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49. Surah Al-Hujurt سورة الحجرات

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This Surah (Revealed) Meccan, consisting of 18 verses.(Al-Hujurt )
 
Ayah   49:1   الأية الأولي
بِسْم ِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَٰنِ الرَّحِيمِ
Ayah First   1   الأية الأولي
Tafseer
 
O you who believe, do not venture ahead of (tuqaddimū, [derives] from qaddama, with the sense of [the 5th form] taqaddama), that is to say, do not come forward with any [unwarranted] saying or deed [ahead of], God and His Messenger, the one communicating [the Message] from Him, that is to say, without their permission, and fear God. Surely God is Hearer, of your sayings, Knower, of your deeds: this was revealed regarding the dispute between Abū Bakr and Umar, may God be pleased with them both, in the presence of the Prophet (s), over the appointment of al-Aqra b. Hābis or al-Qaqā b. Mabad as commander [of his tribe].
 
Ayah   49:2   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
The following was revealed regarding those who raised their voices in the presence of the Prophet (s): O you who believe, do not raise your voices when you [want to] speak above the voice of the Prophet, when he is speaking, and do not shout words at him, when you [wish to] confide in him, as you shout to one another, but [speak] lower than that, out of reverence for him, lest your works should be invalidated without your being aware, that is to say, for fear of this [happening] as a result of the raising of voices and the shouting mentioned.
 
Ayah   49:3   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
The following was revealed regarding those who used to lower their voices in the presence of the Prophet (s), such as Abū Bakr, Umar and others, may God be pleased with [all of] them: Truly those who lower their voices in the presence of Gods Messenger they are the ones whose hearts God has tested for Godfearing, that is to say, [He has tested them] so that this [fear of God] may manifest itself in them. For them will be forgiveness and a great reward: Paradise.
 
Ayah   49:4   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
The following was revealed regarding a group of people who came to see the Prophet (s) during the midday [resting] period while he was in his house, and called out to him: Truly those who call you from behind the apartments, the [private] chambers of his womenfolk (hujurāt is the plural of hujra, which is an area of ground on which stones are laid [yuhjaru alayhi] to form a wall or the like), and it happened that each one 605 of them called out, in that rough and crude Bedouin manner, from behind one of the apartments, as they did not know in which apartment he was, most of them do not understand, given the way in which they acted, your exalted status and the reverence that befits it.
 
Ayah   49:5   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
And had they been patient (annahum, they, has independent status, on account of inceptiveness; alternatively, it is said to govern an implied verb such as thabata, had [their patience] been maintained) until you came out to them, it would have been better for them; and God is Forgiving, Merciful, to those of them who repent.
 
Ayah   49:6   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
The following was revealed regarding al-Walīd b. Uqba whom the Prophet had sent to the Banū al-Mustaliq in order to ascertain [their loyalty to Islam]. He already feared them on account of an old feud between him and them from the time of pagandom [before Islam], and so [upon seeing them come out to him] he returned and claimed that they had refused to give the voluntary alms and intended to kill him. And just as the Prophet (s) was making plans to raid them, they came to him to disavow what he [al-Walīd] had said about them: O you who believe, if a reprobate should come to you with some tiding, some piece of information, verify [it], [ascertain] his truthfulness from his mendacity (fa-tabayyanū: a variant reading has fa-tathabbatū, from al-thabāt, to ascertain), lest you injure a folk (an tusībū qawman, an object denoting reason), that is to say, for fear of this [happening], out of ignorance (bi-jahālatin is a circumstantial qualifier referring to the subject [of the verb]), that is to say while you are ignorant; and then become remorseful of what you have perpetrated, erroneously against that folk. After they had returned to their homelands, the Prophet (s) sent Khālid [b. al-Walīd] to them, who observed only obedience and goodness in them and [later] informed the Prophet of this.
 
Ayah   49:7   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
And know that the Messenger of God is among you, so do not speak falsehood, for God will inform him of the [real] state of affairs. If he were to obey you in many matters, which you communicate contrary to reality, so that the necessary [evil] consequences ensue, you would surely be in trouble, you would earn in addition to that sin, the sin for the consequences that ensue [from your error]. But God has endeared faith to you, adorning your hearts with it, and He has made odious to you disbelief and immorality and disobedience ([an instance of] suppletion with respect to import, as opposed to [lexical] form; for the one to whom faith has been endeared and so forth, will naturally be dissimilar in character to the mentioned [reprobate]). Those (there is here a shift from the second [to the third] person address) they are the right-minded, the ones firmly established upon [the way of] their religion;
 
Ayah   49:8   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
[that is] a favour from God (fadlan is a verbal noun, in the accusative because of the implied verbal action, that is, afdala, He gives a favour) and a grace, from Him, and God is Knower, of them, Wise, in His bestowal of graces on them.
 
Ayah   49:9   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
And if two parties of believers (in tāifatāni minal-muminīna ... [to the end of] the verse, was revealed regarding a particular incident where the Prophet (s) was riding a donkey and happened to pass by Ibn Ubayy; the donkey urinated and so Ibn Ubayy held his nose, whereupon [Abd Allāh] Ibn Rawāhā said, By God, the smell of the donkeys urine is sweeter-smelling than your musk. Fighting then ensued between the two clans with fists, sandals and palm branches [being thrown about]) fall to fighting (iqtatalū: the plural is used on account of the [plural] import, for each party is made up of several individuals; a variant reading has [the dual form] iqtatalatā), make peace between them (baynahumā: the dual here takes into account the actual [dual] form [of tāifatān, two parties]). And if one of them aggresses against the other, fight the one which aggresses until it returns to Gods ordinance, [to] the truth. Then, if it returns, reconcile them, 606 fairly, and act justly. Surely God loves the just.
 
Ayah   49:10   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
The believers are indeed brothers, in religion. Therefore [always] make peace between your brethren, when they fall into dispute with one another (a variant reading [for the dual form akhawaykum, your two brethren] has ikhwatakum, your brothers) and fear God, so that perhaps you might receive mercy.
 
Ayah   49:11   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
O you who believe, do not let any people, that is, any men among you, deride (yā ayyuhālladhīna āmanū lā yaskhar [to the end of] the verse, was revealed regarding the [Banū] Tamīm delegation when they derided the poor among the Muslims, like Ammār [b. Yāsir] and Suhayb [al-Rūmī]; al-sukhriya means scorn and disdain) another people: who may be better than they are, in Gods sight; nor let any women, from among you, deride [other] women who may be better than they are. And do not defame one another, do not cast aspersions [on others] and hence have aspersions cast on you, that is, let none among you denigrate another; nor insult one another by nicknames, do not call another by a nickname which he detests, such as O degenerate one! or O disbeliever!. Evil is the name, mentioned out of mockery, derision and mutual reviling, of immorality after faith! (al-fusūqu badal-īmāni substitutes for al-ismu, the name, to indicate that it [such naming of others] is immorality as it is [an action which is] usually repeated). And whoever does not repent, of such [immorality], those they are the evildoers.
 
Ayah   49:12   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
O you who believe, shun much suspicion. Indeed some suspicions are sins, that is to say, it causes one to fall into sin. This [suspicion] may have many forms, such as thinking ill of the good folk from among the believers and such [good folk] are many in contrast to the immoral individuals among them in whose case there is no sin, so long as it [the suspicion] is in accordance with their outward behaviour. And do not spy (tajassasū: one of the two tā letters [of tatajassasū] has been omitted): do not pursue the imperfections and faults of Muslims by searching them out; nor backbite one another, do not speak of him by [mentioning] something which he is averse to [having mentioned of himself], even if it be true. Would any of you love to eat the flesh of his brother dead? (read maytan or mayyitan). That is to say, it would not be right for him [to do so]. You would abhor it. Thus to backbite him in life would be like eating his flesh when he is dead. This latter [form of behaviour] has been suggested to you and you were averse to it, so be averse to the former too. And fear God, that is, His punishment for backbiting, by repenting of it; assuredly God is Relenting, accepting of the penitence of those who repent, Merciful, to them.
 
Ayah   49:13   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
O mankind! We have indeed created you from a male and a female, [from] Adam and Eve, and made you nations (shuūb is the plural of shab, which is the broadest category of lineage) and tribes (qabāil, which are smaller than nations, and are followed by amāir, tribal districts, then butūn, tribal sub-districts, then afkhādh, sub-tribes, and finally fasāil, clans; for example Khuzayma is the shab, while Kināna is the qabīla, Quraysh is the imāra, Qusayy is the batn, Hāshim is the fakhdh, and Abbās is the fasīla) that you may come to know one another (taārafū: one of the two tā letters [of tataārafū] has been omitted), that you may acquire knowledge of [the customs of] one another and not to boast to one another of [whose is the more] noble lineage, for pride lies only in [the extent to which you have] fear of God. Truly the noblest of you in the sight of God is the most God-fearing among you. Truly God is Knower, of you, Aware, of your inner thoughts.
 
Ayah   49:14   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
The Bedouins a group of men from among the Banū Asad say, We believe, we affirm the truth in our hearts. Say, to them: You do not believe; but rather say, We have submitted, we are outwardly compliant; for faith has not yet entered into your hearts, hitherto; however, it is expected of you. Yet if you obey God and His Messenger, by [embracing] faith and in other ways, He will not diminish for you (read yalitkum or 607 yalitkum, by making the hamza an alif) anything of your deeds, that is, of the reward for them. God is indeed Forgiving, to believers, Merciful, to them.
 
Ayah   49:15   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
The [true] believers, that is, those who are true in their [affirmation of] faith as He makes explicit in what follows are only those who believe in God and His Messenger, and then have not doubted, they have not been uncertain of [their] faith, and who strive with their wealth and their souls for the cause of God, hence their striving manifests the sincerity of their faith. It is they who are sincere, in their faith, not those who say, We believe, and from whom all that has been forthcoming is their submission [to the religion].
 
Ayah   49:16   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
Say, to them: Do you [pretend to] inform God about your religion (read the doubled
 
Ayah   2nd verbal] form atuallimūna, do you inform), in other words, are you intimating to Him your [religious] status when you say, We believe, when God knows all that is in the heavens and all that is in the earth, and [even though] God is Knower of all things?
 
Ayah   49:17   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
They deem it to be a favour to you that they have submitted, without [the need for any] fighting, unlike [those] others who submitted only after being fought. Say: Do not deem your submission to be a favour to me (islāmakum, your submission, has dependent accusative status because of the omission of the genitive preposition bi-,which is also read as implicit before the an in both instances). Rather, it is God Who has done you a favour in that He has guided you to faith, if you are being sincere, when you say, We believe.
 
Ayah   49:18   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
Truly God knows the Unseen of the heavens and the earth, that is, [He knows] all that is hidden in both, and God is Seer of what you do (may be read either as yamalūna, they do, or tamalūna, you do), nothing of which can be concealed from Him.





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