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55. Surah Ar-Rahmn سورة الرحمن

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This Surah (Revealed) Meccan, except for verse 29, which is Medinese; it consists of 76 or 78 verses.(Ar-Rahmn)
 
Ayah   55:1   الأية الأولي
بِسْم ِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَٰنِ الرَّحِيمِ
Ayah First   1   الأية الأولي
Tafseer
 
The Compassionate One, God, exalted be He,
 
Ayah   55:2   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
has taught, whomever He will, the Qurān.
 
Ayah   55:3   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
He created man, the species [mankind],
 
Ayah   55:4   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
636 teaching him the [coherent] speech, utterance.
 
Ayah   55:5   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
The sun and the moon follow a reckoning, they move according to a [strict] calculation,
 
Ayah   55:6   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
and the grass, all stalkless vegetation, and the trees, that [vegetation] which possesses stalk, prostrate, comply with what is required of them.
 
Ayah   55:7   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
And He has raised the heaven and set up the balance, He has established justice,
 
Ayah   55:8   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
[declaring] that you should not contravene, that is to say, so that you may not do wrong, with regard to the balance, that [instrument] with which one weighs.
 
Ayah   55:9   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
And observe the weights with justice, fairly, and do not skimp the balance, [do not] decrease [the value of] what is being weighed.
 
Ayah   55:10   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
And the earth, He placed it, He fixed it [in place], for [all] creatures: man, jinn and others.
 
Ayah   55:11   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
In it are fruits and, the familiar, date-palms with sheaths, the spathes containing its flowers,
 
Ayah   55:12   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
and grain, such as wheat and barley, with husk, and fragrant herb.
 
Ayah   55:13   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
So which of your Lords favours, graces, will you deny? (tukadhdhibān is mentioned thirty one times; the interrogative is meant [to be understood] as an affirmative, judging by what al-Hākim [al-Naysābūrī] reported [by way of an isnād] from Jābir [b. Abd Allāh al-Ansārī], who said, The Messenger of God (s) was reciting surāt al-Rahmān to us, and when he completed it, he said, What is wrong with you that you have been silent [throughout]? Verily the jinn are more responsive than you. Not once did I recite this verse to them So which of your Lords favours will you deny? but that they said, Not one of your graces, our Lord, do we deny, for [all] praise belongs to You ).
 
Ayah   55:14   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
He created man, Adam, of dry clay (salsāl, a dry hollow mud producing an echo if tapped), resembling the potters (fakhkhār, clay that has been baked),
 
Ayah   55:15   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
and He created the Jann, the father of the jinn, namely, Iblīs, of a smokeless flame of fire. 637
 
Ayah   55:16   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
So which of your Lords favours will you deny?
 
Ayah   55:17   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
Lord of the two Easts, [the points of] the winter sunrise and the summer sunrise, and Lord of the two Wests: likewise [the two points of sunset].
 
Ayah   55:18   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
So which of your Lords favours will you deny?
 
Ayah   55:19   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
He has loosed the two waters, the sweet and the salty; [and so] they meet, in the perception of the eye.
 
Ayah   55:20   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
Between them there is a barrier, by His power, exalted be He. They do not overstep, neither of the two encroaches upon the other to become mixed with it.
 
Ayah   55:21   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
So which of your Lords favours will you deny?
 
Ayah   55:22   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
From [both of] them, from the point at which they [seem to] meet but which is actually from [only] one of the two, and that is, the salt water is brought forth (yukhraju, passive, may also be read as active, yakhruju, emerge) the pearl and the coral (marjān, these are red pieces of shell, or small pearls).
 
Ayah   55:23   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
So which of your Lords favours will you deny?
 
Ayah   55:24   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
His are the crafted ships [that sail] in the sea [appearing] like landmarks, like mountains in their tremendous size and height.
 
Ayah   55:25   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
So which of your Lords favours will you deny?
 
Ayah   55:26   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
Everyone who is on it, that is, [on] the earth, of animal beings, will perish (man, who, is used to indicate predominance of rational beings);
 
Ayah   55:27   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
yet there will remain the countenance of your Lord, His Essence, [the countenance] of majesty, magnificence, and munificence, towards believers, through His graces to them. 638
 
Ayah   55:28   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
So which of your Lords favours will you deny?
 
Ayah   55:29   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
All that is in the heavens and the earth implore Him, either by way of speech or by their very state [of dependence on Him], for the strength which they require for worship, [for] provision, forgiveness and other things. Every day, [all the] time, He is upon some matter, something that He manifests in accordance with what He has decreed since pre-eternity, such as the giving of life, the bringing of death, exalting and abasing [individuals], giving abundantly and withholding, responding to a supplicating person and giving the one requesting [something] and so on and so forth.
 
Ayah   55:30   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
So which of your Lords favours will you deny?
 
Ayah   55:31   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
We will attend to you, We shall turn to reckon with you, O you two heavy ones!, mankind and jinn.
 
Ayah   55:32   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
So which of your Lords favours will you deny?
 
Ayah   55:33   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
O company of jinn and humans, if you are able to pass through, to exit from, the confines, the regions, of the heavens and the earth, then pass through! a command [meant] to challenge them to what they are incapable of [doing]. You will not pass through except with a sanction, [except] with some power, and you have no power for such a thing.
 
Ayah   55:34   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
So which of your Lords favours will you deny?
 
Ayah   55:35   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
Against you will be unleashed a heat of fire (shuwāz, can either mean that the flame thereof has no smoke or [that it does have it] with it) and a flash of brass, without any flame, and you will not be able to seek help, you will not be able to defend yourselves against this, nay, it will drive you to the site of the Gathering.
 
Ayah   55:36   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
So which of your Lords favours will you deny?
 
Ayah   55:37   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
And when the heaven is split open, when it becomes open with [many] gates [in preparation] for the descent of the angels, and it turns crimson (wardatan, [literally, a rose], in other words, red like this [rose]), like tanned leather, red skins, in contrast to its [the heavens] usual appearance (the response to idhā, when, is [along the lines of] fa-mā azamal-hawli, How great will be the terror then!).
 
Ayah   55:38   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
So which of your Lords favours will you deny? 639
 
Ayah   55:39   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
Thus on that day no man will be questioned about his sin, nor any jinn, about his sin; but they are questioned on some other occasion: By your Lord, We shall question them all [Q.15:92] (al-jānn in this instance and in what will follow denotes the jinn, and also in both cases al-ins denotes human beings).
 
Ayah   55:40   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
So which of your Lords favours will you deny?
 
Ayah   55:41   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
The guilty will be recognised by their mark: blackened faces and bruised eyes; so they will be seized by the forelocks and the feet.
 
Ayah   55:42   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
So which of your Lords favours will you deny?
 
Ayah   55:43   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
This is Hell which the guilty [were wont to] deny!
 
Ayah   55:44   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
They shall pass round, they shall pace, between it and boiling hot water, [water] of extreme temperature, which they are given to drink every time they call to be rescued from the heat of the Fire (ānin is defective, like qādin).
 
Ayah   55:45   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
So which of your Lords favours will you deny?
 
Ayah   55:46   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
But for those who feared, that is, for every one of them, or for all of them together, the station of their Lord, the standing before Him for the Reckoning and therefore refrained from being disobedient to Him, there will be two gardens.
 
Ayah   55:47   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
So which of your Lords favours will you deny?
 
Ayah   55:48   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
Both with (dhawātā, the dual form of the regular form dhawāt, with its lām [its third consonant] is changed into a yā) [abundant] branches (afnān is the plural of fanan, similar [in pattern] to talal [atlāl]).
 
Ayah   55:49   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
So which of your Lords favours will you deny?
 
Ayah   55:50   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
In both of them there are two flowing springs. 640
 
Ayah   55:51   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
So which of your Lords favours will you deny?
 
Ayah   55:52   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
In both of them, of every fruit (fākiha) of [the fruits of] this world or [it, fākiha, means] all those things in which one delights (yutafakkahu bihi) there are two kinds, two varieties, one juicy, one dried, and those which in this world are bitter, like colocynth, will be sweet [therein].
 
Ayah   55:53   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
So which of your Lords favours will you deny?
 
Ayah   55:54   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
[They will be] reclining (muttakiīna is a circumstantial qualifier operated by an omitted [verb], that is to say, yatanaamūna, they will enjoy bliss [while reclining]) upon couches lined with [heavy] silk brocade, (istabraq) thick or coarse silk, the outer lining being of fine silk (sundus). And the fruits of both gardens will be near, so that it may be reached by the one standing up, the one sitting down or the one lying down.
 
Ayah   55:55   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
So which of your Lords favours will you deny?
 
Ayah   55:56   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
In them, in the two gardens and what they comprise of upper chambers and palaces, are maidens of restrained glances, [restricting] their eyes to those spouses of theirs from among [either] the men or the jinn who are reclining, [maidens] who have not been touched, [who] have not been deflowered and these [maidens] are [either] houris or women of this world who [will] have been created [anew], by any man or jinn before them.
 
Ayah   55:57   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
So which of your Lords favours will you deny?
 
Ayah   55:58   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
It is as though they are rubies, in their purity, and pearls, in their fairness.
 
Ayah   55:59   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
So which of your Lords favours will you deny?
 
Ayah   55:60   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
Is the reward of goodness, [manifested] through obedience, anything but goodness?, [granted] through bliss?
 
Ayah   55:61   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
So which of your Lords favours will you deny?
 
Ayah   55:62   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
641 And beside these, two mentioned gardens, there will be two [other] gardens, in addition, for those who feared the standing before their Lord.
 
Ayah   55:63   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
So which of your Lords favours will you deny?
 
Ayah   55:64   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
Deep green (mudhāmmatān, [this means that they are almost] black on account of the intensity of their greenness).
 
Ayah   55:65   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
So which of your Lords favours will you deny?
 
Ayah   55:66   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
In both of them will be two gushing fountains, rushing with water, unceasing.
 
Ayah   55:67   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
So which of your Lords favours will you deny?
 
Ayah   55:68   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
In both of them will be fruits and date-palms and pomegranates, the [latter] two [fruits] being from among these [fruits of the two gardens]; but it is also said that they belong to [the fruits of] some other [garden].
 
Ayah   55:69   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
So which of your Lords favours will you deny?
 
Ayah   55:70   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
In them, that is, in the two gardens and their palaces and what they comprise, are maidens [who are] good, in nature [and with], beautiful, faces.
 
Ayah   55:71   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
So which of your Lords favours will you deny?
 
Ayah   55:72   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
Houris (hur, this means maidens with intense black eyes set against the [intense] whiteness [of the iris]) secluded, concealed, in pavilions, made of studded gems, annexed to the palaces, like boudoirs.
 
Ayah   55:73   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
So which of your Lords favours will you deny?
 
Ayah   55:74   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
Untouched by any man before them, before these [soon-to-be] spouses of theirs, or jinn. 642
 
Ayah   55:75   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
So which of your Lords favours will you deny?
 
Ayah   55:76   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
Reclining, namely, their spouses (muttakiīna, syntactically, it is as [described] above) upon green cushions (rafraf is the plural of rafrafa, which can mean [either] carpets or cushions) and lovely druggets (abqariyyin, the plural of abqariyya, which are velvet carpets).
 
Ayah   55:77   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
So which of your Lords favours will you deny?
 
Ayah   55:78   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
Blessed be the Name of your Lord, He of Majesty and Munificence (as [explained] above; the word ism is extra).





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