yurjaūna, they would [not] be brought back).
 
Ayah   28:40   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
So We seized him and his hosts, and flung them into the waters, the sea, and they drowned. So behold how was the sequel for the evildoers, when they ended up being destroyed.
 
Ayah   28:41   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
And We made them, in this world, leaders (read a-imma, pronouncing both hamzas, or by changing the second one into a yā), chieftains of idolatry, who invite to the Fire, by inviting to idolatry, and on the Day of Resurrection they will not be helped, by having the chastisement averted from them.
 
Ayah   28:42   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
And We made a curse, ignominy, pursue them in this world, and on the Day of Resurrection they will be among the spurned, those banished [from Gods mercy].
 
Ayah   28:43   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
And verily We gave Moses the Scripture, the Torah, after We had destroyed the former generations, the people of Noah, Ād, Thamūd and others, [containing] eye-openers for mankind (basāira, is a circumstantial qualifier referring to al-kitāb, the Scripture, the plural of basīra, which is the [perceptive] light of the heart), in other words, illumination for the hearts [of mankind], and as guidance, from error, for those who implement it, and mercy, for those who believe therein, that perhaps they might remember, [that] they might be admonished by the admonitions it [the Scripture] contains.
 
Ayah   28:44   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
And you were not, O Muhammad (s), on the western side, of the mountain, the valley, or the spot, [to the west] of Moses at the time of the communion, when We decreed, revealed, to Moses the commandment, to deliver the Message to Pharaoh and his people, nor were you among the witnesses, to this, to know it and inform of it;
 
Ayah   28:45   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
448 but We brought forth generations, communities, after Moses, and life was prolonged in their case, in other words, they lived long lives and so they forgot the covenants [made with God], knowledge disappeared and revelation ceased. Then We brought you as Messenger and revealed to you the story of Moses and others. And you were not a dweller, a resident, among the people of Midian reciting to them Our revelations (tatlū alayhim āyātinā, a second predicate [after thāwiyan, dweller), to know their story and inform of it; but truly We are the senders, of you [as Messenger] and [the senders] to you of the stories of former generations.
 
Ayah   28:46   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
And you were not on the side of the Mount when We called out, to Moses to take the Scripture earnestly; but, We have sent you, as a mercy from your Lord, that you may warn a people to whom no warner came before you these are the people of Mecca and that perhaps they may remember, they may be admonished.
 
Ayah   28:47   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
Otherwise, if an affliction, a punishment, should befall them because of what their own hands have sent before them, in the way of disbelief and otherwise, they might say, Our Lord, why did You not send a messenger to us, that we might have followed Your signs, the ones sent with the messengers, and been of the believers? (the response to [the conditional particle] lawlā, if, has been omitted, and what follows it is a [new] subject; the meaning is: were it not for the affliction that is the cause of their saying, or, were it not for their saying that is the cause of their affliction, We would have hastened on for them their punishment and We would not have sent you as a messenger to them).
 
Ayah   28:48   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
But when the truth, namely, Muhammad (s), came to them from Us, they said, Why has he not been given the like of what Moses was given?, in the way of signs, such as the glowing hand, the staff and others, or [by having] the Book revealed all at once. God, exalted be He, says: And did they not disbelieve in what was given to Moses before?; [before] when, they said, regarding him and Muhammad (s), Two sorcerers (sāhirān; a variant reading has sihrān, two sorceries, namely [what they said regarding] the Qurān and the Torah) abetting each other. And they said, We indeed disbelieve in both, the two prophets and the two Scriptures [of Moses and Muhammad].
 
Ayah   28:49   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
Say, to them: Then bring some Scripture from God that is better in guidance than these two, Scriptures, that I may follow it, if you are truthful, in what you say.
 
Ayah   28:50   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
Then if they do not respond to you, regarding your invitation [to them] to bring a Scripture, know that they are only following their desires, in [persisting in] their disbelief. And who is more astray than he who follows his desire without any guidance from God?, in other words, there is no one more astray than such [a person]. Truly God does not guide the evildoing, the disbelieving, folk.
 
Ayah   28:51   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
And now verily We have brought, We have explained [to], them the Word, the Qurān, that perhaps they might remember, [they might] be admonished and believe.
 
Ayah   28:52   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
Those to whom We gave the Scripture before this, that is, [before] the Qurān, they believe in it, too. This was revealed regarding certain Jews who became Muslims, such as Abd Allāh b. Salām and others, and 449 [certain] Christians who had come from Abyssinia and Syria [who also became Muslims].
 
Ayah   28:53   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
And, when it is recited to them, the Qurān, they say, We believe in it. It is indeed the Truth from our Lord. Lo! [even] before it we had submitted, we affirmed Gods Oneness.
 
Ayah   28:54   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
Those will be given their reward twice over, for believing in both Scriptures, for the patience they showed, for having been steadfast in implementing [the prescriptions in] them; and they ward off, from themselves, evil with good, and expend, give as voluntary alms, of that which We have provided them.
 
Ayah   28:55   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
And when they hear vanity, vile words and hurtful intent from the disbelievers, they disregard it and say, To us [belong] our deeds and to you [belong] your deeds. Peace to you a parting truce (salām mutāraka), in other words you are secure from any abuse or the like on our part. We do not desire [friendship with] the ignorant, we do not seek companionship with them.
 
Ayah   28:56   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
The following was revealed regarding the Prophets longing for his uncle Abū Tālib to embrace faith: You cannot guide whom you like, to be guided, but [it is] God [Who] guides whomever He will, and He knows best those who will be guided.
 
Ayah   28:57   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
And they, his people, say, If we were to follow the Guidance with you, we will be deprived from our land, torn out of it swiftly. God, exalted be He, says: Have We not established for them a secure Sanctuary, [one] in which they are secure from the raids and killings that occur among the Arab tribes, to which are brought (read tujbā or yujbā) fruits of all kinds, [fruits] from every direction, as a provision, for them, from Us? But most of them do not know, that what We say is the truth.
 
Ayah   28:58   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
And how many a town We have destroyed whose lifestyle was one of arrogant ungratefulness by town is meant the inhabitants thereof. Those are their dwellings, which have not been dwelt in after them except a little, by passers-by, for a day or part of it. And it was We Who were the [sole] inheritors, after them.
 
Ayah   28:59   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
And your Lord never destroyed the towns, because of evildoing on their part, until He had raised up in their mother-town, that is, the major [town] among them, a messenger to recite Our signs to them. And We never destroyed the towns unless their inhabitants were committing evil, by denying the messengers.
 
Ayah   28:60   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
And whatever things you have been given are [only] the [short-lived] enjoyment of the life of this world and an ornament thereof, in other words, [things] which you enjoy and adorn yourselves with for the days of your lives, after which they perish; and what is with God, in other words, His reward, is better and more lasting. Will you not understand? (taqilūna; or read yaqilūna, will they [not] understand) that what lasts is better than what perishes.
 
Ayah   28:61   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
450 Is he to whom We have given a fair promise, which he will receive, which he will attain, and that [promise] is Paradise, like him to whom We have given the enjoyment of the life of this world, [enjoyment] which will disappear soon, then on the Day of Resurrection he will be of those arraigned?, before the Fire. The former is the believer, the latter the disbeliever: in other words the two are not equal.
 
Ayah   28:62   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
And, mention, the day when He, God, will call to them and say, Where [then] are My partners, those whom you used to claim?, were partners of Mine.
 
Ayah   28:63   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
Those against whom the Word [of punishment] will have become due, the justified [Word], that they be admitted into the Fire and these are the leaders of misguidance they shall say, Our Lord! These are the ones whom we led astray (hāūlāilladhīna aghwaynā is both a subject and an adjectival qualification). We led them astray (aghwaynāhum, the predicate thereof) and they went astray, even as we went astray we did not compel them to [follow] error. We declare our innocence, of them, before You; it was not us that they worshipped (mā, not, is for negation; the direct object [iyyānā, us] precedes [the verb yabudūna, they worshipped] in order to concord with the end-rhyme of the verses).
 
Ayah   28:64   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
And it shall be said, Call [now] to your associates!, namely, the idols you alleged to be partners of God. So they will call to them, but they will not answer them, their call, and they, the former, will see, they will sight, the chastisement:
 
Ayah   they will wish] if only they had been guided!, in this world, they would not have seen it in the Hereafter.
 
Ayah   28:65   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
And, mention, the day when He will call to them and say, What response did you give to those [messengers] who were sent?, to you.
 
Ayah   28:66   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
The tidings, the news of deliverance contained in the response, will be obscured to them on that day, in other words, they will not find any statement that might contain [hope of] deliverance for them; so they will not question one other, about this, and will fall silent.
 
Ayah   28:67   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
But as for him who repents, of idolatry, and believes, in the affirmation of Gods Oneness, and acts righteously, he observes the duties [of religion], maybe he will be among the successful, those delivered according to Gods promise.
 
Ayah   28:68   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
And your Lord creates whatever He will and chooses, whatever He will. They, the idolaters, do not have the choice, the right to choose anything. Glory be to God and exalted be He above what they associate, [above] their idolatry.
 
Ayah   28:69   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
And your Lord knows what their breasts conceal, [what] their hearts keep secret of disbelief and otherwise, and what they proclaim, by their tongues of such things.
 
Ayah   28:70   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
451 And He is God; there is no god except Him. To Him belongs [all] praise in the former, namely, the life of this world, and in the latter, Paradise. And to Him belongs the judgement, the decree effective in [the case of] all things, and to Him you will be returned, through resurrection.
 
Ayah   28:71   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
Say, to the people of Mecca: Have you considered, in other words, inform Me: if God were to make the night everlasting over you until the Day of Resurrection, what god other than God, as you [are wont to] claim, could bring you light?, daylight [hours] during which you could earn [a living]. Will you not then listen?, to this in a way so as to understand it and so repent of your idolatry.
 
Ayah   28:72   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
Say, to them: Have you considered, if God were to make the day everlasting over you until the Day of Resurrection, what god other than God, as you [are wont to] claim, could bring you night wherein you rest?, from [any] weariness. Will you not then see?, the error you are upon when you ascribe partners [to God], and so repent of it.
 
Ayah   28:73   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
And of His mercy, exalted be He, He has made for you night and day, that you may rest therein, in the night, and that you may seek, in the day, of His bounty, to earn [your livelihood], that perhaps you might give thanks, for the grace [of God] during both of these [times].
 
Ayah   28:74   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
And, mention, the day when He will call to them and say, Where [now] are My associates those whom you used to claim? this is mentioned again in order to expound upon it:
 
Ayah   28:75   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
And We shall draw, bring forth, from every community a witness, and this will be their prophet, who will bear witness against what they say, and We shall say, to them: Produce your evidence, for [the justification of] the idolatry which you asserted. Then they will know that the right, to divineness, is Gods none share it with Him. And that which they used to invent, in this world, of His having an associate, exalted be He [high] above such [associations], will fail them.
 
Ayah   28:76   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
Indeed Korah belonged to the people of Moses [being] his paternal and maternal cousin, and he had believed in him [in Moses] but he became insolent towards them, through [his] disdain, haughtiness and great wealth. For We had given him so many treasures that [the number of] their keys would verily have burdened a group of strong men, in other words, they would have been too heavy for such [men] (the bā of [bil-usbati, a group] is to render transitive [the intransitive] verb); the number of such [men required] is estimated to be 70, 40 or 10; other estimates are also given. Mention, when his people, the believers among the Children of Israel, said to him, Do not be exultant, in [your] great wealth, an exultation of insolence; truly God does not love the exultant, in such [things];
 
Ayah   28:77   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
but seek, in that which God has given you, of wealth, the Abode of the Hereafter, by expending it in obedience to God, and do not forget your share of this world, that is, [do not forget] to strive in it for the sake of the Hereafter; and be good, to people, by [giving] voluntary alms, just as God has been good to you. And do not seek to cause corruption in the earth, by committing acts of disobedience. Surely God does not love the agents of corruption, meaning that He will punish them. 452
 
Ayah   28:78   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
He said, In fact I have been given it, that is, [this] wealth, because of knowledge I possess, in other words, in return for it he was the most knowledgeable of the Children of Israel in the Torah, after Moses and Aaron. God, exalted be He, says: Does he not know that God had already destroyed before him generations, communities, of men stronger than him in might and greater in the amassing?, of wealth; in other words, he does know this. And God destroys them, and the guilty will not be questioned about their sins, because of Gods knowledge of these [sins], and so they will be admitted into the Fire without a reckoning.
 
Ayah   28:79   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
So he, Korah, emerged before his people in his finery, with his large retinue [all of them] in procession dressed in gold and silk garments and mounted on adorned horses and mules. Those who desired the life of this world said, O (yā is for drawing attention) would that we had the like of what Korah has been given, this world. Truly he enjoys great fortune, abundant [fortune] in it.
 
Ayah   28:80   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
But those to whom knowledge had been given, [knowledge] of what God had promised in the Hereafter, said, to them: Woe to you! (waylakum, is an expression of reprimand) Gods reward, of Paradise in the Hereafter, is better for him who believes and acts righteously, than what Korah has been given in this world; and none will obtain it, namely, the Paradise that is given as a reward, except those who are steadfast, in [their adherence to] obedience and [refrain] from disobedience.
 
Ayah   28:81   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
So We caused the earth to swallow him, Korah, and his dwelling, and he had no host to help him besides God, that is, other than Him, to protect him from destruction, nor was he of those who can rescue themselves, from it.
 
Ayah   28:82   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
And those who had longed to be in his place the day before, that is, only recently, were saying, Alas! God expands provision for whomever He will of His servants and straitens [it], He restricts it for whomever He will (way-kaanna: way is a noun of action, with the sense of How astonished I am, while the kāf functions as a [causative] lām, because). Had God not been gracious to us, He would have made us to be swallowed too (read active la-khasafa, or passive la-khusifa). Lo! indeed those who are ungrateful, for Gods grace, such as Korah, never prosper.
 
Ayah   28:83   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
That is the Abode of the Hereafter, namely, Paradise, which We shall grant to those who do not desire to be haughty in the earth, through insolence, nor [to cause] corruption, by committing acts of disobedience. And the, praiseworthy, sequel will be for those who fear, Gods punishment, by performing deeds of obedience.
 
Ayah   28:84   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
Whoever brings a good deed shall have better than it, as a reward, because of it, and this will be the like of it tenfold; while whoever brings an evil deed, those who commit evil deeds shall only be requited, the requital, for what they used to do, in other words, [only] the like of it.
 
Ayah   28:85   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
Indeed He Who has prescribed for you the Qurān, [He Who] has revealed it, will surely restore you to a place of return, to Mecca he had yearned for it. Say: My Lord knows best him who brings guidance and 453 him who is in manifest error this was revealed in order to refute what the Meccan disbelievers had said to him: Indeed, you are error. In other words [God is saying that] he [the Prophet] is the one who has brought guidance, while they are the ones in error.
 
Ayah   28:86   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
And you never expected that the Scripture, the Qurān, would be conferred on you; but it was, conferred on you, as a mercy from your Lord. So never be a supporter of the disbelievers, in that religion of theirs to which they summon you.
 
Ayah   28:87   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
And never let them bar you (yasuddunnaka is actually yasuddūnannaka, but the nūn of the indicative [ending] has been omitted because of the apocopating particle [lā], as has the wāw of the [third person plural] subject of the verb because of its coming together with an unvocalised nūn) from Gods signs after they have been revealed to you, in other words, do not consult with them in such [matters], and summon, people, to your Lord, by affirming His Oneness and worshipping Him, and never be of the idolaters, by supporting them (lā takūnanna: the apocopating particle does not affect the [ending of the] verb here because of its invariability).
 
Ayah   28:88   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
And do not call on, [do not] worship, another god with God; there is no god except Him. Everything will perish except His Countenance, except Him. His is the judgement, the effective decree, and to Him you will be brought back, by being raised from the grave.




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