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59. Surah Al-Hashr سورة الحشر

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This Surah (Revealed) Medinese, consisting of 24 verses.(Al-Hashr)
 
Ayah   59:1   الأية الأولي
بِسْم ِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَٰنِ الرَّحِيمِ
Ayah First   1   الأية الأولي
Tafseer
 
All that is in the heavens and all that is in the earth glorifies God, that is to say, [all that is in them] exalts Him as being transcendent (the lām [of liLlāhi, God] is extra; the use of mā [instead of the personal min] is meant to indicate a predominance [of non-rational beings in the heavens and the earth]). And He is the Mighty, the Wise, in His kingdom and [in] His actions [respectively].
 
Ayah   59:2   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
658 It is He Who expelled those who disbelieved of the People of the Scripture, namely, the Jews of the Banū alNadīr, from their homelands, [from] their dwellings at Medina, at the first exile, that is, their exile to Syria, the last [exile] being their banishment to Khaybar by Umar during his caliphate. You did not think, O believers, that they would go forth, and they thought that they would be protected (māniatuhum is the predicate of an, that) by their fortresses (husūnuhum, the agent of the verb [māniatuhum], with which the predication is completed) from God, from His chastisement. But God, His command and His chastisement, came at them from whence they had not reckoned, [from whence] had never occurred to them, from the part of the believers, and He cast terror (rub or ruub) into their hearts, by having their chief Kab b. alAshraf slain, destroying [as they did] (read yukharribūna; or yukhribūna, [derived] from
 
Ayah   4th form] akhraba) their houses, in order to take away with them what they valued of wood and so on, with their own hands and the hands of the believers. So take heed, O you who have eyes!
 
Ayah   59:3   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
And had God not prescribed, [had He not] decreed, banishment for them, departure from their homeland, He would have chastised them in this world, by having them killed or taken captive, as He did with the Jews of [Banū] Qurayza, and in the Hereafter there is for them the chastisement of the Fire.
 
Ayah   59:4   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
That is because they defied, they opposed, God and His Messenger; and whoever defies God, indeed God is severe in retribution, against him.
 
Ayah   59:5   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
Whatever palm-trees you cut down, O Muslims, or left standing on their roots, it was by Gods leave: He gave you the choice in this matter, and in order that, by giving [you] leave to cut them down, He might disgrace those who are immoral, the Jews, in return for their objection that the cutting down of productive trees was [deliberate] spoiling [of the land].
 
Ayah   59:6   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
And whatever spoils God has given to His Messenger from these, you did not, O Muslims, spur for it any (min is extra) horses or camels, that is to say, you did not suffer any hardship in [securing] it, but God gives His messengers sway over whomever He will, and God has power over all things: hence you have no right to any of this [booty], rather it is exclusively for the Prophet (s) and those of the four categories mentioned with him in the next verse, [to be dispensed] in accordance with the way in which he used to divide it up, such that each would receive a fifth of the fifth and the rest being the Prophets (s), for him to do with as he pleases thus he gave of it to the Emigrants and three from among the Helpers, on account of their poverty.
 
Ayah   59:7   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
Whatever spoils God has given to His Messenger from the people of the towns, such as al-Safrā, Wādī alQurā and Yanbu, belong to God, dispensing with it as He will, and to the Messenger and to the near of kin, the Prophets kin, from among the Banū Hāshim and the Banū al-Muttālib, and the orphans, the [orphaned] children of Muslims, those whose parents have died and who are impoverished, and the needy, those Muslims in need, and the traveller, the Muslim who may be cut off [from all resources] on a remote journey: in other words, they [these spoils] are the due of the Prophet (s) and [those of] the four categories, divided up in the way that he used to, where each category received a fifth of the fifth, with the rest being his [the Prophets], so that these, the spoils this being the justification for the division of these [spoils] in this way, do not (kay-lā: kay functions like lā with a following implied an [sc. an-lā]) become a thing circulating, handed round, between the rich among you. And whatever the Messenger gives you, of spoils or otherwise, take it; and whatever he forbids you, abstain [from it]. And fear God. Surely God is severe in retribution.
 
Ayah   59:8   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
659 [At] the poor Emigrants (lil-fuqarāi is semantically connected to an omitted [verb], that is to say, a-ajibū, What! Do they marvel [at the poor Emigrants]) who have been driven away from their homes and their possessions that they should seek bounty from God and beatitude and help God and His Messenger? Those they are the sincere, in their faith.
 
Ayah   59:9   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
And those who had settled in the hometown, that is, Medina, and [had abided] in faith, that is to say, [those who] had embraced it with enthusiasm these being the Helpers, before them, love those who have emigrated to them, and do not find in their breasts any need, any envy, of that which those [others] have been given, that is to say, of what the Prophet (s) had given the Emigrants from the [seized] possessions of the Banū al-Nadīr, [a share which was] exclusively theirs; but prefer [others] to themselves, though they be in poverty, in need of that which they prefer for [those] others [to have]. And whoever is saved from the avarice of his own soul, its covetousness for [acquiring] possessions, those they are the successful.
 
Ayah   59:10   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
And those who will come after them, after the Emigrants and the Helpers, up to the Day of Resurrection, say, Our Lord, forgive us and our brethren who preceded us in [embracing] the faith, and do not place any rancour, any spite, in our hearts toward those who believe. Our Lord, You are indeed Kind, Merciful!.
 
Ayah   59:11   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
Have you not considered, [have you not] seen, the hypocrites who say to their brethren who disbelieve from among the People of the Scripture, namely, the Banū al-Nadīr, their brethren in disbelief, If (la-in: the lām is for oaths in all four instances) you are expelled, from Medina, we will assuredly go forth with you, and we will never obey anyone against you, to forsake you. And if you are fought against (wa-in qūtiltum: the prefatory lām [of la-in] has been omitted), we will certainly help you. And God bears witness that they are truly liars.
 
Ayah   59:12   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
[For] indeed if they are expelled, they would not go forth with them, and if they are fought against, they would not help them. And even if they were to help them, that is to say, even if they came to help them, they would surely turn their backs [to flee] (the implied response to the oath suffices in place of the response to the conditional, in all five instances) then they, the Jews, would not be helped.
 
Ayah   59:13   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
You indeed arouse greater awe, fear, in their hearts, that is, [the hearts of] the hypocrites, than God [but only] because He has deferred His chastisement [to the Hereafter]. That is because they are a people who do not comprehend.
 
Ayah   59:14   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
They, that is, the Jews, will not fight against you together, [all] in a [single] body, except in fortified towns or from behind some wall (jidār: a variant reading has [plural] judur, walls), some [kind of protective] fence. Their might, their belligerence, is great among themselves. You [would] suppose them to be all together, united as a [single] body, but their hearts are disunited, scattered, contrary to supposition. That is because they are a people who have no sense;
 
Ayah   59:15   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
their likeness in relinquishing faith is, as the likeness of those who, recently before them, a short time before these being the idolaters from among those [who fought] at Badr tasted the evil consequences of their 660 conduct, the punishment for it in this world, by being killed or otherwise. And for them there will be a painful chastisement, in the Hereafter.
 
Ayah   59:16   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
In addition, their likeness in heeding the [words of the] hypocrites and their forsaking of them is, like Satan when he says to man, Disbelieve!; so that when he [man] disbelieves, he says, Lo! I am absolved of you. Indeed I fear God, the Lord of the Worlds, out of mendacity and dissimulation on his part.
 
Ayah   59:17   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
So the sequel for both will be, that is, [the sequel for both] the one who leads astray and the one led astray (a variant reading for [āqibatahumā] has the nominative āqibatuhumā, as the subject of kāna, will be), that they are in the Fire, therein abiding. And that is the requital of the evildoers, that is, the disbelievers.
 
Ayah   59:18   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
O you who believe, fear God and let every soul consider what it has sent ahead for tomorrow, for the Day of Resurrection. And fear God. God is indeed Aware of what you do.
 
Ayah   59:19   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
And do not be like those who forget God, [those who] neglect obedience to Him, so that He makes them forget their own souls, [to forget] to send ahead good deeds for its sake. Those they are the immoral.
 
Ayah   59:20   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
Not equal are the inhabitants of the Fire and the inhabitants of Paradise. It is the inhabitants of Paradise who are the winners.
 
Ayah   59:21   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
Had We sent down this Qurān upon a mountain, and had it [the mountain] been endowed with a faculty of discernment like man, you would have surely seen it humbled, rent asunder by the fear of God. And such similitudes, as those mentioned do We strike for mankind, that perhaps they may reflect, and so become believers.
 
Ayah   59:22   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
He is God, than Whom there is no other god, Knower of the unseen and the visible, what is secret and what is proclaimed He is the Compassionate, the Merciful.
 
Ayah   59:23   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
He is God, than Whom there is no other god, the King, the Holy, the One sanctified from what does not befit Him, the Peace, unblemished by any defects, the Securer, the One Who confirms the sincerity of His messengers by creating miracles for them, the Guardian (al-muhaymin:
 
Ayah   derives] from haymana, yuhayminu, meaning that one is watcher over something), in other words, the One Who is Witness to the deeds of His servants, the Mighty, the Strong, the Compeller, compelling His creatures to what He will, the Exalted, above what does not befit Him. Glorified be God He is declaring His transcendence above what partners they ascribe!, to Him.
 
Ayah   59:24   الأية
 
Tafseer
 
He is God, the Creator, the Maker, the Originator from nothing, the Shaper. To Him belong the, ninety nine, Most Beautiful Names, cited in hadīth (al-husnā is the feminine of al-ahsan). All that is in the heavens and 661 the earth glorify Him, and He is the Mighty, the Wise already explained at the beginning of this [sūra].





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