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48. Surah Al-Fath سورة الفتح

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This Surah (Revealed) Medinese: it was revealed on the return from al-Hudaybiyya; it consists of 29 verses.(Al-Fath)
 
Ayah   48:1   الأية الأولي
بِسْم ِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَٰنِ الرَّحِيمِ
Ayah First   1   الأية الأولي
Tafseer
 
Verily We have given you, We have ordained [for you] the conquest (fath) of Mecca, and other places in the future by force, as a result of your struggle, a clear victory, [one that is] plain and manifest;
 
Ayah   48:2   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
that God may forgive you, by virtue of your struggle, what is past of your sin and what is to come, of it, so that your community might then desire to struggle [like you] this [verse] also constitutes a justification of the [concept of the] infallibility (isma) of prophets, peace be upon them, against sin, by way of a definitive rational proof (the lām [in li-yaghfira, that He may forgive] is for [indicating] the ultimate reason [for the conquest], so that the content [of this latter statement] constitutes an effect and not the cause), and that He may perfect, by way of the mentioned victory, His favour to you and guide you, thereby, to a straight path, upon which He will confirm you and this [straight path] is the religion of Islam;
 
Ayah   48:3   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
and that God may grant you, therein, a mighty victory, one of glory, involving no humiliation.
 
Ayah   48:4   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
He it is Who sent down the spirit of Peace, [Divine] reassurance, into the hearts of the believers, that they might add faith to their faith, by way of [their embracing of] the legal stipulations of religion: for every time He revealed one [of these], they would believe in it including the [command to] struggle. And to God belong the hosts of the heavens and the earth, and so if He wanted to bring victory to His religion by means of others, He would have done so. And God is ever Knower, of His creatures, Wise, in His actions, in other words, He is ever possessed of such attributes;
 
Ayah   48:5   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
600 so that He may admit (li-yudkhila is semantically connected to an omitted clause, that is to say, amara biljihād, He has enjoined the struggle [so that He may admit]) the believing men and believing women into gardens underneath which rivers flow, wherein they will abide, and that He may absolve them of their misdeeds; for that, in Gods sight, is a supreme triumph;
 
Ayah   48:6   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
and so that He may chastise the hypocrites, men and women, and the idolaters, men and women, and those who make evil assumptions about God (read al-saw or al-sū, evil, in all three places); they assumed that He will not assist Muhammad (s) and the believers. For them will be an evil turn of fortune, by way of abasement and chastisement; and God is wroth with them, and He has cursed them, He has banished them [far from His mercy], and has prepared for them Hell and it is an evil destination!, [an evil] place to return to.
 
Ayah   48:7   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
And to God belong the hosts of the heavens and the earth; and God is ever Mighty, in His kingdom, Wise, in His actions, in other words, He is ever possessed of such attributes.
 
Ayah   48:8   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
Indeed We have sent you as a witness, against your community at the Resurrection, and a bearer of good tidings, to them in this world, and a warner, to threaten those in it who do evil with [the punishment of] the Fire;
 
Ayah   48:9   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
that you may believe (li-tuminū, may also here be read li-yuminū, that they may believe; and similarly read either the second person plural or the third person plural in the next three instances) in God and His Messenger, and that you may support Him (tuazzirūhu: a variant reading has tuazzizūhu) and revere Him (the [third person suffixed] pronoun [-hu, him] may refer either to God or to His Messenger) and glorify Him, that is, God, morning and evening.
 
Ayah   48:10   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
Truly those who pledge allegiance to you, the Pledge of Beatitude (bayat al-ridwān) given at alHudaybiyya, in fact pledge allegiance to God this [statement] is akin to: Whoever obeys the Messenger, verily obeys God [Q. 4:80]. The Hand of God is above their hands, [the hands] with which they pledged allegiance to the Prophet, in other words, God, exalted be He, has observed their pledge of allegiance and will requite them in accordance with [their adherence to] it. So whoever reneges, [whoever] breaches the pledge, reneges [that is] the evil consequences of his breach will eventually be against his own soul; and whoever fulfils the covenant which he has made with God, He will give him (fa-sa-yutīhi; or read fa-sanutīhi, We will give him) a great reward.
 
Ayah   48:11   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
Those of the Bedouins who were left behind, around Medina that is to say, those whom God made to stay behind and not to accompany you when you had asked them to set out with you for Mecca, fearing that Quraysh would attack you upon your return, in the year of al-Hudaybiyya will say to you, Our possessions and our families kept us occupied, [preventing us] from going forth with you. So ask forgiveness for us!, of God, for our failure to go forth with you. God, exalted be He, exposes their mendacity by saying: They say with their tongues, that is to say, in asking forgiveness, and in the preceding statement [of theirs], what is not in their hearts, and so they are lying in the excuse which they give. Say: Who can (an interrogative meant [rhetorically] as a negation, that is to say, none [can]) avail you anything against God should He desire to cause you harm (read darran or durran) or desire to bring you benefit? Nay, but God is ever Aware of what you do, in other words, He is ever possessed of such an attribute. 601
 
Ayah   48:12   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
Nay (bal in both instances marks a transition from one subject to another), but you thought that the Messenger and the believers would never return to their families, and that [thought] was adorned in your hearts, that is to say, [you thought] that they would be annihilated by being slain and would not return, and you thought evil thoughts, that [just mentioned], and other things, and you were a ruined lot (būr is the plural of bāir), in other words, [a lot to be] destroyed according to God for [having entertained] such [evil] thoughts.
 
Ayah   48:13   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
And whoever does not believe in God and His Messenger, We have prepared for the disbelievers a blaze, a severe fire.
 
Ayah   48:14   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
And to God belongs the kingdom of the heavens and the earth: He forgives whomever He will and chastises whomever He will; and God is ever Forgiving, Merciful, that is to say, He is ever possessed of the attributes mentioned.
 
Ayah   48:15   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
Those, mentioned, who were left behind will say, when you set forth after spoils, namely, the spoils of Khaybar, in order to capture them, Let us follow you, that we might [also] take a share of it. They desire, thereby, to change the words of God (kalāmaLlāhi: a variant reading has kalimaLlāhi), in other words, His promising of the spoils of Khaybar exclusively for those who were at al-Hudaybiyya. Say: You shall never follow us! Thus has God said beforehand, that is, prior to our return. Then they will say, Nay, but you are envious of us, lest we might acquire a share of the spoils, and therefore you say this [that you say]. Nay, but they never understood, anything of religion, [all] except a few, of them.
 
Ayah   48:16   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
Say to those of the Bedouins, mentioned, who were left behind, to test them: You shall be called against a people possessed of great might these are said to have been the [tribe of] Banū Hanīfa, the inhabitants of [the region of] al-Yamāma; but it is also said that these were the Persians and the Byzantines you shall fight them (tuqātilūnahum is a circumstancial qualifier referring to an implied [future] situation, which constitutes that to which the call will be made); or they will submit, so that you will not [have to] fight. So if you obey, [the command] to fight them, God will give you a good reward; but if you turn away like you turned away before, He will chastise you with a painful chastisement.
 
Ayah   48:17   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
There is no blame on the blind, nor [is there] blame on the lame, nor [is there] blame on the sick, to refrain from [participating in] the struggle. And whoever obeys God and His Messenger, He will admit him (read yudkhilhu, or nudkhilhu, We will admit him) into gardens underneath which rivers flow; and whoever turns away, him He will chastise (read yuadhdhibhu, or nuadhdhibhu, him We will chastise) with a painful chastisement.
 
Ayah   48:18   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
Verily God was pleased with the believers when they pledged allegiance to you, at al-Hudaybiyya, under the tree, this was an acacia they [these believers] numbered 1300 or more; he took an oath of allegiance from them that they would fight against Quraysh and not [attempt to] flee from death. And He, God, knew what was in their hearts, of sincerity and loyalty, so He sent down the spirit of Peace upon them, and rewarded them with a near victory, which was the conquest of Khaybar, following their departure from al- 602 Hudaybiyya,
 
Ayah   48:19   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
and abundant spoils which they will capture, from Khaybar, and God is ever Mighty, Wise, that is to say, He is ever possessed of such attributes.
 
Ayah   48:20   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
God has promised you abundant spoils which you will capture, through the [various] conquests. So He has expedited this one, the spoils of Khaybar, for you, and withheld mens hands from you, with regard to your families, after you had set off [on the campaign], as the Jews had intended [to plot] against them; but God cast terror into their hearts; so that it, the expedited one (wa-li-takūna is a supplement to an implied verb, that is to say, li-tashkurūhu, that you may give thanks to Him) may be a sign for the believers, of their being assisted [by God], and that He may guide you on a straight path, that is to say, the way in which you should rely on Him and entrust any affair to Him, exalted be He;
 
Ayah   48:21   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
and others (wa-ukhrā is an adjectival qualification of the implied subject maghānima, spoils) which you were not able to capture namely, [spoils] from the Persians and the Byzantines; God has verily encompassed these [already], that is to say, He knows that they will be yours. And God has power over all things, that is to say, He is ever possessed of such an attribute.
 
Ayah   48:22   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
And if those who disbelieve had fought you, at al-Hudaybiyya, they would have turned their backs [to flee] then they would not have found any protector, to guard them, or helper.
 
Ayah   48:23   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
[That is] the way of God (sunnataLlāhi is a verbal noun emphasising the import of the preceding sentence about the defeat of the disbelievers and the victory of the believers, that is to say, sannaLlāhu dhālika sunnatan, God has established this as [His] way [of dealing with believers and disbelievers]) which has taken its course before, and you will never find in Gods way any change, by Him.
 
Ayah   48:24   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
And it is He Who withheld their hands from you, and your hands from them, in the valley of Mecca, at alHudaybiyya, after He had made you victors over them: for eighty of them surrounded your camp in order to inflict losses upon you, but they were captured and taken to the Prophet (s), who pardoned them and set them free, and this resulted in the truce. And God is ever Seer of what you do (read tamalūna, or yamalūna, they do), that is to say, He is ever possessed of this attribute.
 
Ayah   48:25   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
They are the ones who disbelieved and barred you from the Sacred Mosque, that is, [barred you] from reaching it, and [prevented] the offering (wal-hadya is a supplement to the [suffixed pronoun] kum, you [of saddūkum, they barred you]), which was detained (makūfan is a circumstantial qualifier), from reaching its destination, that is, [from] the place at which it is customarily sacrificed, namely, the Sanctuary [itself] (an yablugha mahillahu, is an inclusive substitution). And were it not for [some of] the believing men and believing women, being present at Mecca alongside the disbelievers, whom you did not know, to be believers lest you should trample them, that is to say, [lest] you should slay them together with the disbelievers, had you been given permission to embark on the conquest (an tataūhum is an inclusive substitution for hum, them [of lam talamūhum, whom you did not know]), and thus incur sin on account of them without, your, knowing, it (the third person pronouns in both groups [of people] predominantly 603 imply males; the response to lawlā, were it not, has been omitted [through ellipsis], being [something along the lines of] la-udhina lakum fīl-fathi, you would have been permitted to embark on the conquest), but permission for this was not given at the time, so that God may admit into His mercy whom He will, such as those believers mentioned. Had they been clearly separated, [had] they [the believers] been distinguishable from the disbelievers, We would have surely chastised the disbelievers among them, of the people of Mecca [immediately] thereat, by permitting you to go ahead with the conquest thereof, with a painful chastisement.
 
Ayah   48:26   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
When those who disbelieve (alladhīna kafarū is the subject [of the following verb jaala]) nourished (idh jaala is semantically connected to adhdhabnā) in their hearts zealotry (al-hamiyya, [means] disdain of something), the zealotry of pagandom (hamiyyatal-jāhiliyyati substitutes for al-hamiyyata, zealotry), namely, their barring of the Prophet and his Companions from [visiting] the Sacred Mosque, [but] then God sent down His spirit of Peace upon His Messenger and the believers, and so they [the disbelievers] made a truce with them on the condition that they [the believers] would [be allowed to] return the following year, and [such] zealotry would not overcome them [the believers] as it did the disbelievers [then] until they would come to fight them [later], and He made them, the believers, abide by the word of God-fearing (kalimatal-taqwā): there is no god except God, [and] Muhammad is His Messenger (it [kalima, word] is annexed to al-taqwā because it is the cause of it), for they were worthier of it, of the word, than the disbelievers, and deserving of it (wa-ahlahā is an explanatory supplement). And God is ever Knower of all things, that is to say, He is ever possessed of such an attribute, and among the things He knows is that they are worthy of it.
 
Ayah   48:27   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
Verily God has fulfilled the vision for His Messenger in all truth: The Messenger of God (s) saw in his sleep, in the year of al-Hudaybiyya before his departure [from Medina], that he would enter Mecca together with his Companions safely, whereafter they would shave [completely] or shorten [their hair]. He informed his Companions of this and they rejoiced. But when they set off with him [from Medina], and the disbelievers impeded them at al-Hudaybiyya such that they had to retreat, which was distressing for them, for some of the hypocrites began to have doubts [about the Prophets sincerity], this [verse] was revealed (bil-haqqi, in all truth, is semantically connected to sadaqa, fulfilled, or it is a circumstantial qualifier referring to al-ruyā, the vision, and what comes after it is the explanation thereof): You will assuredly enter the Sacred Mosque, God willing this is [said] to secure blessings in safety, to shave your heads, that is, all the hair, or to shorten [it], [to shorten] some of the hair (both muhalliqīna and muqassirīna are implied circumstantial qualifiers), without any fear, ever. So He knew, [there to be] in the truce, what you did not know, in the way of reconciliation [between the believers and the Meccans], and assigned [you] before that, entry, a near victory, namely, the conquest of Khaybar the vision was fulfilled in the following year.
 
Ayah   48:28   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
It is He Who has sent His Messenger with guidance and the religion of truth, that He may make it, that is, the religion of truth, prevail over all religion, over all the other religions. And God suffices as witness, to the fact that you have been sent with what has been mentioned, as God, exalted be He, says:
 
Ayah   48:29   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
Muhammad (the subject) is the Messenger of God (its predicate) and those who are with him, that is, his Companions from among the believers (walladhīna maahu, [another] subject, the predicate of which [is the following, ashiddāu]) are hard, tough, against the disbelievers, showing them no mercy [but], merciful among themselves (ruhamāu is a second predicate [of walladhīna maahu, and those who are with him]), that is to say, they show mutual sympathy and affection for one another, much like a father and a son. You see, you observe, them bowing, prostrating [in worship] (both rukkaan and sujjadan are circumstantial qualifiers). They seek (yabtaghūna is the beginning of a new sentence) bounty from God and beatitude. Their mark (sīmāhum is a subject), their distinguishing feature, is on their faces (fī wujūhihim is its 604 predicate): this is a light and a radiance by which, in the Hereafter, they will be recognised as having been those who used to prostrate in this world, from the effect of prostration (min atharil-sujūdi is semantically connected to the same thing to which the predicate is semantically connected, that is to say, kāinatan, [this] being [from the effect of prostration]; syntactically, it is a circumstantial qualifier referring to the subject [of kāinatan], which is also the subject of the predicate [sc. wujūhihim, their faces]). That, mentioned description, is their description (mathaluhum is the subject) in the Torah (fīl-tawrāti is the predicate thereof); and their description in the Gospel (wa-mathaluhum fīl-injīli, is a subject, the predicate of which is [what follows]) is as a seed that sends forth its shoot (read shatahu or shataahu) and strengthens it (read āzarahu or azarahu), nourishing it and assisting it, and it grows stout and rises firmly, becoming strong and upright, upon its stalk, its roots (sūq is the plural of sāq), delighting the sowers, that is to say those who planted it, on account of its fairness. The Companions, may God be pleased with them, are being described in this way, for at the outset they were weak and very few in number; but then their number grew and they acquired strength in the most wholesome way, so that He may enrage the disbelievers by them (li-yaghīza bihimul-kuffāra is semantically connected to an omitted clause, which is suggested by what preceded, that is to say, they are likened to this [so that God may enrage the disbelievers]). God has promised those of them who believe and perform righteous deeds, the Companions (minhum, of them: min, of, is an indicator of the genus and not partitive, for they are all possessed of the mentioned attributes) forgiveness and a great reward Paradise. Both of these [rewards] will also be given to those who will come after them, as is stated in other verses.





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