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46. Surah Al-Ahqf سورة الأحقاف

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This Surah (Revealed) Meccan, except for verses 10,15 and 35, which are Medinese; it consists of 34 or 35 verses.(Al-Ahqf)
 
Ayah   46:1   الأية الأولي
بِسْم ِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَٰنِ الرَّحِيمِ
Ayah First   1   الأية الأولي
Tafseer
 
Hā mīm: God knows best what He means by these [letters].
 
Ayah   46:2   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
The revelation of the Book, the Qurān (tanzīlul-kitābi, the subject) is from God (minaLlāhi, the predicate thereof), the Mighty, in His kingdom, the Wise, in His actions. 589
 
Ayah   46:3   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
We have not created the heavens and the earth and all that is between them except, as a creation, in truth, so that it may be an indication of Our power and Our Oneness, and for an appointed term, until [the point of] their annihilation on the Day of Resurrection. Yet those who disbelieve are disregardful of what they are warned, [of what] they are threatened with in the way of [impending] chastisement.
 
Ayah   46:4   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
Say: Have you considered, [say] Inform me [about], what you invoke, [what] you worship, besides God?, namely, the idols (min dūniLlāhi, constitutes the first object [of the verb]). Show me inform me (arūnī, [repeated] for emphasis), what they have created (mādhā khalaqū, the second object) of the earth (minalardi, the explication of mā, what [part]). Or do they have any share, any partnership, in, the creation of, the heavens?, with God? (am, or, has the significance of the [rhetorical interrogative] hamza of denial). Bring me a scripture, [that has been] revealed, before this, Qurān, or some vestige, some remnant, of knowledge, transmitted from the ancients confirming the soundness of your claim that your worship of the idols brings you closer to God, if you are truthful, in your claim.
 
Ayah   46:5   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
And who is (man here is interrogative but meant [rhetorically] as a negation: in other words, no one is) further astray than him who invokes, [him who] worships, besides God, that is to say, other than Him, such as would not respond to him [even] until the Day of Resurrection these are the idols, who never answer those who worship them in anything that they ask for and who are heedless of their supplication?, their worship, because they are inanimates that possess no [faculty of] comprehension.
 
Ayah   46:6   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
And when mankind are gathered, they, the idols, will be enemies to them, to those who had worshipped them, and they will deny, they will disavow, their worship, the worship of those who had worshipped them.
 
Ayah   46:7   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
And when Our signs, the Qurān, are recited to them, namely, [to] the people of Mecca, being clear signs, manifest [signs] (bayyinātin is a circumstantial qualifier), those who disbelieve, from among them, say of the truth, that is, the Qurān, when it comes to them, This is plain sorcery!, clear and evident [sorcery].
 
Ayah   46:8   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
Or (am has the significance of bal, nay, but and the [rhetorical interrogative] hamza of denial) do they say, He has invented it?, that is, the Qurān. Say: If I have invented it, hypothetically [speaking], still you would have no power to avail me against God, that is to say, against His chastisement, in any way, in other words, you would not be able to ward it off from me if God chooses to chastise me. He knows best what you delve into [of gossip] concerning it, what you say about the Qurān. He, exalted be He, suffices as a witness between me and you. And He is the Forgiving, to the one who repents, the Merciful, to him, and so He does not hasten to punish you.
 
Ayah   46:9   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
Say: I am not a novelty, unprecedented, among the messengers, that is to say, [I am not] the first to be sent [by God as His Messenger]. Already many of them have come before me, so how can you deny me? Nor do I know what will be done with me or with you, in this world: will I be made to leave my [native] land, or will I be slain as was done with [some] prophets before me, or will you stone me to death, or will the earth be made to swallow you as [it did] deniers before you? I only follow what is revealed to me, that is, the Qurān, and I do not invent anything myself. And I am only a plain warner, one whose warning is 590 plain.
 
Ayah   46:10   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
Say: Have you considered?, [say:] inform me, what will be your predicament, if it, the Qurān, is from God and you disbelieve in it (wa-kafartum bihi, the sentence is a circumstantial qualifier), and a witness from the Children of Israel has [already] testified, this was Abd Allāh b. Salām, to the like of it, that is to say, to it [the Qurān], that it is from God, and he, the witness, has believed [in it], while you act with arrogance , you are disdainful of faith (the response to the conditional [if ] is given [by implication] in what has been supplemented to it, in other words: Would you not then be [considered] wrongdoers?; this [understanding of the response] is indicated by [what follows]). Truly God does not guide wrongdoing folk.
 
Ayah   46:11   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
And those who disbelieve say of those who believe, that is, [they say] with regards to them: Had it, faith, been [anything] good, they would not have attained it before us. And since they, the ones [now] speaking, will not be guided by it, that is, [by] the Qurān, they say, This, that is, the Qurān, is an ancient lie!
 
Ayah   46:12   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
Yet before it, that is, [before] the Qurān, [there was] the Book of Moses, that is, the Torah, as a guidepost and a mercy, for those who believed in it (imāman wa-rahmatan are two circumstantial qualifiers) and this, Qurān, is a Book that confirms, scriptures before it, in the Arabic tongue (lisānan arabiyyan is a circumstantial qualifier referring to the subject of musaddiqun, that confirms) to warn those who do wrong, the idolaters of Mecca, and, it is, good tidings for the virtuous, the believers.
 
Ayah   46:13   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
Assuredly those who say, Our Lord is God and then remain upright, in [their adherence to] obedience, no fear will befall them, nor will they grieve.
 
Ayah   46:14   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
Those will be the inhabitants of Paradise, abiding therein (khālidīna fīhā is a circumstantial qualifier) as a reward (jazāan is in the accusative as a verbal noun, because of the implied verbal action, that is to say, yujzawna, they will be rewarded) for what they used to do.
 
Ayah   46:15   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
And We have enjoined man to be kind (husnan: a variant reading has ihsānan), that is to say, We have commanded him to act kindly towards both of them (thus ihsānan is in the accusative as a verbal noun, because of the implied verbal action; the same applies to husnan) to his parents. His mother carries him in travail, and gives birth to him in travail, that is to say, with suffering; and his gestation and his weaning, from suckling, take thirty months, six months being the minimum period for gestation, the remainder being the maximum period of suckling; it is also said that, regardless of whether she bore him for six or nine months, she should suckle him for the remainder. So that (hattā is a [particle of] purpose for an implied sentence, that is to say, wa-āsha hattā, and he lived on so that ) when he is mature, namely, at his prime in terms of his strength, intellect and reasoning, the minimum [age] for which is thirty or thirty three years, and reaches forty years, that is, exactly [forty years], which is the maximum for [attaining] maturity, he says, My Lord!, [this] to the end [of this verse] was revealed regarding Abū Bakr al-Siddīq, when he had reached forty years of age, two years after the [beginning of the] Prophets Mission (s). He [Abū Bakr] believed in him, whereafter his parents believed [in the Prophet], followed by his son Abd al-Rahmān, then Abd al-Rahmāns son Abū Atīq [Muhammad b. Abd al-Rahmān]. Inspire me to give thanks for Your favour with which You have favoured me and my parents, namely, [the grace of] affirming [Gods] Oneness, and that I may act righteously in a way that will please You, thus he [Abū Bakr] emancipated nine believers who had been enduring torture [at the hands of the idolaters] for [their belief in] God, and invest my seed with 591 righteousness, all of them were believers. Indeed I repent to You and I am truly of those who submit [to You].
 
Ayah   46:16   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
Those, that is, those who say such words, Abū Bakr and others, are they from whom We accept the best of what they do, and overlook their misdeeds, [as they stand] among the inhabitants of Paradise (fī ashābilljannati, a circumstantial qualifier, in other words, being among them) [this is] the true promise which they were promised, by His words, God has promised the believers, both men and women, Gardens [Q. 9:72].
 
Ayah   46:17   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
As for him who says to his parents (li-wālidayhi: a variant reading has li-wālidihi, his parent, denoting the generic noun): Fie (read uffin or uffan, as a verbal noun, meaning: [something] putrid and disgusting) on you both: I am exasperated at both of you. Do you threaten me (a-taidāninī: a variant reading has ataidānnī) that I shall be raised, from the grave, when already generations, communities, have passed away before me?, and they have not been raised from their graves. And they call on God for succour, that he [their child] repent, saying [to him]: if you do not repent, Woe to you (waylaka, that is to say, halākaka, you are ruined!). Believe!, in resurrection. Surely Gods promise is true. But he says, This, belief in resurrection, is nothing but the fables of the ancients, lies of theirs.
 
Ayah   46:18   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
Such are the ones against whom the Word, of chastisement, is due, is necessary, concerning communities of jinn and humans that have passed away before them. Truly they are losers.
 
Ayah   46:19   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
And for each one, of both categories, believer and disbeliever, there will be degrees [of status] , thus the degrees of the believers in Paradise are high, while the degrees of disbelievers in the Fire are despicable, according to what they have done, that is to say, [according to what] believers [have done] in the way of acts of obedience, and disbelievers, in the way of acts of disobedience, and that He may recompense them fully, namely, God (li-yuwaffiyahum: a variant reading has li-nuwaffiyahum, that We may recompense them fully) for their deeds, that is, [pay them] their deserts, and they will not be wronged, [not even] in a single thing that may be diminished for believers or increased for disbelievers.
 
Ayah   46:20   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
And on the day when those who disbelieve are exposed to the Fire, by its being revealed for them, it will be said to them: You squandered (read with one hamza, adhhabtum, or with two hamzas [as an interrogative], a-adhhabtum, have you sqaundered ?; or with one hamza, adhhabtum, or with an initial long a, ādhhabtum, with both of these [pronounced fully] or without pronouncing the second [hamza]) your good things during your life of the world, by preoccupying yourselves with sensual delights, and enjoyed them. So today you will be requited with the chastisement of humiliation in return for acting arrogantly in the earth without right and in return for that regarding which you used to act immorally, and [for] the torture you used to inflict [upon others] therein.
 
Ayah   46:21   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
And mention the brother of Ād, namely, Hūd, peace be upon him, when (idh [from here] to the end [of the verse] constitutes an inclusive substitution) he warned his people, he threatened them, at Ahqāf, [the Sand dunes is the name of] a valley in Yemen, where their dwellings were located and already warners, messengers, had passed away before him and after him, that is to say, before Hūd [came to them] and after him, to their peoples saying, Do not worship anyone but God (the statement [beginning with] wa-qad khalat, and already [warners] had passed away, is a parenthetical one). Truly I fear for you should you 592 worship other than God the chastisement of a dreadful day.
 
Ayah   46:22   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
They said, Have you come to divert us from our gods?, to turn us away from worship of them. Then bring us what you threaten us with, of chastisement for worshipping them, if you are of the truthful, in [saying] that it will befall us.
 
Ayah   46:23   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
He, Hūd, said, The knowledge is with God only, He is the One Who knows when chastisement will befall you, and I am [merely] conveying to you what I have been sent with, to you. But I see that you are an ignorant lot, given your hastening on of the chastisement.
 
Ayah   46:24   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
Then, when they saw it, that is, [when they saw] what chastisement [really] was, as a sudden cloud, a cloud that appeared [out of nowhere] on the horizon, heading towards their valleys, they said, This is a cloud that will bring us rain!. God, exalted be He, says: Nay, but it is what you sought to hasten, of the chastisement a hurricane (rīhun substitutes for mā, what) containing a painful chastisement,
 
Ayah   46:25   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
destroying, ruining, everything, it passes through, by the command of its Lord, by His will, that is to say, [destroying] everything that He wants to destroy with it. And so it destroyed their men, women, children and properties by flinging them up into the air high above the ground and tearing them to pieces. Only Hūd and those who believed with him remained [unscathed]. So they became such that nothing could be seen except their dwellings. Thus, in the way that We requited them, do We requite guilty folk, besides them.
 
Ayah   46:26   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
And verily We had empowered them in ways in which We have not (in is either for negation or extra) empowered you, O people of Mecca, in the way of strength and means, and We had vested them with ears and eyes and hearts. But their ears and their eyes and their hearts did not avail them in any way (min shayin: min is extra) since (idh, is operated by aghnā, avail, and imbued with the sense of [a particle introducing a] reason) they used to deny the signs of God, His clear proofs, and they were besieged by, there befell them, what they used to deride, of chastisement.
 
Ayah   46:27   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
And We certainly destroyed the towns [that were] around you, that is, [We destroyed] their inhabitants, the likes of Thamūd, Ād and the people of Lot, and We dispensed the signs, We repeated the clear proofs, so that perhaps they might return.
 
Ayah   46:28   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
So why did they not help them, by averting from them the chastisement, those whom they had chosen besides God, that is to say, other than Him, as [a means of] nearness, through whom they may secure nearness to God, to be gods?, alongside Him, and these are the idols (the first object of ittakhadhū, they had chosen, is the omitted pronoun referred to by the relative clause [alladhīna, those who ], and it is hum, they; qurbānan, nearness, is the second [object], with ālihatan, gods, as its substitution). Nay, but they forsook them, when the chastisement came down [on them], and that, that is to say, [that] choosing of theirs of idols as gods as a means of nearness [to God], was their lie and what they used to invent the lies they used to speak (mā, what, either relates to the verbal action [their lying], or it indicates a relative clause with the referential pronoun omitted, this being fīhi, about). 593
 
Ayah   46:29   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
And, mention, when We sent a company of jinn your way the jinn of Nasībīn in Yemen, or the jinn of Nineveh, who were seven or nine, [and this was] while the Prophet (s) was leading the dawn prayer with some of his Companions at Batn Nakhla, as reported by the two Shaykhs [al-Bukhārī and Muslim] to listen to the Qurān and, when they were in its presence, they said, that is, they said to one another: Listen carefully!, concentrate in order to hear it [carefully]. Then, when it was finished, [when] he was finished reciting it, they went back to their people to warn [them], to threaten their people with the chastisement [from God] if they do not believe they had been Jews, but then become Muslims.
 
Ayah   46:30   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
They said, O our people! Indeed we have heard a Book, namely, the Qurān, which has been revealed after Moses, confirming what was before it, what preceded it, such as the Torah. It guides to the truth, submission [to God] (islām), and to a straight way, that is, the way thereto [to Islam].
 
Ayah   46:31   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
O our people! Respond to Gods summoner, Muhammad (s), by embracing faith, and believe in him, and He, God, will forgive you some of your sins, because some of these [sins] are wrongs [done to others] and which [therefore] can only be forgiven after those wronged are reconciled and shelter you from a painful chastisement.
 
Ayah   46:32   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
And whoever does not respond to Gods summoner cannot thwart God on earth, that is to say, he will not be able to thwart God by escaping from Him and eluding Him, and he, the one who does not respond, will not have, besides Him, that is, [besides] God, any protectors, any helpers to ward off the chastisement from him those, who do not respond, are in manifest error, plain and evident [error].
 
Ayah   46:33   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
Have they not seen, [have they not] realised, that is, the deniers of resurrection, that God, Who created the heavens and the earth and [Who] was not wearied by their creation, [Who] did not fail therein, is able to give life to the dead? (bi-qādirin is the predicate of anna, that, the bi- having been added to it because the statement has the same force as [the construction]: a-laysaLlāhu bi-qādirin, Is God not able ?). Yes, indeed, He is able to give life to the dead. Indeed He has is able to do all things.
 
Ayah   46:34   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
And on the day when those who disbelieve are exposed to the Fire, when they are being chastised in it, it will be said to them: Is not this, chastisement, the truth? They will say, Yes, by our Lord! He will say, Then taste the chastisement for what you used to disbelieve [in].
 
Ayah   46:35   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
So endure [with patience], the harm done [to you] by your people, just as the resolute, those of constancy and [power of] endurance during hardships, from among the messengers endured [with patience], before you, so that you may be one of resolve [like them] (min [of minal-rusuli] is explicative, as all of them were men of resolve; but some say that this [particle min] is [actually] meant to be partitive, since excluded from their number are: Adam, on the basis of Gods saying, exalted be He: And We did not find in him any constancy [Q. 20:115]; and Jonah, on the basis of His words: And do not be like the One of the fish [Q. 68:48]). And do not seek to hasten [it] for them, for your people, the sending down of the chastisement on them. Some say that he [the Prophet] seemed [by this stage] to have become exasperated because of them and desired that chastisement be sent down on them, which is why he was enjoined to [exercise] patience and to refrain from hastening the chastisement [for them] for it would befall them [eventually] without 594 doubt. It shall seem for them, on the day when they see what they are promised, of chastisement in the Hereafter, given its long duration, as though they had tarried, in this world, by their reckoning, only an hour of a day. This Qurān is, a communication, a proclamation from God to you. So shall any be destroyed, that is to say, none [shall be destroyed] upon seeing the chastisement, but the immoral folk?, that is to say, the disbelieving [folk].





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