60. Surah Al-Mumtahinah سورة الممتحنة


This Surah (Revealed) Medinese, consisting of 13 verses.(Al-Mumtahanah)
Ayah   60:1   الأية الأولي
بِسْم ِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَٰنِ الرَّحِيمِ
Ayah First   1   الأية الأولي
O you who believe, do not take My enemy and your enemy, namely, the disbelievers of Mecca, for friends. You offer, you communicate to, them, the Prophets plan (s) to attack them, which he had confided to you, and had kept secret, at Hunayn, [communicating this to them out of], affection, between you and them. Hātib b. Abī Baltaa sent them a letter to that effect, on account of his having children and close relatives, idolaters, among them. The Prophet (s) intercepted it from the person to whom he [Hātib] had given it to deliver, after God apprised him of this. Hātibs excuse for this [conduct of his] was accepted [by the Prophet]; when verily they have disbelieved in the truth that has come to you, that is, [in] the religion of Islam and the Qurān, expelling the Messenger and you, from Mecca, by oppressing you, because you believe in God, your Lord. If you have gone forth to struggle in My way and to seek My pleasure (the response to the conditional is indicated by what preceded, that is to say, [understand it as being] then do not take them as friends). You secretly harbour affection for them, when I know well what you hide and what you proclaim. And whoever among you does that, that is, to secretly communicate the Prophets news to them, has verily strayed from the right way, he has missed the path of guidance (originally, al-sawā means the middle [way]).
Ayah   60:2   الأية
If they were to prevail over you, they would be your enemies, and would stretch out against you their hands, to kill and assault you, and their tongues with evil [intent], with insults and reviling; and they long for you to disbelieve.
Ayah   60:3   الأية
Your relatives and your children, the idolatrous [ones], for whose sake you secretly communicated the news, will not avail you, against the chastisement in the Hereafter. On the Day of Resurrection you will be separated (passive yufsalu; or read active yafsilu, He will separate you) from them, so that you will be in Paradise, while they will be alongside the disbelievers in the Fire. And God is Seer of what you do.
Ayah   60:4   الأية
Verily there is for you a good example (read iswa or uswa in both instances, meaning qudwa) in [the person of] Abraham, in terms of [his] sayings and deeds, and those who were with him, of believers, when they said to their people, We are indeed innocent of you (buraā is the plural of barī, similar [in form] to zarīf, charming) and of what you worship besides God. We repudiate you, we disavow you, and between us and you there has arisen enmity and hate forever (wal-baghdāu abadan: pronounce both hamzas fully, or replace the second one with a wāw) until you [come to] believe in God alone, except for Abrahams saying to his father, I shall ask forgiveness for you [this statement is] excepted from a [good] example, so it is not [right] for you to follow his example in this [respect] by asking forgiveness for disbelievers. As for his saying: but I cannot avail you anything against God that is, either against His chastisement or [to secure for you of] His reward he [Abraham] is using it to intimate [to his father] that he can do nothing for him other than to ask forgiveness [for him], which [saying] is itself based on that [former statement] albeit excepted [from it] in terms of what is meant by it, even if on the face of it, it would seem to be [semantically] part of the [good] example to be followed: Say, Who can avail you anything against God [Q. 48:11]; his [Abrahams] plea of forgiveness for him was before it became evident to him that he [his father] was an enemy of God, as mentioned in sūrat Barāa [Q. 9:114]. Our Lord, in You we put our trust, and to You we turn [penitently], and to You is the journeying: these are the words of the Friend [of God, Abraham] and those who were with him, in other words, they were saying:
Ayah   60:5   الأية
662 Our Lord, do not make us a cause of beguilement for those who disbelieve, that is to say, do not make them prevail over us, lest they think that they are following the truth and are beguiled as a result, in other words, [lest] they lose their reason because of us; and forgive us. Our Lord, You are indeed the Mighty, the Wise, in Your kingdom and Your actions.
Ayah   60:6   الأية
Verily there is for you, O community of Muhammad (s) (laqad kāna lakum is the response to an implied oath) in them a good example, for those [of you] who (li-man kāna is an inclusive substitution for kum [of lakum, for you] with the same preposition [li-] repeated) anticipate God and the Last Day, that is, [for those] who fear these two, or who expect reward or punishment. And whoever turns away, by befriending the disbelievers, [should know that] God is the Independent, [without need] of His creatures, the Worthy of Praise, to those who obey Him.
Ayah   60:7   الأية
It may be that God will bring about between you and those of them with whom you are at enmity, from among the disbelievers of Mecca out of [your] obedience to God, exalted be He, affection, by His guiding them to faith, so that they then become your friends. For God is Powerful, [able] to do that and He did do this after the conquest of Mecca and God is Forgiving, to them of their past [deeds], Merciful, to them [also].
Ayah   60:8   الأية
God does not forbid you in regard to those who did not wage war against you, from among the disbelievers, on account of religion and did not expel you from your homes, that you should treat them kindly (an tabarrūhum is an inclusive substitution for alladhīna, those who) and deal with them justly: this was [revealed] before the command to struggle against them. Assuredly God loves the just.
Ayah   60:9   الأية
God only forbids you in regard to those who waged war against you on account of religion and expelled you from your homes and supported [others] in your expulsion, that you should make friends with them (an tawallawhum is an inclusive substitution for alladhīna, those who). And whoever makes friends with them, those they are the wrongdoers.
Ayah   60:10   الأية
O you who believe, when believing women come to you, [saying] with their tongues [that they are], emigrating, from the [company of] disbelievers [this was] following the truce concluded with them [the disbelievers] at al-Hudaybiyya to the effect that if any of their number should go to [join] the believers, that person should be sent back test them, by making them swear that they had only gone forth [from Mecca] because of their [sincere] wish to embrace Islam, and not out of some hatred for their disbelieving husbands, nor because they might be enamoured by some Muslim man: that was how the Prophet (s) used to take from them their oaths. God knows best [the state of] their faith. Then, if you know them, if you suppose them, on the basis of their oaths, to be believers, do not send them back to the disbelievers. They [the women] are not lawful for them, nor are they [the disbelievers] lawful for them. And give them, that is to say, their disbelieving husbands, what they have expended, on them [on such women], in the way of dowries. And you would not be at fault if you marry them, on that [previous] condition, when you have given them their dowries. And do not hold on (read tumassikū or tumsikū) to the [conjugal] ties of disbelieving women, your wives, for your Islam automatically prohibits you from this, or [to the ties of] those apostatising women who return to the idolaters, for [likewise] their apostatising automatically prohibits you from marrying them, and ask for, demand, [the return of] what you have expended, on these women, of dowries, in the event of apostasy, from those disbelievers to whom they are married. And let them ask for what they have expended, on those women who have emigrated, as explained above, that it may be repaid 663 to them. That is Gods judgement. He judges between you, therewith, and God is Knower, Wise.
Ayah   60:11   الأية
And if you lose any of your wives, that is to say, [if you lose] one or more of them or [it means if you lose] anything of their dowries by [their] going, to the disbelievers, as apostates, and so you retaliate, you embark upon a raid and capture spoils [from them], then give those whose wives have gone, from the spoils, the like of what they have expended, for their having lost it to the disbelievers. And fear God in Whom you believe. And indeed the believers did what they had been commanded to do in the way of paying [back] the disbelievers [the dowries of their former wives] and the believers [the dowries of the women who had apostatised]. Afterwards, however, this stipulation was annulled.
Ayah   60:12   الأية
O Prophet, if believing women come to you, pledging allegiance to you that they will not ascribe anything as partner to God, and that they will not steal, nor commit adultery, nor slay their children, as used to be done during the time of pagandom (jāhiliyya), when they would bury new-born girls alive, fearing ignominy and impoverishment, nor bring any lie that they have invented [originating] between their hands and their legs, that is, [by bringing] a foundling which they then [falsely] ascribe to the husband it [the lie] is described in terms of a real child, because when a woman gives birth to a child, it falls between her hands and legs; nor disobey you in, doing, what is decent, which is that which concords with obedience to God, such as refraining from wailing, ripping apart [their] clothes [in grief], pulling out [their] hair, tearing open the front of [their] garments or scratching [their] faces, then accept their allegiance the Prophet (s) did this [but] in words, and he did not shake hands with any of them and ask God to forgive them; surely God is Forgiving, Merciful.
Ayah   60:13   الأية
O you who believe, do not befriend a people against whom God is wrathful, namely, the Jews. They have truly despaired of the Hereafter, of [attaining] its reward despite their being certain of its truth, out of obstinacy towards the Prophet, even though they know him to be sincere just as the disbelievers have despaired they [themselves] being of those who are in the tombs, that is to say, those who are entombed [and barred] from the good of the Hereafter, for they are shown [both] their [would-have-been] places in Paradise, had they believed, and the Fire for which they are destined.

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