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30. Surah ArRm سورة الرّوم

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This Surah (Revealed) Meccan, except for verse 17, which is Medinese; it consists of 60 verses, revealed after [sūrat] al-Inshiqāq.(Ar-Rm )
 
Ayah   30:1   الأية الأولي
بِسْم ِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَٰنِ الرَّحِيمِ
Ayah First   1   الأية الأولي
Tafseer
 
Alif lām mīm: God knows best what He means by these [letters]. 462
 
Ayah   30:2   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
The Byzantines who are among the People of the Scripture have been vanquished; the Persians vanquished them, and they are not people of a scripture, but worship graven images. The Meccan disbelievers rejoiced in this [defeat of the Byzantines] and said to the Muslims, We shall vanquish you as the Persians vanquished the Byzantines;
 
Ayah   30:3   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
in the nearer [part of the] land, that is, in the Byzantine land [that lies] nearest to Persia in Mesopotamia (al-Jazīra). There the two armies met and the Persians were the ones who had begun the invasion. But they, that is the Byzantines, after their vanquishing (ghalabihim: the verbal noun [ghalab] has been annexed to the direct object [hum], in other words, ghalabatu fāris iyyāhum, the Persians vanquishing of them) shall be the victors, over the Persians,
 
Ayah   30:4   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
in a few years (bid, [usually means] between three and nine or ten years). So the two armies met again seven years after this former encounter and the Byzantines defeated the Persians. To God belongs the command before and after, that is, before the defeat of the Byzantines and thereafter, that is to say, the Persian victory at first and the Byzantine victory later were [the result of] Gods command, in other words, His will, and on that day, the day when the Byzantines will be victorious, the believers shall rejoice
 
Ayah   30:5   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
in Gods help, to them against the Persians. They [the believers] indeed rejoiced in this, as they came to know of it on the day that it took place, on the day of [the battle of] Badr, when Gabriel came down with this [news] thereon, in addition to their rejoicing in their victory over the idolaters on that [same] day. He helps whomever He will; and He is the Mighty, the Victor, the Merciful, to believers.
 
Ayah   30:6   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
The promise of God (wadaLlāhi is the verbal noun substituting for the [full] verbal construction; it is actually waadahumuLlāhu al-nasr, God promised them victory). God does not fail His promise, of such [help], but most people, namely, the disbelievers of Mecca, are not aware, of His promise to help them [to victory].
 
Ayah   30:7   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
They know [merely] an outward aspect of the life of this world, that is to say, its various means of [securing] livelihood, such as commerce, agriculture, construction and cultivation and so on; but they, of the Hereafter, they are oblivious (this repetition of hum, they, is for emphasis).
 
Ayah   30:8   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
Have they not contemplated themselves?, so that they might emerge from their oblivion. God did not create the heavens and the earth, and what is between them, except with the truth and an appointed term, for that [creation], at the conclusion of which this [creation] will perish, and after which will be the Resurrection. But indeed many people, that is to say, [such as] the Meccan disbelievers, disbelieve in the encounter with their Lord, that is, they do not believe in resurrection after death.
 
Ayah   30:9   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
Have they not travelled in the land and beheld how was the consequence for those before them?, of [past] communities, which was that they were destroyed for denying their messengers. They were more powerful than them such were Ād and Thamūd and they effected the land, they tilled it and churned it up to 463 sow crops and cultivate [trees], and developed it more than these, the Meccan disbelievers, have developed it; and their messengers brought them clear signs, manifest proofs, for God would never wrong them, by destroying them without being guilty, but they used to wrong themselves, by denying their messengers.
 
Ayah   30:10   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
Then the consequence for those who committed evil was evil (al-sūā is the feminine form of al-aswa, the worst; [it may be read as] the predicate of kāna if one reads āqibatu, in the nominative; or it is the subject of kāna if read as āqibata, in the accusative; and so what is meant is Hell [in the former reading], or [according to the latter reading] simply their evil actions) because they denied the signs of God, the Qurān, and made a mock of them.
 
Ayah   30:11   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
God originates creation, in other words, He produces the creation of mankind, then He will reproduce it, that is, the creation of them, after their death, then to Him you shall be returned (read turjaūna; or yurjaūna, they shall be returned).
 
Ayah   30:12   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
And on the Day when the Hour comes, the sinners will be dumbfounded, the idolaters will be fall into silence, as their [line of] argument can no longer be continued.
 
Ayah   30:13   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
And none from among those partners of theirs, those whom they ascribed as partners of God, namely, the idols, to intercede for them, shall be intercessors for them and they shall disavow these partners of theirs, in other words, they shall dissociate from them.
 
Ayah   30:14   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
And on the Day when the Hour comes, that day (yawmaidhin, is [repeated] for emphasis) they, believers and disbelievers, shall be separated.
 
Ayah   30:15   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
As for those who believed and performed righteous deeds, they shall be made happy in a garden [of Paradise].
 
Ayah   30:16   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
But as for those who disbelieved and denied Our signs, [namely] the Qurān, and the encounter of the Hereafter, the Resurrection and other matters, those, they shall be arraigned into the chastisement.
 
Ayah   30:17   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
So glory be to God in other words, [so] glorify God, meaning: perform prayer when you enter the [time of the] night, in which there are two prayers, the sunset one (maghrib) and the later night one (ishā), and when you rise in the morning, in which there is the morning prayer (subh).
 
Ayah   30:18   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
And to Him belongs [all] praise in the heavens and the earth a parenthetical statement, in other words, the inhabitants in both of these [realms] praise Him and as the sun declines (wa-ashiyyan is a supplement to hīna, when [of the previous verse]), in which comes the afternoon prayer (asr), and when you enter noontime, in which comes the midday prayer (zuhr). 464
 
Ayah   30:19   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
He brings forth the living from the dead, as in the case of the human being [who is produced] from a spermdrop and a bird from an egg, and He brings forth the dead, a sperm-drop or an egg, from the living, and He revives the earth, with vegetation, after it has died, dried out. And in such [a manner], of being brought forth, you shall be brought forth, from the graves (read [either as] the active takhrujūna, you shall come forth, or the passive tukhrajūna, you shall be brought forth).
 
Ayah   30:20   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
And of His signs, exalted be He, indicating His power, is that He created you, in other words, your origin, Adam, of dust, then lo! you are human beings, of flesh and blood, spreading, across the earth.
 
Ayah   30:21   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
And of His signs is that He created for you, from yourselves, mates Eve was created from Adams rib and the remainder of mankind from the [reproductive] fluids of men and women that you might find peace by their side, and become intimate with them, and He ordained between you, all, affection and mercy. Surely in that, mentioned, there are signs for a people who reflect, upon Gods handiwork, exalted be He.
 
Ayah   30:22   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
And of His signs is the creation of the heavens and the earth and the differences of your tongues, that is, your languages, such as Arabic, non-Arabic and so on, and your colours, such as white or black or otherwise, even though [all of] you are [originally] the offspring of the same man and woman. Surely in that there are signs, indications of His power, exalted be He, for all peoples ([this may be vocalised either as] lil- ālamīna or lil-ālimīna, so [it means] either rational creatures, or people of knowledge [respectively]).
 
Ayah   30:23   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
And of His signs is your sleep by night and day, by His will, as a repose for you, and your seeking, during the day, of His bounty, in other words, your going about [freely] in order to seek a living [is] by His will. Surely in that there are signs for people who listen, listening in a way so as to [be prompted to] reflect and take heed.
 
Ayah   30:24   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
And of His signs is His showing you lightning to arouse fear, in the traveller, of storms, and hope, in the one not travelling, of [the coming of the] rain; and He sends down water from the heaven and with it He revives the earth after it has died, that is, [after] it has dried out, so that it produces vegetation [once again]. Surely in that, mentioned, there are signs for people who understand, [a people who] reflect.
 
Ayah   30:25   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
And of His signs is that the heaven and the earth remain standing by His command, by His will, without any supports; then, when He calls you [to come] out of the earth, when Isrāfīl blows the Horn for the raising from the graves [to commence], lo! you shall come forth, from it alive. Thus your coming forth out of it by a call constitutes one of His [many] signs, exalted be He.
 
Ayah   30:26   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
And to Him belongs whoever is in the heavens and the earth, as possessions, creatures and servants. All are obedient to Him.
 
Ayah   30:27   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
465 And He it is Who initiates the creation, of mankind, then brings it back, after their destruction, and that is [even] easier for Him, than the initiation from the perspective of those addressed for whom to repeat something is easier than doing it for the first time otherwise, in Gods case, exalted be He, both are just as easy. His is the loftiest description in the heavens and the earth, the most sublime attribute, namely that there is no god except God. And He is the Mighty, in His kingdom, the Wise, in His creation.
 
Ayah   30:28   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
He has struck, He has coined, for you, O idolaters, a similitude, that is [actually drawn], from yourselves, and it is [as follows]: do you have among those whom your right hands own, that is to say, among your servants, any partners, of yourselves, [who may share] in what We have provided for you, of property and so on, so that you, and they, are equal therein, fearing them as you fear your own [folk], [just as you fear] those free men like you? (the interrogative is meant as a negation) in other words, your servants are not partners of yours in what you own, so how can you make some of Gods servants partners of His. So We detail the signs, [so] We explain them in such detail, for people who understand, [a people who] reflect.
 
Ayah   30:29   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
Nay, but those who do evil, through idolatry, follow their own desires without any knowledge. So who will guide he whom God has led astray?, that is to say, he will have none to guide him. And they have no helpers, [no] protectors against Gods chastisement.
 
Ayah   30:30   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
So set your purpose, O Muhammad (s), for religion, as a hanīf, as one inclining to it in other words, devote your religion, you and whoever follows you, purely to God a nature given by God, upon which He originated mankind, and this [nature] is His religion: in other words, adhere to it. There is no changing Gods creation, His religion, that is to say, do not change it by becoming idolaters. That is the upright religion, the belief in Gods Oneness, but most people, namely, the Meccan disbelievers, do not know, [anything of] Gods Oneness
 
Ayah   30:31   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
turning, referring, to Him, exalted be He, concerning what He has commanded and what He has forbidden (munībīna, turning is a circumstantial qualifier referring to the subject [of the verb] aqim, set up, in other words [addressing the third plural person] aqīmū, set up) and fear Him and establish prayer and do not be among the idolaters,
 
Ayah   30:32   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
[of] those (minalladhīna is a substitution [for al-mushrikīna, idolaters] using the same operator of the oblique [min]) who have divided up their religion, by being at variance over what they worship, and have become [dissenting] factions, sects divided over this [matter], each party, among them, rejoicing, delighting, in what they have (a variant reading [for farraqū] is fāraqū, in other words, of those who have parted with the religion to which they have been commanded).
 
Ayah   30:33   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
And when some distress, some hardship, befalls people, that is, [people such as] the Meccan disbelievers, they call on their Lord, turning, returning, in penitence to Him, alone. Then, when He lets them taste mercy from Him, by way of rain, lo! a party of them ascribe partners to their Lord.
 
Ayah   30:34   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
Let them be ungrateful for what We have given them (this is [an imperative] meant as a threat). So take 466 your enjoyment. Soon you will know, the consequences of your enjoyment (there is a shift away from the third person address to the second).
 
Ayah   30:35   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
Or (am: the hamza here is meant for denial) have We revealed any warrant, any argument or scripture, to them which might speak, a token speech, of what they associate with Him?, in other words, commanding them to associate others with God? No!
 
Ayah   30:36   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
And when We let people, that is, [people such as] the disbelievers of Mecca and others, taste some mercy, some grace, they exult in it, an exultation of arrogance. But if some evil, some hardship, befalls them for what their own hands have sent ahead, behold! they despair, of mercy. It is in the nature of a believer to give thanks in times of grace and to hope [for mercy] from his Lord in times of hardship.
 
Ayah   30:37   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
Have they not seen, [have they not] realised, that God extends, He makes abundant, His provision to whomever He will, as a test, and straitens?, and He restricts it for whomever He will, as a trial? Surely in that there are signs for people who believe, in them.
 
Ayah   30:38   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
And give the relative what is his due, in the way of dutifulness and kindness, and the needy and the wayfarer, the traveller, [give] voluntary alms the Prophets community must emulate him in this respect. That is better for those who desire Gods Countenance, [who desire] His reward, in exchange for what they do; those, they are the successful, the winners.
 
Ayah   30:39   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
And what you give in usury such as when something is given as a gift or a present for the purpose of demanding more in return; it [the practice of usury] (ribā) is referred to by the same noun denoting that [illicit] extra (ziyāda) requested in the [financial] transaction that it may increase the wealth of the people, giving it, does not increase with God there is no reward in it for those who give it. But what you give as alms (zakāt), as voluntary alms (sadaqa), seeking, thereby, Gods Countenance, such [of you who do so] they are the receivers of manifold increase, in their reward for what they sought (there is here a shift of address away from the second person).
 
Ayah   30:40   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
God is the One Who created you, then provided for you, then makes you die, then gives you life: is there anyone among your associates, of those whom you have associated with God, who does anything of the kind? No! Glory be to Him and exalted be He above what they associate, with Him.
 
Ayah   30:41   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
Corruption has appeared on land, in the wastelands, because of the rain being withheld and the vegetation diminishing, and on sea, in lands near rivers because of their waters diminishing, because of what peoples hands have perpetrated, of acts of disobedience, that He may make them taste (li-yudhīqahum; or [may be read] li-nudhīqahum, that We may make them taste) something of what they have done, that is, the punishment for it, that perhaps they may repent.
 
Ayah   30:42   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
Say, to the Meccan disbelievers: Travel in the land and behold how was the consequence for those who 467 were before; most of them were idolaters, and so they were destroyed because of their idolatry, and their dwellings and habitations lie [desolate] in ruin.
 
Ayah   30:43   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
So set your purpose for the upright religion, the religion of Islam, before there comes the inevitable day from God, namely, the Day of Resurrection. On that day they shall be sundered (yassaddaūna: the original tā [yatasaddaūna] has been assimilated with the sād), that is, they will be split [into separate groups] after the Reckoning [destined] for Paradise or the Fire.
 
Ayah   30:44   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
Whoever disbelieves, [the consequence of] his disbelief shall upon him, that is, the evil consequences of his disbelief, which will be [his being punished in] the Fire, and those who act righteously, they will be paving the way for [the salvation of] their own souls, preparing their places in Paradise,
 
Ayah   30:45   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
that He may requite (li-yajziya is semantically connected to yassaddaūna, they shall be sundered) those who believe and perform righteous deeds out of His bounty, [that He may] reward them. Indeed He does not like the disbelievers, in other words, He will punish them.
 
Ayah   30:46   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
And of His signs, exalted be He, is that He unleashes the winds as bearers of good tidings, meaning, so that they may bring you good tidings of rain, and that He may let you taste, thereby, of His mercy, namely, [in the way of] rain and fertile soil, and that the ships may run, thereby, by His command, by His will, and that you may seek, [that you may] request of, His bounty, provision, by way of commerce at sea, and that perhaps you might [then] give thanks, for these graces, O people of Mecca, and so affirm His Oneness.
 
Ayah   30:47   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
And verily We sent before you messengers to their people and they brought them clear signs, plain proofs of their sincerity concerning their Message to them, but they denied them. Then We took vengeance upon those who were guilty, We destroyed those who denied them, and it was ever incumbent upon Us to give victory to the believers, over the disbelievers, by destroying these and delivering the believers.
 
Ayah   30:48   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
God is the One Who unleashes the winds which then raise, stir up, clouds, and He then spreads them across the heaven as He will, in small or large quantities, and He forms them into fragments (read kisafan or kisfan: scattered pieces) then you see the rain issuing out of them, that is, out of the midst of them. Then when He drops it, the rain, upon whomever of His servants He will, lo! they rejoice, they are happy because of the rain.
 
Ayah   30:49   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
Though indeed before it was sent down upon them, before that (min qablihi is [repeated] for emphasis) they had been despondent, despairing of its sending down.
 
Ayah   30:50   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
So behold the effects (a variant reading has [singular] athar, the effect) of God's mercy, that is, His grace in giving [them] rain, how He revives the earth after it has died, [after] it has dried out, so that it produces vegetation [again]. Surely He is the Reviver of the dead and He has power over all things. 468
 
Ayah   30:51   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
But if (wa-la-in, the lām is for oaths) We unleash a [different] wind, that damages vegetation, and they see it turn yellow, they would begin (la-zallū is the response to the [conditional] oath) after that, that is, after its turning yellow, to disbelieve, to deny the grace of [having been given] rain.
 
Ayah   30:52   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
And so you cannot make the dead hear, nor can you make the deaf hear the call when (read al-duāa idhā, pronouncing both hamzas, or by not pronouncing the second one [that comes] between it and the yā) they go away with their backs turned.
 
Ayah   30:53   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
Nor can you guide the blind out of their error. You can only make hear, in a way so as to understand and accept, those who believe in Our signs, [in] the Qurān, and have thus submitted, sincere in their affirmation of Gods Oneness.
 
Ayah   30:54   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
God is the One Who created you from [a state of] weakness, [from] a base fluid [cf. Q. 32:8], then He ordained after, a second, weakness, which is the weakness of [the period of] childhood, strength, that is, the strength of youth, then after strength He appointed weakness [again] and grey hair, the weakness of old age and the grey hairs of decrepitude (read [vocalised as] duf, weakness, in all three places). He creates what He will, of weakness and strength, youth and grey hairs, and He is the Knower, of how to manage His creatures, the Omnipotent.
 
Ayah   30:55   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
And on the Day when the Hour comes the guilty, the disbelievers, shall swear that they had not remained more than an hour, in the grave. God, exalted be He, says: That is how they use to be deceived, [how] they used to be turned away from the truth the Resurrection similar to the way in which they have [now] been turned away from the real truth about how long they had remained.
 
Ayah   30:56   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
But those who have been given knowledge and faith, of angels and others, shall say, You have remained according to Gods decree, in accordance with what He had decreed [for you] in His prior knowledge, until the Day of Resurrection. This is the Day of Resurrection, which you rejected, but you did not know, that it would come to pass.
 
Ayah   30:57   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
So on that day their excuses, for denying it, will not profit (read lā yanfau or lā tanfau) the evildoers, nor will they be asked to make amends (yustatabūna means they will [not] be asked for al-utbā, which denotes a return to that which pleases God).
 
Ayah   30:58   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
And verily We have struck, We have coined, for mankind in this Qurān every [kind of] similitude, as a way of cautioning them. And if (wa-la-in, the lām is for oaths) you, O Muhammad (s), were to bring them a [miraculous] sign, such as the staff or the hand in the case of Moses, those who disbelieve, from among them, will certainly say (la-yaqūlanna: the indicative nūn has been omitted because of the other nūn coming after it, and likewise the wāw [replaced by the damma in lu], because of two unvocalised consonants coming together and it indicates the plural person), You in other words, Muhammad (s) and his Companions are nothing but followers of falsehood. 469
 
Ayah   30:59   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
Thus does God seal the hearts of those who do not know, [anything of] Gods Oneness, in the same way that He has sealed the hearts of these [aforementioned individuals].
 
Ayah   30:60   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
So be patient. Surely Gods promise, to give you victory over them, is true. And do not let them cause you to be inconstant, those who are uncertain, of the Resurrection, in other words, do not let them cause you to succumb to inconstancy and frivolity by abandoning patience, that is to say, do not abandon it.




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