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53. Surah An-Najm سورة النجم

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This Surah (Revealed) Meccan, except for verse 32, which is Medinese; it consists of 62 verses.(An-Najm)
 
Ayah   53:1   الأية الأولي
بِسْم ِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَٰنِ الرَّحِيمِ
Ayah First   1   الأية الأولي
Tafseer
 
By the Star the constellation Pleiades (al-thurayya) when it sets, [when] it disappears,
 
Ayah   53:2   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
your companion, Muhammad (s), may God bless him and grant him peace, has neither gone astray, from the path of guidance, nor has he erred, nor has he engaged in error (al-ghayy is ignorance that results from a false belief);
 
Ayah   53:3   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
nor does he, in regard to what he brings you, speak out of [his own] desire, [out of] the whims of his soul.
 
Ayah   53:4   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
It is but a revelation that is revealed, to him,
 
Ayah   53:5   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
it is, taught to him by, an angel, one of awesome power,
 
Ayah   53:6   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
possessed of vigour, of strength and might (or [alternatively it, dhū mirratin, means] possessed of a beautiful appearance), namely, Gabriel, peace be upon him; and he stood upright, he settled,
 
Ayah   53:7   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
624 when he was on the highest horizon, the horizon of the sun, that is to say, at the place from which it rises, in the form in which he [Gabriel] was created, so that the Prophet (s) saw him; he [the Prophet] had been at [Mount] Hirā, where Gabriel had obscured the entire horizon to the west. The Prophet fell down swooning, after he had asked him [Gabriel] to show himself to him in the form in which he was created. Thus Gabriel had made a tryst with him at Hirā, where he came down to him in human form.
 
Ayah   53:8   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
Then he drew near, he came close to him, and drew closer still,
 
Ayah   53:9   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
until he was, from him [the Prophet], within the length of two bows away or [even] nearer, than that, until he [the Prophet] had regained consciousness and his fright had subsided,
 
Ayah   53:10   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
whereat He, [God] exalted be He, revealed to His servant, Gabriel, what he, Gabriel, revealed, to the Prophet (s); the thing being revealed is not mentioned [explicitly] in exaltation of its [great] status.
 
Ayah   53:11   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
The heart, the heart of the Prophet, did not deny (read khadhaba or kadhdhaba) what he saw, with his own eyes of the image of Gabriel.
 
Ayah   53:12   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
Will you then dispute with him, will you [then] argue with him and [hope to] overwhelm him, concerning what he saw? an address to the idolaters who denied the Prophets (s) vision of Gabriel.
 
Ayah   53:13   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
And verily he saw him, in his [true] image, another time,
 
Ayah   53:14   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
by the Lote-tree of the Ultimate Boundary, when he was carried on the night journey [up] through the heavens this [lote-tree] is a nabk thorn-tree [that lies] to the right of the Throne (arsh), [the tree] beyond which no angel or any other being pass;
 
Ayah   53:15   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
near which is the Garden of the Retreat, to which the angels, the spirits of martyrs and the pious retreat;
 
Ayah   53:16   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
when there shrouded the Lote-tree that which shrouded [it], of flying creatures and other [beings] (idh, when, is operated by raāhu, he saw him),
 
Ayah   53:17   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
The eye did not swerve, on the part of the Prophet (s), nor did it go beyond [the bounds], that is to say, his gaze did not turn away from the object of vision designated for it, nor did it go beyond that [object] on that night.
 
Ayah   53:18   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
625 Verily he saw, in it, some of the greatest signs of his Lord, [some of] the most awesome [of these signs]. He thus saw from among the marvels of the Realm (malakūt) a green drape (rafraf) that obscured the [entire] horizon of the heaven and Gabriel with his six hundred wings.
 
Ayah   53:19   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
Have you considered al-Lāt and al-Uzzā,
 
Ayah   53:20   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
and Manāt, the third, of the preceding two, the other? (al-ukhrā, a derogatory qualification of the third one). These were stone idols which the idolaters worshipped and which they claimed interceded for them with God (the first direct object of a-fa-raaytum, have you seen, is al-Lāt and what has been supplemented thereto; the second [direct object] has been omitted). The meaning then is, Inform Me: do these idols have the power over anything, such that you worship them besides God Who has the power over all that has been mentioned? And because of their assertion also that the angels were Gods daughters, despite their aversion to daughters, the following was revealed:
 
Ayah   53:21   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
Are you to have males, and He females?
 
Ayah   53:22   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
That, then, would indeed be an unfair division! (dīzān, unfair, derives from dāzahu, yadīzuhu, to mean: he wronged him, he was unjust to him).
 
Ayah   53:23   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
These, that is, the mentioned [deities], are nothing but names which you have named, by which you have named, you and your fathers, idols that you worship. God has not revealed any warrant, [any] proof or evidence, for them, that is to say, [for] the worship of them. They follow nothing but conjecture, in their worship of them, and that which [ignoble] souls desire, of that which Satan adorned for them, that they may intercede for them before God, exalted be He, even though guidance has already come to them from their Lord, by the tongue of the Prophet (s), with definitive proof; yet they do not desist from their ways.
 
Ayah   53:24   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
Or shall man, that is, shall every human being among them, have whatever he wishes for?, such as [their wish] that the idols intercede for them. [No!] It is not so.
 
Ayah   53:25   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
Yet to God belong the Hereafter and the former [life], that is to say, [the life of] the world, and so nothing comes to pass in them except what He, exalted, wills.
 
Ayah   53:26   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
And how many an angel, that is to say, many an angel, there is in the heavens, and how honoured they are in Gods sight [but], whose intercession cannot avail in any way except after God gives permission, to them for this [intercession], for whomever He wills, of His servants, and, with whom, He is satisfied, because of His saying: and they do not intercede except for him with whom He is satisfied [Q. 21:28]. It is also wellknown that it [intercession] cannot be forthcoming from them except after permission for it has been granted: who is there that shall intercede with Him save with His leave [Q. 2:255]. 626
 
Ayah   53:27   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
Truly those who do not believe in the Hereafter give the angels the names of females, for they say: They are Gods daughters.
 
Ayah   53:28   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
But they do not have any knowledge thereof, of this claim. They follow, in this [respect], nothing but conjecture, which they have conjured up, and indeed conjecture can never substitute for the truth, that is to say, when it comes to acquiring knowledge of that which one is required to have knowledge of.
 
Ayah   53:29   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
So shun him who turns away from Our Remembrance, that is, [from] the Qurān, and desires nothing but the life of this world this was [revealed] before the command to struggle [against the disbelievers].
 
Ayah   53:30   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
That, namely, the desire of this world, is the full extent of their knowledge, that is, the limit of their knowledge, namely, that they have preferred this life to [that of] the Hereafter. Truly your Lord knows best those who have strayed from His way, and He knows best those who are [rightly] guided: He has knowledge of both and will requite both.
 
Ayah   53:31   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
And to God belongs whatever is in the heavens and whatever is in the earth, that is, He owns [all of] that, among which [also] are the misguided one and the [rightly] guided one, leading astray whomever He will and guiding whomever He will, that He may requite those who do evil for what they have done, by way of idolatry and otherwise, and reward those who are virtuous, by [their] affirmation of [Gods] Oneness and other acts of obedience, with the best [reward], namely, Paradise. He points out the virtuous as being:
 
Ayah   53:32   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
Those who avoid grave sins and abominations, excepting lesser offences, that is, minor sins, such as a look, a kiss or a touch (this constitutes a discontinuous exception, in other words the meaning is: but lesser offences are forgiven by the avoidance of grave sins). Truly your Lord is of vast forgiveness, for such [lesser sins] and for accepting repentance. The following was revealed regarding those who used to say, [What of] our prayers, our fasting, and our pilgrimage!. He knows you best [from the time] when He produced you from the earth, that is to say, [when] He created your father Adam from dust, and when you were hidden [fetuses] (ajinna is the plural of janīn) in the bellies of your mothers. So do not claim purity for yourselves, do not praise yourselves, that is, in admiration; but [if it is done] in recognition of [Gods] grace, then that is fine. He knows best those who are God-fearing.
 
Ayah   53:33   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
Did you see him who turned away, from faith that is, [the one who] recanted when he was derided for it. He said, But I fear the punishment of God!. But when the one deriding him guaranteed him that he would bear Gods chastisement for him, provided that he reverted to his [former] idolatry, and he then gave him a stated sum money, he reverted
 
Ayah   53:34   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
and gave a little, of the stated sum of money, and was then grudging?, refrained from [giving] the remainder (akdā derives from al-kudya, earth that is hard as rock and which prevents the well-digger from digging through when he hits it). 627
 
Ayah   53:35   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
Does he possess knowledge of the Unseen so that he sees?, [and therefore] from among such [knowledge] he is able to know that another person may bear the chastisement of the Hereafter for him? No! This was alWalīd b. al-Mughīra, or someone else (the sentence beginning with a-indahu, does he possess, is the second object of the a-raayta, have you seen, which has the significance of inform Me!).
 
Ayah   53:36   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
Or (am means bal) has he not been informed of what is in the scrolls of Moses, the books of the Torah, or scrolls before it,
 
Ayah   53:37   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
and, the scrolls of, Abraham who fulfilled [his summons], [he who] completed what he had been charged with, as in: And when his Lord tested Abraham with certain words and he fulfilled them [Q. 2:124] (the explication of mā, what, is [the following]):
 
Ayah   53:38   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
that no burdened soul shall bear the burden of another (an, that, has been softened in place of the hardened form), in other words, no soul shall bear [responsibility for] the sins of another;
 
Ayah   53:39   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
and that (wa-an, to be understood as wa-annahu) man shall have only what he [himself] strives for, of good [deeds], and so he shall not have anything of [the reward for] good [deeds] striven for by another;
 
Ayah   53:40   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
and that his endeavour will be seen, it will be inspected in the Hereafter,
 
Ayah   53:41   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
then he will be rewarded for it with the fullest reward, the most perfect [reward] (one may say jazaytuhu sayahu or [jazaytuhu] bi-sayihi [to mean the same thing]),
 
Ayah   53:42   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
and that (read wa-anna as a supplement; it is also read wa-inna as the beginning of a new sentence; and the same applies to what comes after it, in which case, according to this second [reading], these [inna statements] no longer form part of the content of all that is in the scrolls) the ultimate end, the return and the destination after death, is toward your Lord, whereat He will requite them;
 
Ayah   53:43   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
and that it is He Who makes to laugh, whomever He will He makes joyous, and makes to weep, whomever He will He makes him sorrowful,
 
Ayah   53:44   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
and that it is He Who brings death, in this world, and gives life, for resurrection,
 
Ayah   53:45   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
and that He [Himself] creates the two spouses, the two kinds, the male and the female, 628
 
Ayah   53:46   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
from a drop [of semen] once it is emitted, [once] it is poured forth into the womb,
 
Ayah   53:47   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
and that with Him rests the second genesis (read al-nashāata, or al-nashata), the other creation, for the Resurrection, after the first creation,
 
Ayah   53:48   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
and that it is He Who enriches, people by [granting them] sufficient wealth, and grants possessions, [He Who] gives that wealth that is enjoyed as property,
 
Ayah   53:49   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
and that it is He Who is the Lord of Sirius this is a star [lying] beyond [the constellation of] Gemini, which was worshipped in the time of pagandom (jāhiliyya);
 
Ayah   53:50   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
and that He destroyed former Ād (Ādan al-ūlā: a variant reading elides the nunation with the [following] lām [sc. Ādal-ūlā]; this [former one] refers to the people of Ād, while the second [Ād] is that of the people of Sālih)
 
Ayah   53:51   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
and Thamūd (wa-Thamūda: may be declined, as the name of their forefather, or left as a diptote, being the name of the tribe; it is a supplement to Ādan) sparing not, a single one of them;
 
Ayah   53:52   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
and the people of Noah before that, that is to say, before Ād and Thamūd, We [also] destroyed them; indeed they were more unjust and more insolent, than Ād and Thamūd, because of the long time that Noah remained among them: and he remained among them a thousand-less-fifty years [Q. 29:14], for they, despite their disbelief in him, would [still] harm him and assault him;
 
Ayah   53:53   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
and the Deviant [cities], namely, the cities of the people of Lot, He overturned, He hurled them down to the earth after lifting them up to the heaven upside down, by commanding Gabriel to do this;
 
Ayah   53:54   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
so that there covered them, of rocks afterwards, that which covered [them]: this is [purposely] left vague in order to inspire terror; in [sūrat] Hūd [it is stated]: We made their uppermost the nethermost, and We rained upon them stones of baked clay [Q. 11:82].
 
Ayah   53:55   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
Then which of the bounties of your Lord, [which of] His graces, [graces] which indicate His Oneness and power, do you dispute?, do you have doubt about, O man, or deny?
 
Ayah   53:56   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
629 This, Muhammad (s), is a warner, [in the tradition] of the warners of old, of their kind, that is to say, he is a messenger like messengers before him, sent to you just as they were sent to their peoples.
 
Ayah   53:57   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
The Impending [Hour] is imminent: the Resurrection is near at hand.
 
Ayah   53:58   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
None, [no] soul, besides God can disclose it, that is to say, only He can disclose it and manifest it, as where He says: He alone shall reveal it, at its proper time [Q. 7:187].
 
Ayah   53:59   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
Do you then marvel, in denial, at this discourse, the Qurān,
 
Ayah   53:60   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
and laugh, mockingly, and not weep, when you hear its Promise and Threat,
 
Ayah   53:61   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
while you remain oblivious?, unmindful and heedless of what is required of you.
 
Ayah   53:62   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
So prostrate to God, Who created you, and worship Him!, and do not prostrate to idols, nor worship them.




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