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47. Surah Muhammad or Al-Qitl سورة محمد

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This Surah (Revealed) Medinese, except for verse 13, or [it is all] Meccan; it consists of 38 or 39 verses.(Muhammad)
 
Ayah   47:1   الأية الأولي
بِسْم ِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَٰنِ الرَّحِيمِ
Ayah First   1   الأية الأولي
Tafseer
 
Those who disbelieve, from among the people of Mecca, and bar, others, from the way of God, that is to say, [from] faith, He will leave their works to waste, such as giving food [to the poor] or being kind to kin, and so they will find no reward for these [works of theirs] in the Hereafter; [but] they are requited for them in this world [purely] out of His bounty, exalted be He.
 
Ayah   47:2   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
But those who believe, namely, the Helpers (al-Ansār) and others [like them], and perform righteous deeds and believe in what has been revealed to Muhammad, namely, the Qurān and it is the truth from their Lord He will absolve them of, He will forgive them, their misdeeds and rightly dispose their mind, their state, so that they do not disobey Him.
 
Ayah   47:3   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
That, rendering void of their works and the absolution of evil deeds, is because those who disbelieve follow falsehood, Satan, and because those who believe follow the truth, the Qurān, from their Lord. Thus, in the same manner of clarification, does God strike for mankind similitudes of themselves, [that is how] He clarifies for them their states, in other words, the disbeliever has his work rendered void while the believer is forgiven.
 
Ayah   47:4   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
So when you encounter [in battle] those who disbelieve, then [attack them with] a striking of the necks (fadarbal-riqābi is a verbal noun in place of the [full] verbal construction, that is to say, fadribū riqābahum, then strike their necks), in other words, slay them reference is made to the striking of the necks because the predominant cause of being slayed is to be struck in the neck. Then, when you have made thoroughly decimated them, bind, spare them, take them captive and bind firmly, the bonds (al-wathāq is what is used to bind [yūthaqu] a captive). Thereafter either [set them free] by grace (mannan is a verbal noun in place of the [full] verbal construction), that is to say, either show them grace by setting them free unconditionally; or by ransom, ransoming them with payment or with Muslim captives, until the war, that is to say, its participants, lay down its burdens, its heavy loads of weaponry and other things, so that either the disbelievers surrender or enter into a treaty. This [last clause] constitutes the purpose of [enjoining the Muslims to] slaying and taking captive. So [shall it be] (dhālika is the predicate of an implied subject, [such as] al-amr, the ordinance, in other words, the ordinance [of God] regarding them is as mentioned). And had God willed, He could have [Himself] taken vengeance on them, without any fighting, but, He has commanded you to [do] it, that He may test some of you by means of others, from among them, by way of battle, so that the slain among you will end up in Paradise, while those [slain] among them [will end up] in the Fire. And those who are slain (qutilū: a variant reading has qātalū, those who fight) this verse was revealed on the day of [the battle of] Uhud, after the dead and the wounded had become numerous among the Muslims in the way of God, He will not let their works go to waste, He will [not] render [them] void.
 
Ayah   47:5   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
He will guide them, in this world and in the Hereafter to what benefits them, and rightly dispose their minds, their condition in both, with that [guidance and disposal] in this world being for those who were not slain, 595 but who have been included in [the statement] and those who were slain (qutilū) because of [the] predominance therein [of those who were slain].
 
Ayah   47:6   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
And He will admit them into Paradise, which He has made known, [which] He has pointed out, to them, so that they are guided to their dwellings in it, and to their spouses and servants without asking to be shown the way.
 
Ayah   47:7   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
O you who believe! If you help God, that is to say, His religion and His Messenger, He will help you, against your enemy, and make your foothold firm, He will make you stand firm [while you fight] on the battleground.
 
Ayah   47:8   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
And as for those who disbelieve, from among the people of Mecca (walladhīna kafarū is the subject, the predicate of which is [an implicit] taisū, they shall be wretched, as indicated [by what follows]) wretchedness shall be their lot, that is, destruction and defeat from God. And He will make their works go to waste (wa-adalla amālahum is a supplement to [the implied] taisū, they shall be wretched).
 
Ayah   47:9   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
That, wretchedness and wasting [of their works], is because they are averse to what God has revealed, of the Qurān with all that it includes of religious obligations (takālīf), so He has made their works fail.
 
Ayah   47:10   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
Have they not travelled in the land to see the nature of the consequence for those who were before them? God destroyed them He destroyed them, their children and their possessions; and [a fate] the like thereof will be for the disbelievers, that is to say, the like of the fate of those before them.
 
Ayah   47:11   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
That, granting of victory to the believers and the vanquishing of the disbelievers, is because God is Patron, Ally and Helper, of those who believe and because the disbelievers have no patron.
 
Ayah   47:12   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
God will surely admit those who believe and perform righteous deeds into gardens underneath which rivers flow. As for those who disbelieve, they take their enjoyment, in this world, and eat as the cattle eat, that is to say, they are only concerned with [filling] their bellies and [satisfying] their private parts, without giving any thought to the Hereafter; and the Fire will be their habitation, their home, their station and their [final] destination.
 
Ayah   47:13   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
And how many (ka-ayyin means kam) a town, by which is meant the inhabitants thereof, mightier in power than your town, Mecca, that is to say, its inhabitants, which expelled you (akhrajatka [is feminine despite the plural sense of inhabitants meant is because it] takes into account the [feminine] form of qarya, town), have We destroyed (ahlaknāhum takes into account the former [plural] import of qarya, town), and they had none to help them, against Our destruction [of them].
 
Ayah   47:14   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
596 Is he who follows a clear sign, a definitive argument and proof, from his Lord, and these are the believers, like those whose evil deeds have been adorned for them, so that they see them as fair [deeds], and these are the disbelievers of Mecca, and who follow their desires?, by worshipping graven images. In other words, there is no similarity between the two.
 
Ayah   47:15   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
A similitude, a description, of the Garden promised to the God-fearing:
 
Ayah   the Garden] that is shared equally by all those who enter it (this first clause is the subject, of which the predicate [follows:]) therein are rivers of unstaling water (read āsin or asin, similar [in form] to dārib, striker, and hadhir, cautious), that is to say, one that does not change, in contrast to the water of this world, which may change due to some factor; and rivers of milk unchanging in flavour, in contrast to the milk of this world, on account of its issuing from udders, and rivers of wine delicious to the drinkers, in contrast to the wine of this world, which is distasteful to drink; and [also] rivers of purified honey, in contrast to the honey of this world, which when it issues out of the bellies of bees becomes mixed with wax and other elements; and there will be for them therein, varieties [of], every fruit and forgiveness from their Lord, for He is pleased with them, in addition to His beneficence towards them in the way mentioned, in contrast to one who is a master of servants in this world, who while being kind to them may at the same time be wrathful with them. [Is such a one] like him who abides in the Fire? (ka-man huwa khālidun fīl-nāri, the predicate of an implied subject, which is a-man huwa fī hādhal-naīm, Is one who is amidst such bliss [as him who abides in the Fire]?). And they will be given to drink boiling water which rips apart their bowels, that is, their entrails, so that these will be excreted from their rears. (Amā, bowels, is the plural of mian, its alif being derived from the yā of their saying miyān [as an alternative singular to mian]).
 
Ayah   47:16   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
And there are some among them, namely, the disbelievers, who listen to you, during the Friday sermon and these are the hypocrites; until, when they go forth from you, they say to those who have been given knowledge, that is to say, to the knowledgeable ones among the Companions [of the Prophet], such as [Abd Allāh] Ibn Masūd and [Abd Allāh] Ibn Abbās, in derision and mockery: What was he saying just now? (read ānifan or anifan, meaning al-sāa, just now). In other words, [they mean to say] we will not go back to [listen to] him again. Those are the ones on whose hearts God has set a seal, of disbelief, and who follow their own desires, in [acting with] hypocrisy.
 
Ayah   47:17   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
But those who are [rightly] guided, namely, the believers, He, God, enhances their guidance and invests them with fear [of Him], He inspires them to [do] that by which they can be wary of [ending up in] the Fire.
 
Ayah   47:18   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
Do they, then, await, they do not await, namely, the disbelievers of Mecca, anything except that the Hour should come upon them (an tatiyahum is an inclusive substitution for al-sāata, the Hour; in other words, it cannot be other than that it will come upon them []) suddenly? For already its portents, the signs thereof, have come, among which are the sending of the Prophet (s), the splitting of the Moon [Q. 54:1] and the Smoke [Q. 44:10]. So, when it, the Hour, has come upon them, for what [benefit] will their reminder be?, their remembering; in other words, it will be of no benefit to them.
 
Ayah   47:19   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
Know, then, that there is no god except God, that is to say, adhere, O Muhammad (s), to knowledge of this [fact] that will benefit you at the Resurrection, and ask forgiveness for your sin this was said to him, despite his infallibility (isma), so that his community might emulate him [in this respect]. Indeed he did do this. The Prophet (s) said, Verily I do ask God for forgiveness a hundred times every day and for the believing men and believing women herein is an honouring for them, by having their Prophet enjoined to ask forgiveness for them. And God knows your going to and fro, your bustle during the day in pursuit of 597 your business, and your place of rest, when you retire to where you sleep at night. In other words, He has knowledge of all your states, nothing of which can be hidden from Him, so be mindful of Him the address [in this verse] is meant for believers as well as others.
 
Ayah   47:20   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
And those who believe say, seeking to take part in the struggle: Why has a sūra not been revealed?, [one] in which there is mention of the [command to participate in the] struggle. But when a definitive sūra is revealed, one in which nothing is abrogated (naskh), and fighting, that is to say, requirement for it, is mentioned in it, you see those in whose hearts is a sickness, that is, doubt and they are the hypocrites looking at you with the look of someone fainting at [the point of] death, because of [their] fear of it and [their] aversion to it; in other words, they fear fighting and are averse to it. Yet more fitting for them (faawlā lahum is a subject, the predicate of which [is the following, tāatun wa-qawlun marūfun])
 
Ayah   47:21   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
would be [to offer] obedience and honourable words, that is, [words] that are kind to you. Then, when the matter has been resolved upon, that is to say, [when] fighting has been prescribed, if they are loyal to God, in faith and obedience, it will be better for them (the sentence beginning with law, if, constitutes the response to idhā, when).
 
Ayah   47:22   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
May it not be [the case] with you, (read asītum or asaytum; there is a shift here from the third person to the second person address), that if you were to turn away, [if] you were to shun faith, you would then cause corruption in the land and sever your kinship ties?, in other words, [that] you would then return to the ways of pagandom such as belligerence and fighting.
 
Ayah   47:23   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
Those, that is, the agents of corruption, are the ones whom God has cursed, so made them deaf, to hearing the truth, and blinded their eyes, to the path of guidance.
 
Ayah   47:24   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
Do they not contemplate the Qurān?, and so recognise the truth. Or (am here is like bal, nay, but) is it that there are locks on, their, hearts?, so they are unable to comprehend it.
 
Ayah   47:25   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
Truly those who have turned, by way of hypocrisy, their backs after the guidance has become clear to them, Satan has seduced, he has adorned [disbelief for], them and has given them [false] hopes (read wa-umliya lahum, [false] hopes have been given to them, or wa-amlā lahum, where the one who gives the [false] hopes is Satan, [but only] by Gods will, exalted be He, for he [Satan] is the one who leads them astray).
 
Ayah   47:26   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
That, leading of them astray, is because they said to those who were averse to what God revealed, namely, to the idolaters: We will obey you in some matters, that is to say, by cooperating to maintain enmity against the Prophet (s) and preventing people from participating in the struggle alongside him: they had said as much secretly, but God, exalted be He, exposed it; and God knows their secrets (read asrārahum, as the plural of sirr, a secret, or isrārahum, their keeping [of things] secret, as the verbal noun).
 
Ayah   47:27   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
Then how will it be, their predicament, when the angels take them away, beating (yadribūna is a 598 circumstantial qualifier referring to the angels) their faces and their backs?, with hooked iron rods.
 
Ayah   47:28   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
That, taking of them away in the state mentioned, is because they followed what angers God, and [because] they were averse to what pleases Him, that is to say, [they were averse to] doing what pleases Him. Therefore He has made their works fail.
 
Ayah   47:29   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
Or did those in whose hearts is a sickness suppose that God would not expose their rancour?, [that] He would [not] bring to light their spite against the Prophet (s) and the believers.
 
Ayah   47:30   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
And if We will, We could show them to you, We could have pointed them out to you (the lām is repeated in [the following, fa-la-araftahum]), then you would recognise them by their mark. And you will certainly recognise them (wa-la-tarifannahum: the wāw is for an omitted oath, and what follows it [fī lahnil-qawl] is its response) by [their] tone of speech, that is to say, [by] the meaning thereof when they speak in your presence, alluding [as they do] to what amounts to a scathing attack upon the Muslims; and God knows your deeds.
 
Ayah   47:31   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
And We will assuredly try you, We will assuredly test you by way of [commanding you to participate in] the struggle and in other ways, until We know, with knowledge outwardly manifested, those of you who struggle [for Gods cause] and those who are steadfast, in [adhering to] the struggle and in other ways, and We will appraise, We will reveal, your record, in terms of [whether you acted with] obedience or disobedience in what concerns the struggle (all three verbs may be read with the [third person singular] yā or with the [first person plural] nūn).
 
Ayah   47:32   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
Indeed those who disbelieve and bar from the way of God, the path of truth, and defy the Messenger, opposing him, after the guidance (this is the meaning of the way of God) has become clear to them, they will not hurt God in any way, and He will make their works fail, He will invalidate them, [good works] such as voluntary alms and the like, and so they will not find any reward for it in the Hereafter this was revealed either regarding those [Meccan] participants at [the battle of] Badr who provided food [for the needy], or regarding [the Jewish tribes of] Qurayza and al-Nadīr.
 
Ayah   47:33   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
O you who believe! Obey God and obey the Messenger, and do not render your own works void, by [engaging in] acts of disobedience, for example.
 
Ayah   47:34   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
Indeed those who disbelieve and bar from the way of God, His path, namely, guidance, and then die as disbelievers, God will never forgive them this was revealed regarding the men of the Well (al-qalīb).
 
Ayah   47:35   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
So do not falter, [do not] be weak, and [do not] call for peace (read salm or silm), that is to say, a truce with the disbelievers should you encounter them, when you have the upper hand (al-alawna: the third letter of the triliteral root, wāw, has been omitted), [when you are] the victors, the vanquishers, and God is with you, helping and assisting, and He will not stint you, diminish you, in [the reward for] your works, that is to 599 say, of the reward for them.
 
Ayah   47:36   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
The life of this world, that is to say, preoccupation [solely] with it, is merely play and diversion; but if you believe and are wary, of God, [both of] which pertain to [the goal of] the Hereafter, He will give you your rewards, and will not ask you your wealth [in return], all of it, rather, only the alms that are required from it.
 
Ayah   47:37   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
If He were to ask you for it, and press you, demand it persistently, you would be niggardly, and this, niggardliness, would expose your rancour, towards the religion of Islam.
 
Ayah   47:38   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
Lo! there you are, O, those who are being called to expend in the way of God, that which has been prescribed for you; yet among you there are those who are niggardly; and whoever is niggardly is niggardly only to his own soul (one may say bakhila alayhi or [bakhila] anhu [to mean, he was niggardly to someone]). For God is the Independent One, [without need] of your expending; while you are the needy, of Him. And if you turn away, from obedience to Him, He will replace you with another people, that is to say, He will bring them in your place, and they will not be the likes of you, in turning away from obedience to Him, but [they will be] obedient to Him, Mighty and Majestic [is He].




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