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41. Surah Fussilat سورة فصّلت

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This Surah (Revealed) Meccan: it consists of 53 or 54 verses, revealed after [sūrat] Ghāfir.(Fussilat)
 
Ayah   41:1   الأية الأولي
بِسْم ِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَٰنِ الرَّحِيمِ
Ayah First   1   الأية الأولي
Tafseer
 
Hā mīm: God knows best what He means by these [letters].
 
Ayah   41:2   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
A revelation from the Compassionate, the Merciful (tanzīlun minal-rahmānil-rahīm, the subject).
 
Ayah   41:3   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
A Book (kitābun, the predicate thereof) whose signs have been set out in detail, [whose signs have been] expounded through [various] rulings, stories and admonitions, as an Arabic Qurān (qurānan arabiyyan, a circumstantial qualifier referring to kitābun, a Book, by qualifying it adjectivally) for a people (li-qawmin is semantically connected to fussilat, set out in detail) who have knowledge, [who] understand this [fact] and they are the Arabs;
 
Ayah   41:4   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
[containing] good tidings (bashīran is an adjective describing qurānan, a Qurān) and a warning. But most of them turn away so that they do not hear, in a way so as to accept [its message].
 
Ayah   41:5   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
And they say, to the Prophet, Our hearts are veiled, [they are] masked, from that to which you call us, and in our ears there is a deafness and between us and you there is a partition, a variance over religion, so act, according to your religion; indeed we shall be acting!, according to our religion. 556
 
Ayah   41:6   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
Say: I am only a human being like you. It has been revealed to me [simply] that your God is One God. So be upright [in your conduct] before Him, through faith and obedience, and seek forgiveness from Him. And woe (waylun is an expression implying chastisement) to the idolaters,
 
Ayah   41:7   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
who do not pay the alms and who are disbelievers in the Hereafter ([the repetition of] hum, they, is for emphasis).
 
Ayah   41:8   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
Indeed those who believe and perform righteous deeds shall have an enduring reward, [one that is] unceasing.
 
Ayah   41:9   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
Say: Do you [really] (read a-innakum, pronouncing both hamzas, or by not pronouncing the second one but inserting an alif between the two in both cases) disbelieve in Him Who created the earth in two days, Sunday and Monday, and ascribe to Him associates? That is the Lord, in other words, the Possesser, of [all] the Worlds (al-ālamīn, the plural of ālam, which denotes everything apart from God. On account of the variety [of beings] that it subsumes, it has been expressed in the plural form ending with īn, as a way of giving prevalence [in the address] to rational beings).
 
Ayah   41:10   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
And He set (wa-jaala, the beginning of a new [independent] sentence and cannot be a supplement to [the preceding] relative clause containing alladhī, Who, because of the intervening clause that is [syntactically] unrelated) therein firm mountains [rising] above it, and blessed it, with an abundance of water, crops and stock, and ordained, divided, therein its [various means of] sustenance, for human beings and beasts, in four, complete, days in other words, the setting therein [of mountains] together with what has been mentioned in addition [all] took place on Tuesday and Wednesday evenly (sawāan, in the accusative because it is a verbal noun) in other words, the four days were exactly four, neither less nor more, for [all] enquirers, about the creation of the earth and all that is in it.
 
Ayah   41:11   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
Then He turned to the heaven when it was smoke, [consisting of] rising vapours, and He said to it and to the earth, Come both of you, to what I desire from you, willingly, or unwillingly! (tawan aw karhan, their [syntactical] locus is that of a circumstantial qualifier, in other words, [Come] being obedient or coerced). They said, We come, together with all those inhabiting us, willingly! (tāiīna mainly indicates masculine rational beings; it may also be that they are referred to in this way because they are being addressed thus).
 
Ayah   41:12   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
Then He ordained them (the [suffixed] pronoun refers back to al-samā, the heaven, because it [al-samā] actually denotes that plural [sense] to which it will lead [in the following clause), in other words, He made them to be, seven heavens in two days Thursday and Friday. He completed them in the last hour thereof, in which He created Adam which is why He does not say sawāan, evenly here [as He did earlier]; what is said here concords with those verse in which it is stated that the heavens and the earth were created in six days; and in each heaven He revealed its commandment, that to which He commanded those in it [to follow], in the way of obedience and worship. And We adorned the lowest heaven with lamps, with stars, and [this was also] to guard them (hifzan is in the accusative because of its implicit verbal sense, in other words, We guarded it against the devils lest they try to listen therein [to the angels] by stealth with meteors). That is the ordaining of the Mighty, in His kingdom, the Knower, of His creatures. 557
 
Ayah   41:13   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
But if they, that is, the Meccan disbelievers, turn away, from belief, after this clear statement, then say, I warn you of, I threaten you [with], a thunderbolt like the thunderbolt of Ād and Thamūd, in other words, a chastisement that will destroy you like the one that destroyed them.
 
Ayah   41:14   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
When the messengers came to them from in front of them and from behind them, that is, coming to them [to warn them] and leaving them behind [as they departed], but they disbelieved, as will be stated shortly the destruction [of them meant] would only take place in his time saying, Worship none but God, they said, Had our Lord willed, He would have surely sent down, to us, angels; therefore we indeed disbelieve in what you, according to your claim, have been sent with!
 
Ayah   41:15   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
As for Ād, they acted arrogantly in the earth without right, and they said, upon their being threatened with the chastisement, Who is more powerful than us in might?, in other words, [they believed] no one [to be so] a single man among them could pull out a huge rock from a mountainside and [have the strength to] place it wherever he wished. Did they not see, [did they not] realise, that God, He Who created them, was more powerful than them in might? And they used to deny Our signs, the miracles [We sent down].
 
Ayah   41:16   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
So We unleashed upon them a raging wind, cold and violent, but without rain, during [some] ill-fated days (read nahisātin, or nahsātin), [days that were] calamitous for them, that We might make them taste the chastisement of disgrace, humiliation, in the life of this world; yet the chastisement of the Hereafter is indeed more disgraceful, more severe, and they will not be helped, to have it warded off from them.
 
Ayah   41:17   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
And as for Thamūd, We offered them guidance, We pointed out to them the path of guidance, but they preferred blindness, they chose disbelief [as opposed], to guidance. So the thunderbolt of the humiliating chastisement seized them on account of what they used to earn.
 
Ayah   41:18   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
And We delivered, from it, those who believed and feared, God.
 
Ayah   41:19   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
And, mention, the day when Gods enemies are gathered ([read either] yuhsharu adāuLlāhi, or nahshuru adāaLlāhi, [when] We gather Gods enemies) to the Fire, for they will be driven [thereto],
 
Ayah   41:20   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
until, when they reach it (idhā mā: the mā is extra), their hearing and their eyes and their skins will bear witness against them concerning what they used to do.
 
Ayah   41:21   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
And they will say to their skins, Why did you bear witness against us? They will say, God made us speak, Who gave speech to all things, in other words, [all things] which He wanted to [be able to] speak. And He created you the first time, and to Him you will be returned: it is said that this statement is made by their skins; but it is also said to be Gods words, as is the case with what follows, for it is similar in context to 558 what preceded, namely, that the One with the power to originate you without any precedent and restore you to life after death, also has the power to make your skins and your limbs speak.
 
Ayah   41:22   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
And you did not use to conceal yourselves, when you used to commit lewd acts, lest your hearing or your eyes or your skins should bear witness against you, because you were never certain about [the truth of] resurrection; but you thought, when you used to conceal yourselves, that God did not know most of what you did.
 
Ayah   41:23   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
And that (wa-dhālikum, the subject) supposition of yours (zannukum, substitutes for it) which you supposed of your Lord (alladhī zanantum bi-rabbikum, a descriptive clause; the predicate [is the following, ardākum]) has ruined you, that is, it has brought about your destruction. So you have become among the losers.
 
Ayah   41:24   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
So if they endure, the chastisement, the Fire will [still] be their abode; and if they seek reconciliation, if they seek the satisfaction [of God], then they will not be among the reconciled, those deemed satisfactory [by God].
 
Ayah   41:25   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
And We have assigned, We have occasioned [for], them companions, from among the devils, who have adorned for them that which is before them, of what concerns this world and the following after lusts, and that which is behind them, of what concerns the Hereafter, when they [make them] say that there will be neither resurrection nor reckoning. And the word, of chastisement namely, the verse: Assuredly I will fill Hell [Q. 11:119]) became due against them, being among, all those, communities that passed away, [that] were destroyed, before them of jinn and mankind. Truly they were losers.
 
Ayah   41:26   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
And those who disbelieve say, during the Prophets (s) recitation [of the Qurān], Do not listen to this Qurān and hoot it down, make a din and so forth, and clamour whenever he is reciting, that perhaps you might prevail, so that he will then desist from recitation.
 
Ayah   41:27   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
God, exalted be He, says regarding them: But verily We will make those who disbelieve taste a severe chastisement, and We will verily requite them the worst of what they used to do, in other words, [with] the worst requital for their deeds.
 
Ayah   41:28   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
That, severe chastisement and worst requital, is the requital of Gods enemies (jazāu adāi, the second hamza may be pronounced fully or replaced with a wāw) the Fire! (al-nāru, an explicative supplement to jazāu, the requital, alluded to by [the demonstrative] dhālika, that). Therein will be their everlasting abode, that is, as a place of [permanent] residence, from which there will be no removal, as a requital (jazāan is in the accusative as a verbal noun from the implicit verbal action) for their denial of Our signs, [for their denial of] the Qurān.
 
Ayah   41:29   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
And those who disbelieve will say, [while] in the Fire: Our Lord, show us those who led us astray from among the jinn and mankind namely, Iblīs and Cain [respectively], both of whom established disbelief and 559 slaying as something to be emulated so that we may have them underneath our feet [to trample them], in the Fire, that they may be among the lowermost, in other words, in a chastisement more severe than ours.
 
Ayah   41:30   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
Truly those who say, Our Lord is God! and then remain upright, [adhering] to the affirmation of [Gods] Oneness and to whatever else has been enjoined on them, the angels descend upon them, at the point of death, [saying to them], Do not fear, death and what will come after it, nor grieve, for any family or children that you have left behind, for we will look after them after you, and rejoice in the good tidings of the paradise which you were promised.
 
Ayah   41:31   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
We are your friends in the life of this world, that is, we will look after you in it, and in the Hereafter, in other words, we will be alongside you thereat until you enter Paradise; and therein you will have whatever your souls desire, and therein you will have whatever you request,
 
Ayah   41:32   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
as a hospitality, a pre-prepared provision (nuzulan is in the accusative because of an implied [preceding verb] appointed [for you]) from One Forgiving, Merciful, namely, God.
 
Ayah   41:33   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
And who speaks better [words] in other words, no one speaks better [words] than him who summons [others] to God, by affirming His Oneness, and acts righteously and says, Indeed I am one of those who submit [to God]?
 
Ayah   41:34   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
And they are not equal, the good deed and the evil deed, [even] with respect to their subdivisions, because any number of such [good deeds] are [always] above any number of the latter. Repel, the evil deed, with that, in other words, with that trait, which is better, such as [repelling] anger with endurance, ignorance with forbearance, and [the intention to inflict] harm with pardon, then, behold, he between whom and you there was enmity will be as though he were a dear friend, in other words, then your enemy will become like a close friend in terms of [his] affection [for you], if you act in such a way (alladhī, he whom, is the subject; ka-annahu, as though, is the predicate; idhā is an adverbial particle for [expressing] the comparative import).
 
Ayah   41:35   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
But none is granted it, in other words, [none] is given that better trait, except those who are steadfast; and none is granted it except one [deserving] of a great reward.
 
Ayah   41:36   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
And if (wa-immā: here the nūn of the conditional particle in has been assimilated with the mā, which is extra) some temptation from Satan should provoke you, in other words, if some diversion should turn you away from that [better] trait and other good acts, then seek refuge in God (this is the response to the conditional [and if]; the response to the command clause is omitted, being and He will ward it off from you). Truly He is the Hearer, of what is said, the Knower, of what is done.
 
Ayah   41:37   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
And among His signs are the night and the day, and the sun and the moon. Do not prostrate to the sun and 560 moon, but prostrate to God Who created them, namely, these fours signs, if it is Him Whom you worship.
 
Ayah   41:38   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
But if they disdain, to prostrate to God alone, still those who are with your Lord, that is to say, still the angels, glorify, perform prayers to, Him night and day, and they tire not, they never weary [thereof].
 
Ayah   41:39   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
And among His signs is that you see the earth desolate, dried out, without any vegetation, but when We send down water upon it, it stirs, it moves, and swells, [swells] and rises. Truly He Who revives it is indeed the Reviver of the dead. Surely He has power over all things.
 
Ayah   41:40   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
Indeed those who blaspheme (yulhidūna derives from [the verb] alhada, or lahada, he blasphemed) Our signs the Qurān, by denying [its truth] are not hidden from Us, and We will requite them. Is one who is cast into the Fire better [off], or one who arrives secure on the Day of Resurrection? Act as you wish; indeed He is Seer of what you do this is [meant as] a threat for them.
 
Ayah   41:41   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
Truly those who disbelieve in the Remembrance the Qurān when it comes to them , We will requite them and truly it is an unassailable Book:
 
Ayah   41:42   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
falsehood cannot approach it from before it or from behind it, in other words, there is no scripture before it or after it that contradicts it; [it is] a revelation from One Wise, Praised, that is to say, [from] God, the One Who is praised in His affair.
 
Ayah   41:43   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
Nothing is said to you, in terms of denial [of you], except, the like of, what has already been said to the messengers before you. Surely your Lord is One of forgiveness, to believers, and [also] One of painful punishment, for disbelievers.
 
Ayah   41:44   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
And had We made it, namely, the Remembrance, a non-Arabic Qurān, they would have said, Why have its signs not been explained [clearly]?, so that we might understand them? What!, a Qurān [that is], nonArabic and an Arab, prophet? (this is an interrogative of denial [spoken] by them; read [a-ajamiyyun] pronouncing [both the first and] the second hamza, or by changing it into an alif and either writing it out in full or not). Say: For those who believe it is guidance, from error, and a healing, from [the disease of] ignorance; but as for those who do not believe, there is a deafness in their ears, a heaviness, and so they are unable to hear it, and they are blind to it, so they are unable to comprehend it. Those, they are [as if they were being] called from a distant place, that is to say, they are like one who is called from far away, unable to hear or comprehend what is being called out to him.
 
Ayah   41:45   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
And verily We gave Moses the Scripture, the Torah, but differences arose concerning it, in terms of [some] affirming the truth [of it] and [others] denying [it], as with the Qurān; and were it not for a Word that had [already] preceded from your Lord, to defer the reckoning and requital of creatures until the Day of Resurrection, judgement would have been made between them, in this world, concerning that over which they differed; for indeed they, the deniers of it, are in grave doubt concerning it, [doubt] which leads to 561 [utter] uncertainty.
 
Ayah   41:46   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
Whoever acts righteously, it is for [the good of] his own soul, that he acts [thus], and whoever does evil, it is to the detriment thereof, in other words, the harm consequent from his evildoing will [only] be to him. And your Lord is not [at all] a tyrant to His servants, that is, He is not One of injustice, as He, exalted be He, says: Surely God shall not wrong so much as the weight of an atom [Q. 4:40].
 
Ayah   41:47   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
To Him devolves [all] knowledge of the Hour when it shall come to pass, none other than Him knows this. And no fruit (thamaratin: a variant reading has [the plural] thamarātin, fruits) emerges from its sheath, its receptacle (akmām, the plural of kimm), except with His knowledge, and no female bears [child] or delivers except with His knowledge. And on the day when He will call out to them, Where [then] are My associates? they will say, We proclaim to You, we now apprise You, that there is no witness amongst us, that is, a witness [who can testify to the allegation] that You have an associate.
 
Ayah   41:48   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
And what they used to call on, [what they used] to worship, before, in this world, of idols, has forsaken them and they suppose, they will be certain, that there is no refuge for them, no escape from the chastisement (the negation in both instances comments on the operation [implied in the nouns of actions; also the negation stands in place of the direct objects in both instances).
 
Ayah   41:49   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
Man never wearies of supplicating for good, in other words, he never ceases to ask his Lord for wealth and good health and other [good] things, but should any ill befall him, such as impoverishment or hardship, then he becomes despondent, despairing, of Gods mercy this and what follows relates to [the attitude of] disbelievers.
 
Ayah   41:50   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
And if (wa-la-in: the lām is for oaths) We let him taste, [if] We bestow on him, mercy, [such as] riches or good health, from Us after the harm, the hardship or tribulation, that had befallen him, he will surely say, This is my due!, in other words, [it is] on account of what I do. I do not think that the Hour will ever set in, and even if (wa-la-in: the lām is for oaths) I am returned to my Lord, I will indeed have the best [reward] with Him, namely, Paradise. But We will assuredly inform those who disbelieve of what they did, and assuredly We will make them taste a harsh chastisement (the lām [prefixed] in both verbs is that for oaths).
 
Ayah   41:51   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
And when We bestow graces upon man (insān, the generic noun [is meant]), he shows disregard, of giving thanks, and turns aside, turns his head in arrogance (a variant reading [for nāa] has naā); but when ill befalls him, he makes prolonged supplications.
 
Ayah   41:52   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
Say: Consider [this]: if it, the Qurān, is from God, as the Prophet says, and you disbelieve in it, who in other words, none will be further astray than one who is in extreme defiance?, of the truth (this [third person singular address] is used instead of [who will be further astray] than you in order to point out their status [as disbelievers]).
 
Ayah   41:53   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
562 We shall show them Our signs in the horizons, [in all] the regions of the heavens and the earth, in the way of the luminous [celestial] bodies, [the varieties of] vegetation and trees, and in their own souls, in the way of the exquisite craftsmanship and unique wisdom [inherent in their creation], until it becomes clear to them that it, namely, the Qurān, is the truth, revealed by God, informing of the Resurrection, the Reckoning and the Punishment, so that they [realise that they] will be punished for their disbelief in it and in the one who has come with it. Is it not sufficient that your Lord (bi-rabbika, governs the verb yakfi, sufficient) is witness to all things? (annahu alā kulli shayin shahīd, substitutes for bi-rabbika). In other words, is not sufficient proof of your truthfulness that nothing whatsoever can be hidden from God?
 
Ayah   41:54   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
Nay, verily they are in doubt about the encounter with their Lord, because they deny the Resurrection. Nay, verily He, exalted be He, encompasses all things, in knowledge and in power, and so He will requite them for their disbelief.





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