Kwadaitarwa kan yin azumi a cikin watan Sha'aban
 
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Kwadaitarwa kan yin azumi a cikin watan Sha'aban

Da sunan Allah, Mai rahma, Mai jinkai. Lallai dukkan godiya da yabo na Allah ne. Muna gode maSa, kuma muna neman taimakonSa da gafararSa, muna neman tsarinSa daga sharrin kawunanmu da munanan ayyukanmu. Lallai wanda Allah Ya shiryar, babu mai batar da shi, wanda kuma Allah Ya batar, babu mai shiryar da shi. Ina shaidawa babu abin bautawa bisa cancanta, sai Allah, Shi kadai, ba Ya da abokin tarayya, kuma ina shaidawa Muhammadu bawanSa ne, ManzonSa ne (SAW). Allah Ya dada tsira da aminci ga ManzonSa da alayensa da sahabbansa da duk wanda ya bi tafarkinsu har zuwa Ranar karshe.

Bayan haka, yau 6 ga watan Sha'aban, shekara ta 1437 Bayan Hijira, mukalarmu za ta yi tsokaci ne kan kwadaitarwa game da yin azumi a cikin wannan wata, kamar dai yadda kanunta ya nuna.

Shi watan Sha'aban, kamar yadda ya kamata kowane Musulmi ya sani, shi ne wata na takwas a cikin jerin watanni 12 na shekara, wata ne da Manzon Allah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam), ya kasance ya fi yawaita yin azumin tadawwu'i a cikinsa.

A cikin littafin Sahihu Fikhus Sunnah Wa Adillatihi… na Abu Malik Kamal bn Assayyid Salim, an gabatar da bayani a karkashin kanun "Azumin Tadawwu'i," wanda ya kamantu da yadda dan uwa mai daraja, Usamatu Abdul'aziz (Allah Ya ba shi lada), ya yi a littafinsa "Azumin Tadawwu'i: Falala da Hukunce-hukunce."
Malam Abu Malik Kamal bn Assayyid Salim ya ce: Yawaita Azumi A Cikin Watan Sha'aban

Lallai Manzon Allah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam), ya kasance yana azumtarsa dukansa, sai dai 'yan kwanuka kadan. Wato manufa, kamar yadda bayani ya gabata, yana yawaita azumi a cikin watan, amma ba ya azumtarsa dukkansa. Kodayake akwai wadansu mas'aloli da za a tattauna su, nan gaba kadan, don a kara samun karin haske, in Allah Ya so.

An samo daga Uwar Muminai A'isha (Allah Ya yarda da ita), ta ce, "Manzon Allah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam), ya kasance yana jeranta azumi, har sai mun yi tsammanin ba zai daina ba. Kuma yakan bar azumi, har sai mun yi zaton ba zai yi wani azumi ba. Kuma ban ga Manzon Allah (Sallallaahu Alaihi Wasallam), yana cika azumin wani wata face na Ramadan ba. Kuma ban gan shi yana yawaita azumi a cikin kowane wata kamar watan Sha'aban ba." Ingantaccen Hadisi ne wanda Buhari, a Hadisi na 1,979; da Muslim, a Hadisi na 1,156 suka fitar.

Akwai wadansu al'amura guda biyu da ya kamata kowane Musulmi ya lura da su a karkashin wannan mukala, kamar haka:

NA FARKO: Kebance azumtar ranar 15 ga (wato rabin) watanSha'aban bidi'a ne.

Malam ya ce, duk wanda ba al'adarsa ba ce ya yawaita azumi a cikin watan Sha'aban; ko kuma yana azumtar ranakun haske (wato ranakun 13 da 14 da 15 ga wata) ba; sai kawai ya kebance ranar 15 ga watan Sha'aban da azumi, alhali ya kudurce kebantuwar ranar da wata falala, to wannan aiki nasa wata kirkira ce a addini (bidi'a), saboda babu wani abin da ya inganta (daga Manzon Allah Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) dangane da falalar rabin Sha'aban, balle a azumce shi ko a gudanar da wata ibada ta daban. Manufa a nan, babu wani Hadisi da ya inganta dangane da haka daga Manzon Allah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam). Kai, hasali ma duk abin da ya gangaro daga magabata dangane da wannan sha'ani, yana da tsananin rauni ko ma dai a ce abin jefarwa ne.

Kamar misalin Hadisin da aka ce an ruwaito daga Sayyidina Aliyu (Allah Ya yarda da shi), wanda aka ba shi matsayi na marfu'i (wato an daukaka shi zuwa ga Annabi SAW) cewa, "Idan daren rabin Sha'aban ya kama, to ku tsayu (don gudanar da Sallah) a daren kuma ku azumci ranar…." Hadisi ne mai rauni kwarai, wanda Ibnu Majah ya fitar da shi a Hadisi na 1,388.

Saboda haka dai ba za a yi amfani da wannan Hadisi ba don tsayar da hukunci, kuma sai dai a ce a ji tsoron Allah wajen gudanar da ayyukan addini, a kauce wa bin son zuciya, domin da yawa wadansu kan dogara da wata magana ta wadansu magabata cewa, in dai al'amari ne na falala, to ana iya yin aiki da Hadisi mai rauni. Eh, haka ne! Amma ko su din (magabatan) sun yi bayanin cewa matukar Hadisin ba mai rauni ne kwarai ba, kuma ma idan za a sanar da wani, lallai ne a nuna cewa shi Hadisin da ake aiki da shi mai rauni ne.

NA BIYU: Hanin yin azumi bayan wucewar rabin Sha'aban bai inganta ba.

Malamai sun yi sabani dangane da yin azumin ganin dama (tadawwu'i), bayan wucewar rabin Sha'aban. Jamhurun (mafi yawan) malamai sun tafi a kan halaccin yin sa; masu bin mazhabar Imam Shafi'i sun tafi a kan karhancinsa (kyama), alhali suna bayar da hujja da Hadisin da aka ruwaito daga Abu Huraira (Allah Ya yarda da shi), cewa Manzon Allah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam), ya ce, "Idan Sha'aban ya yi tsakiya, to kada ku yi azumi." Munkarin Hadisi ne wanda Abu Dawud (2,337) da Tirmizi (738) da Nasa'i, a cikin littafin Alkabir (2,911) da Ibnu Maajah (1,651) da Ahmad (mujalladi na 2/442) suka fitar. Kuma lallai Abdurrahman bn Mahdi da Ahmad da Yahya bn Mu'ain da Abu Zar'ah da wasunsu sun yi inkarinsa. Haka ni kaina (Abu Malik) na yi magana a kansa a cikin ta'alikina a kan littafin Sharhul Baikuniyya na Ibnu Usaimin (a shafi na 22 – 24). Kuma lallai Malam Albani (Allah Ya jikansa), ya inganta shi.

Sai dai shi Hadisin, a kan mafi rijayen maganar magabata, mai rauni (da'ifi) ne. Lallai magabata, wadanda ake gudanar da addini da zancensu, a cikin wannan al'amari, sun yi inkarin Hadisin. Saboda haka babu wata damuwa (ko abin kyara) a cikin yin azumi bayan rabin Sha'aban ya wuce.

Bugu da kari ana iya karfafa wannan zance da wadansu Hadisai ingantattu, kamar Hadisin A'isha (Allah Ya yarda da ita) da ya gabata; sai kuma Hadisin Abu Huraira (Allah Ya yarda da shi), cewa Manzon Allah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam), ya ce, "Kada dayanku ya gabaci watan Ramadan da azumin kwana daya ko biyu, sai dai wanda ya kasance dabi'arsa ce yin azumi (lokaci kaza da kaza), to shi kam sai ya yi azuminsa (a wannan kwana daya ko biyu)." Sahihin Hadisi ne wanda Buhari (1,914) da Muslim (1,082) suka fitar.

A cikin wannan Hadisi akwai hani na azumtar kwana daya ko biyu kawai a karshen Sha'aban, saboda tsoron kada a yi kari a watan, a sadar da shi da abin da ba ya cikinsa, sai dai in kawai azumin da mutum ya saba da shi ne, ya dace da ranar ko ranakun, to shi kam a nan babu damuwa idan ya yi azumin.

Sai kuma abin da aka samo daga Ummu Salmah (Allah Ya yarda da ita), yayin da ta ce, "Ban taba ganin Manzon Allah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam), yana azumtar watanni biyu a jere ba, sai dai Sha'aban da Ramadan." Ingantaccen Hadisi, wanda Tirmizi (726) da Annasa'i (mujalladi na 4/150) da Ibnu Maajah (1,648) da Ahmad (mujalladi na 6/293) suka fitar.

Sai dai kuma wannan bai nuna yana azumtar watan Sha'aban din gaba dayansa ba. Allah Ya sa mu dace da abin da yake daidai!

Wassalamu alaikum warahmatullahi wa barakaatuh!



Batun: Kacici-ka-cicin Addini, Hukunce-hukuncen