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31. Surah Luqmn سورة لقمان

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This Surah (Revealed) Meccan, except for verses 27, 28 and 29, which are Medinese; it consists of 34 verses revealed after [sūrat] al-Sāffāt.(Luqmn)
 
Ayah   31:1   الأية الأولي
بِسْم ِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَٰنِ الرَّحِيمِ
Ayah First   1   الأية الأولي
Tafseer
 
Alif lām mīm: God knows best what He means by these [letters].
 
Ayah   31:2   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
Those, namely, these signs, are the signs of the wise Book, the Qurān, the one containing wisdom (the genitive annexation [āyātul-kitābil-hakīm] has the [partitive] meaning of min, from);
 
Ayah   31:3   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
it is, a guidance and a mercy (read nominative rahmatun; the popular accusative reading [rahmatan] would make it a circumstantial qualifier referring to āyāt, signs, the operator of which being the implicit demonstrative import of tilka, those) for the virtuous,
 
Ayah   31:4   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
who maintain the prayer (alladhīna yuqīmūnal-salāta, an explication of al-muhsinīna, the virtuous) and pay the alms and who are certain of the Hereafter (the repetition of hum, they [here translated who] is for emphasis).
 
Ayah   31:5   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
Such follow guidance from their Lord and it is they who are the successful, the winners.
 
Ayah   31:6   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
And among people there is he who purchases idle talk, in other words, that [part of it] which diverts [people] from its [true] significance, that he may lead [people] astray (read li-yadilla; or li-yudilla) from the way of God, the religion of Islam, without knowledge and take it (read [subjunctive] wa-yattakhidhahā as a supplement to yudilla, that he may lead astray; or [indicative] wa-yattakhidhuhā as a supplement to yashtarī, who buys) in mockery, as something to be mocked. For such there will be a humiliating chastisement, one of abasement.
 
Ayah   31:7   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
And when Our signs, in other words, [in] the Qurān, are recited to such [a one] he turns away disdainfully as though he never heard them, as though there were a deafness in his ears (both comparisons constitute two circumstantial qualifiers referring to the subject of [the verb] wallā, turns away; or it is that the second [comparison] is an explication of the first). So give him tidings of, inform him of, a painful chastisement. The 470 use of [the expression] good tidings meant derisively against such [a person] this was al-Nadr b. alHārith. He used to visit al-Hīra for commerce and purchase books containing the stories of the non-Arab peoples and then recount these to the people of Mecca. He would say, Muhammad recounts to you the stories of Ād and Thamūd, whereas I relate to you the stories of the Persians and the Byzantines! They would thus [go to] enjoy his stories and neglect to listen to the Qurān.
 
Ayah   31:8   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
Surely those who believe and perform righteous deeds, for them there shall be Gardens of Bliss,
 
Ayah   31:9   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
abiding therein (khālidīna fīhā, is a circumstantial qualification [of a future status]), in other words, their abiding therein will have been ordained once they enter it a promise of God in truth, that is to say, God promised them this and realised it in truth; and He is the Mighty, Whom nothing can overwhelm and so prevent Him from fulfilling His promise and His threat [of chastisement], the Wise, the One Who assigns all things to their rightful places.
 
Ayah   31:10   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
He created the heavens without any pillars that you can see (amad is the plural of imād, which is an ustuwāna, a column) this is the truth since there are no actual pillars and cast high mountains into the earth, lest it shake with you, and He dispersed therein all kinds beasts. And We sent down (there is a shift from the third [to the second] person) water from the heaven and We caused to grow in it of every splendid kind, [every] fair specimen.
 
Ayah   31:11   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
This is Gods creation, in other words, what is created by Him. Now show me, inform me, O people of Mecca, what those [you worship] besides Him, [those] other than Him, have created, namely, your gods, so that you have associated them with Him, exalted be He (mā is an interrogative of denial and a subject; dhā has the significance of alladhī, and what follows it of the relative clause is the predicate [of the subject mā]; arūnī glosses the action, and what follows it stands in place of two direct objects). Nay (bal, is for transition) but the evildoers are in manifest error, [error] that is evident because of their ascribing partners to God: and you are like them.
 
Ayah   31:12   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
And verily We gave Luqmān wisdom, comprising knowledge, religiousness, and right-mindedness in speech; his many wisdoms are well-known. He used to give legal opinions [in matters of religion] before David was summoned [to prophethood], but lived on into the latters summoning. He then took to acquiring knowledge from him [David] and refrained from giving [any more] legal opinions, explaining this thus: Should I not be content if someone [like the prophet David] has spared me the trouble? He was once asked, What is the worst kind of person? He said, The one who does not care that people should see him doing evil. In other words, [We gave him wisdom] and We said to him: Give thanks to God, for the wisdom that He has given you. Whoever gives thanks only for his own sake, because the reward for his gratitude shall be his, and whoever is ungrateful, for a grace, then surely God is Independent, [without need] of His creation, Praised, in what He does.
 
Ayah   31:13   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
And, mention, when Luqmān said to his son, when he was admonishing him, O my son (yā bunayya is an affectionate diminutive [of yā ibnī]) do not ascribe partners to God: idolatry is truly a tremendous wrong, so return to him [in repentance] and submit [to Him].
 
Ayah   31:14   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
471 And We have enjoined man concerning his parents, We commanded him to be dutiful towards them his mother bears him, and weakens, in weakness after weakness, that is to say, she is weakened by the pregnancy, the pains of labour and the delivery; and his weaning is in two years, and We said to him [to man]: Give thanks to Me and to your parents. To Me is the journeys end, the return.
 
Ayah   31:15   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
But if they urge you to ascribe to Me as partner that whereof you have no knowledge, that accords with [any] reality, then do not obey them. And keep them company in this world honourably, in other words, with decency: dutifulness and kindness and follow the way of him who returns to Me [in penitence], with [acts of] obedience. Then to Me will be your return, and I will inform you of what you used to do, and requite you for it (the [entire] sentence containing the enjoinder [verse 14] and what comes after it constitutes a parenthetical statement).
 
Ayah   31:16   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
O my son! Even if it, namely, the evil trait, should be the weight of a grain of mustard-seed, and [even if] it be in a rock, or in the heavens, or in the earth, in other words, in the most concealed place therein, God will bring it forth, and He will call [that person] to account for it. Truly God is Subtle, in bringing it forth, Aware, of its location.
 
Ayah   31:17   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
O my son! Establish prayer and enjoin decency and forbid indecency. And be patient through whatever may befall you, as a result of such enjoining and forbidding. Truly that, which is mentioned, is true constancy, in other words, that is one of those necessary things regarding which one must have firm resolve.
 
Ayah   31:18   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
And do not turn your cheek disdainfully from people (tusair: a variant reading has tusāir) do not turn your face away in disdain, and do not walk upon the earth exultantly, in other words, with haughtiness. Truly God does not like any swaggering braggart, strutting in his step, [boasting] in front of people.
 
Ayah   31:19   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
And be modest in your bearing, being moderate in it, neither dragging slowly nor rushing, but peaceful and dignified, and lower your voice; indeed the most hideous of voices is the donkeys voice, beginning [its hideous bray] with an exhalation and ending with an inhalation.
 
Ayah   31:20   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
Do you not see, do you [not] realise, O you who are being addressed, that God has disposed for you whatever is in the heavens, such as the sun, the moon, and the stars, that you may benefit from them, and whatever is in the earth, of fruits, rivers and animals, and He has showered, He has made abundant and made complete, His favours upon you, [both] outwardly, namely, [by giving you your] wholesome form, even limbs and otherwise, and inwardly?, that is, [by giving you] knowledge and so on. Yet among people, that is, [people such as] the Meccan disbelievers, there are those who dispute concerning God without any knowledge or guidance, from a messenger, or an illuminating scripture, revealed by God, rather [they dispute] by [blindly] imitating [others].
 
Ayah   31:21   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
And if it is said to them: Follow what God has revealed, they say, We will rather follow what we found our fathers following. He, exalted be He, says: What! Would they follow such [things], even though Satan were calling them to the chastisement of the Blaze?, that is, to what will bring it about necessarily? No! 472
 
Ayah   31:22   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
And whoever surrenders his purpose to God, that is, [whoever] takes to obeying Him, and is virtuous, a believer in [His] Oneness, has certainly grasped the firmest handle, the stronger end, which is not in danger of being severed, and to God belongs the sequel of all matters, their [ultimate] return.
 
Ayah   31:23   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
And whoever disbelieves, then do not let his disbelief grieve you, O Muhammad (s), do not be concerned with his disbelief. To Us shall be their return and We shall inform them of what they did. Truly God knows [best] what is in the breasts, just as [He knows] other things, and so He will requite [them] accordingly.
 
Ayah   31:24   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
We will give them comfort, in this world, for a little [while], for the [duration of the] days of their lives, then We will drive them, in the Hereafter, to a harsh chastisement, namely, the chastisement of the Fire from which they will find no escape.
 
Ayah   31:25   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
And if (wa-la-in, the lām is for oaths) you were to ask them, Who created the heavens and the earth?, they will surely say, God (la-yaqūlunna, they will surely say, the indicative nūn has been omitted because of the like [sc. the nūn] coming after it, and likewise the wāw of the [plural] person, because of two unvocalised consonants coming together). Say: Praise be to God, for the manifestation of the definitive argument against them by the affirmation of the Oneness [of God]. Nay, but most of them do not realise, that this [affirmation] is an obligation upon them.
 
Ayah   31:26   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
To God belongs whatever is in the heavens and the earth, as possessions, creatures and servants, and so none other than Him deserves to be worshipped in them. Indeed God, He is the Independent, [without need] of His creatures, the Praised, in His actions.
 
Ayah   31:27   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
And if all the trees on earth were pens, and the sea (wal-bahru is a supplement to [mā] the subject of anna) replenished with seven more seas, were ink, the Words of God would not be spent, [those words] expressing all the things He knows, written in those pens with that [amount of] ink or with even more [ink] than that [would not be spent], for His knowledge, exalted be He, is infinite. Truly God is Mighty, nothing being beyond Him, Wise, from Whose knowledge and wisdom nothing escapes.
 
Ayah   31:28   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
Your creation and your resurrection are only as [that of] a single soul, in terms of creation and resurrection, because it is the result of the words kun fa-yakūn, Be! and it is! Truly God is Hearer, hearing everything that may be heard, Seer, seeing everything that may be seen, nothing able to distract Him from anything else.
 
Ayah   31:29   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
Have you not seen, have you [not] realised, O you being addressed, that God makes the night pass into the day and makes the day pass into the night, such that the increase of the one is relative to the decrease of the other, and He has disposed the sun and the moon, each, of the two, running, in its course, to an appointed term, namely, [to] the Day of Resurrection, and that God is Aware of what you do? 473
 
Ayah   31:30   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
That, which is mentioned, is [so] because God, He is the Truth, the established [truth], and whatever they call on (read yadūna; or tadūna, you call on) whatever they worship, besides Him is, evanescent, falsehood, and because God is the High [Exalted], above His creation by virtue of [His] subjugation [of them], the Great, the Mighty.
 
Ayah   31:31   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
Have you not seen that the ships run upon the sea by the grace of God, that He may show you, O you who are being addressed in this [statement], some of His signs? Surely in that there are signs, lessons, for every [servant who is] steadfast, [in abstaining] from acts of disobedience to God, grateful, for His grace.
 
Ayah   31:32   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
And if waves cover them, that is, [if] these rise above the disbelievers, like awnings, like mountains that act as awnings over those below them, they call on God, sincere before Him in their faith, that is, [in their] supplication, that He may deliver them, in other words, they do not call on any other [god] with Him; but when He delivers them to land, some of them compromise, middling between belief and disbelief, while others persist in their disbelief. And none denies Our signs, an example of which is Our delivering [them] from [such treacherous] waves, except every perfidious ingrate, [ungrateful] for Gods graces, exalted be He.
 
Ayah   31:33   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
O people, namely, [such as] the people of Mecca, fear your Lord and fear a day when no parent shall avail a child, thereon in any way; and no child, thereon, shall avail its parent in any way. Surely Gods promise, of resurrection, is true. So do not let the life of this world deceive you, [and divert you] from Islam, and do not let the Deceiver, Satan, deceive you concerning God, because of His forbearance and granting [people] respite.
 
Ayah   31:34   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
Lo! God, with Him lies knowledge of the Hour, when it will come to pass; and He sends down (read yunzilu, or yunazzilu) the rain, at times which [only] He knows; and He knows what is in the wombs, whether it is a male or a female; and not one of the three things is known by anyone other than God, exalted be He. And no soul knows what it will earn tomorrow, of good or evil, but God, exalted be He, knows this; and no soul knows in what land it will die, but God, exalted be He, knows this. Truly God is Knower, of all things, Aware, of the inward and outward aspects thereof. Al-Bukhārī reported [by way of an isnād] from [Abd Allāh] Ibn Umar the following hadīth: The Keys of the Unseen are five: Lo! God, with Him lies knowledge of the Hour to the end of the sūra [above].




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