Muslim Timeline - Islamic History

**The timeline classifications and most clarifications here in Common Era (C.E.) are based upon and in line with models of Sheikh Dr. Abdul-Fattah Adelabu in his 1998 "Spread Of Islam" and other books, especially, The Hadith Commentaries on (the two columes) Biography Tatmmah (Epilogue) by his teacher Sheikh Abdul-Qadir Al-Arnaout for Jami' Al-Usool of Imam Ibn Athir viz:
Best Generation 570 C.E. - 800 C.E. | Prime Generation 800 C.E. - 900 C.E. | Golden Age 900 C.E. - 1000 C.E. | Serene Age 1000 C.E. - 1200 C.E. | Deficient Time 1200 C.E. - 1330 C.E. | Exigent Time 1330 C.E. - 1480 C.E. | Chaotic World 1480 C.E. - 1680 C.E. | Apocalyptic World 1680 C.E. - 1922 C.E. | excluding later part of section of Current World 1922 C.E. - 2022 C.E.


^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
Best Age 600 C.E. - 800 C.E.
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^


570: Death of Abdullah, father of Prophet Muhammad s.a.w.
571: Destruction of Army of the Elephant, the Abyssinian campaign against Mecca
571: Birth of Prophet Muhammad s.a.w., the Final Messenger of God Almighty
573: Birth of Abu Bakr r.a. the senior companion and closest friend of the Prophet s.a.w. who became his father-in-law and first caliph successor of Allah's Apostle s.a.w.
576: Death of Aminah bint Wahb, the mother of the Prophet s.a.w.
576: Birth of Uthman bin Affan r.a. the third cousin of the Prophet s.a.w. who became his son-in-law twice and first caliph successor of Allah's Apostle s.a.w.
578: Death of Abdul Muttalib, the grandfather of the Prophet s.a.w.
582: Birth of Umar bin Al-Khattab r.a. the senior companion of the Prophet s.a.w. who became his father-in-law and second caliph successor of Allah's Apostle s.a.w.
582: The Prophet s.a.w.'s journey to Syria with his uncle Abu Talib
582: The Prophet s.a.w. met with Bahira, a Christian monk
582: Monk Bahira notes true characteristics about the Prophet
582: Monk Bahira discoverd in the Prophet s.a.w. the "mark of prophets"
582: Monk Bahira declared Prophet Muhammad has a mark believed to be carried by all of the prophets of the Abrahimic faiths
594: The Prophet s.a.w. works for Khadija
594: The Prophet s.a.w. leads Khadija's trade caravan to Syria and back
595: The Prophet s.a.w. marries Khadija
598: Birth of the Prophet s.a.w. and Khadija first child Qasim
599: Birth of Ali ibn Abi Talib r.a. the cousin of the Prophet s.a.w. who became his son-in-law and fourth caliph successor of Allah's Apostle s.a.w.
600: Birth of the Prophet s.a.w. and Khadija's eldest daughter and second child Zainab after Qasim
600: Death of the Prophet s.a.w.'s first child Qasim ibn Muhammad
602: Birth of Prophet Muhammad's third child and second daughter Ruqayyah, Wife of third caliph Uthman r.a.
604: Birth of Umm Kulthum r.a., third daughter of the Prophet s.a.w. She became wife of Uthman r.a. after the death of her sister Ruqayyah r.a.
605: 24 July— Birth of Fatimah r.a., the daughter of the Prophet s.a.w.
605: The Prophet s.a.w. helps rebuild the Ka'ba
605: Birth of Hafsa r.a., daughter of second caliph Umar r.a. and one of the wives of the Prophet s.a.w.
610: The Prophet s.a.w. is given his first revelation from the Angel Gabriel in the cave
610: The first announced revelation of the Qur'an in the cave at Hira
610: Khadija r.a. pronounced belief in the Prophet s.a.w. becoming the first to believe Islam
613: Invitation of the close families of the Prophet s.a.w. to Islam
613: Declaration at Mount Safa inviting the general public to Islam
614: Birth of Aisha r.a., Daughter of first caliph Abu Bakr r.a. and youngest wife of the Prophet s.a.w.
614: Persecution of the Muslims by the Quraish. A party of Muslims migrates to Abyssinia.
615: Sumayyah bint Khabbāṭ or Sumayyah bint Khayyāṭ, a ṣaḥābiyyah companion martyred r.a.; she was the mother of Ammar ibn Yasir and first member of the Ummah (Community) of the Prophet s.a.w. to become a shahidah (female martyr)
615: Acceptance of Islam by Hamza r.a. and Umar r.a.
616: Second migration to Abyssinia
617: Boycott of the Hashemites and the Prophet s.a.w. by the Quraish
619: April-May— Lifting of the boycott. Deaths of Abu Talib and Khadija r.a., Year of Sorrow
619: Khadija bint Khuwaylid, commonly known as Khadija al-Kubra, the first wife and first follower of the Prophet s.a.w. died r.a.; she was the daughter of Khuwaylid ibn Asad who was a leader of Quraysh tribe in Mecca, and a successful businesswoman in her own right
620: Visit to Taif; "Ascension to the heavens"
620: Yāsir ibn ʿĀmir ibn Mālik al-ʿAnsīy martyred r.a.; he was an early ṣaḥābiyy companion who was the second martyr in Islam, with the first being his wife, Sumayyah
622: September— Hijra—migration to Medina
622: First year of Islamic calendar begins
623: January— Constitution of Medina
623: Establishment of the first Islamic state
623: March— Expedition of Hamza ibn 'Abdul-Muttalib - without participation of the Prophet s.a.w.
623: April— Expedition of Ubaydah ibn al-Harith - without participation of the Prophet s.a.w.
623: May— al-Kharrar expedition - without participation of the Prophet s.a.w.
623: August— Patrol of Waddan (al-Abwa') - with participation of the Prophet s.a.w.
623: September— Patrol of Buwat - with participation of the Prophet s.a.w.
623: September— First Expedition to Badr (Safwan) - with participation of the Prophet s.a.w.
623: December— Patrol of Zul Al-Ushairah - with participation of the Prophet s.a.w.
624: January— Nakhla Raid - without participation of the Prophet s.a.w.
624: March— Battle of Badr - with participation of the Prophet s.a.w.
624: March— Killing of Asma bint Marwan - without participation of the Prophet s.a.w.
624: March— Killing of Abu Afak - without participation of the Prophet s.a.w.
624: April— Invasion of Banu Qaynuqa - with participation of the Prophet s.a.w.
624: May— Invasion of Sawiq - with participation of the Prophet s.a.w.
624: May— Al Kudr Invasion - with participation of the Prophet s.a.w.
624: August— Killing of Ka'b ibn al-Ashraf - without participation of the Prophet s.a.w.
624: September— Dhu Amarr raid - with participation of the Prophet s.a.w.
624: October-November— Invasion of Buhran - with participation of the Prophet s.a.w.
624: November— Al-Qarada raid - without participation of the Prophet s.a.w.
624: The direction of prayer is converted from Jerusalem to Mecca.
624: Ruqayyah bint Muhammad, the third child and second daughter of Allah's Apostle s.a.w. died r.a.; she was wife of the Third Caliph Uthman r.a. whom she accompanied with blessing and instructions of Allah's Apostle s.a.w. on the first Migration to Abyssinia
624: Khunais ibn Hudhafa, a ṣaḥābiyy companion died r.a.; he was buried at Al-Baqi' among early funerals officiated personally in Medina by the Prophet s.a.w.
624: 'Aaqil bin al-Bukayr, a Muhājiri ṣaḥābiyy companion martyred fighting in the Rank of the Muslims in the Battle of Badr among early migrants from Mecca
624: 'Awf bin al-Harith, a Anṣār ṣaḥābiyy companion martyred fighting in the Rank of the Muslims in the Battle of Badr from the Prophetic aid tribe al-Khazrajī in Madinah
624: Haritha bin Suraqa, a Anṣār ṣaḥābiyy companion martyred fighting in the Rank of the Muslims in the Battle of Badr from the Prophetic aid tribe al-Khazrajī in Madinah
624: Mihja' bin Salih, a Muhājiri ṣaḥābiyy companion martyred fighting in the Rank of the Muslims in the Battle of Badr among early migrants from Mecca
624: Mu'awwidh bin al-Harith, a Anṣār ṣaḥābiyy companion martyred fighting in the Rank of the Muslims in the Battle of Badr from the Prophetic aid tribe al-Khazrajī in Madinah
624: Mubashir bin 'Abdul Mundhir, a Anṣār ṣaḥābiyy companion martyred fighting in the Rank of the Muslims in the Battle of Badr from the Prophetic aid tribe al-Awsī in Madinah
624: Rafi' bin al-Mu'alla, a Anṣār ṣaḥābiyy companion martyred fighting in the Rank of the Muslims in the Battle of Badr from the Prophetic aid tribe al-Khazrajī in Madinah
624: Sa'd bin Khaythama al-Awsi, a Anṣār ṣaḥābiyy companion martyred fighting in the Rank of the Muslims in the Battle of Badr from the Prophetic aid tribe al-Awsī in Madinah
624: Safwan bin Wahb, a Muhājiri ṣaḥābiyy companion martyred fighting in the Rank of the Muslims in the Battle of Badr among early migrants from Mecca
624: 'Ubayda bin al-Harith, a Muhājiri ṣaḥābiyy companion martyred fighting in the Rank of the Muslims in the Battle of Badr among early migrants from Mecca; a cousin of the Prophet s.a.w.; the son of Al-Harith ibn Abd al Muttalib whose mother, Sukhayla bint Khuza'i, was from the Thaqif tribe
624: 'Umayr bin al-Humam, a Anṣār ṣaḥābiyy companion martyred fighting in the Rank of the Muslims in the Battle of Badr from the Prophetic aid tribe al-Khazrajī in Madinah
624: 'Umayr bin Abu Waqqas, a Muhājiri ṣaḥābiyy companion martyred fighting in the Rank of the Muslims in the Battle of Badr among early migrants from Mecca
624: Yazid bin al-Harith bin Fushum, a Anṣār ṣaḥābiyy companion martyred fighting in the Rank of the Muslims in the Battle of Badr from the Prophetic aid tribe al-Khazrajī in Madinah
624: Zish Shamalain bin 'Abdi 'Amr also Zu Shamalin bin Abd Amroo, a Muhājiri ṣaḥābiyy companion martyred fighting in the Rank of the Muslims in the Battle of Badr among early migrants from Mecca; among the first Muslims known as Sabiqun Al Awwalun
624: Julaybib, an Ansari companion who soon after marriage participated in an expedition with the Prophet in which he attained martyrdom and became one of the ealiest martyrs in the Muslim history
625: Birth of Hasan ibn Ali r.a., grandson of the Prophet s.a.w.
625: March— Battle of Uhud - with participation of the Prophet s.a.w.
625: March— Battle of Hamra al-Asad - with participation of the Prophet s.a.w.
625: June— Expedition of Qatan - without participation of the Prophet s.a.w.
625: June— Expedition of Abdullah Ibn Unais - without participation of the Prophet s.a.w.
625: July— Expedition of Al Raji - without participation of the Prophet s.a.w.
625: July— Expedition of Bir Maona - without participation of the Prophet s.a.w.
625: August— Invasion of Banu Nadir - with participation of the Prophet s.a.w.
625: Abū Ayman, mawla of ‘Amr bin al-Jamūh, a Anṣār ṣaḥābiyy companion martyred fighting in the Rank of the Muslims in the Battle of Uhud from the Prophetic aid tribe al-Khazrajī in Madinah
625: Abū Habbah bin ‘Amr bin Thābit, a Anṣār ṣaḥābiyy companion martyred fighting in the Rank of the Muslims in the Battle of Uhud from the Prophetic aid tribe al-Awsī in Madinah; a heroic fighter in the early Battle of Badr
625: Abū Sufyān bin al-Hārith, a Anṣār ṣaḥābiyy companion martyred fighting in the Rank of the Muslims in the Battle of Uhud from the Prophetic aid tribe al-Awsī in Madinah (not the Meccan Abu Sufyan ibn al-Harith)
625: Abū Hubayrah bin al-Hārith, a Anṣār ṣaḥābiyy companion martyred fighting in the Rank of the Muslims in the Battle of Uhud from the Prophetic aid tribe al-Khazrajī in Madinah
625: al-Mujadhdhar bin Ziyād, a Anṣār ṣaḥābiyy companion martyred fighting in the Rank of the Muslims in the Battle of Uhud from the Prophetic aid tribe al-Khazrajī in Madinah; a heroic fighter in the early Battle of Badr
625: ‘Āmir bin Umayya, a Anṣār ṣaḥābiyy companion martyred fighting in the Rank of the Muslims in the Battle of Uhud from the Prophetic aid tribe al-Khazrajī in Madinah; a heroic fighter in the early Battle of Badr
625: ‘Āmir bin Mukhallad, a Anṣār ṣaḥābiyy companion martyred fighting in the Rank of the Muslims in the Battle of Uhud from the Prophetic aid tribe al-Khazrajī in Madinah; a heroic fighter in the early Battle of Badr
625: ‘Āmir bin Yazīd bin as-Sakan, a Anṣār ṣaḥābiyy companion martyred fighting in the Rank of the Muslims in the Battle of Uhud from the Prophetic aid tribe al-Awsī in Madinah
625: ‘Abbād bin Sahl, a Anṣār ṣaḥābiyy companion martyred fighting in the Rank of the Muslims in the Battle of Uhud from the Prophetic aid tribe al-Awsī in Madinah
625: ‘Ubbād bin al-Khashkhāsh, a Anṣār ṣaḥābiyy companion martyred fighting in the Rank of the Muslims in the Battle of Uhud from the Prophetic aid tribe al-Khazrajī in Madinah; a heroic fighter in the early Battle of Badr
625: ‘Abbās bin ‘Ubāda, a Anṣār ṣaḥābiyy companion martyred fighting in the Rank of the Muslims in the Battle of Uhud from the Prophetic aid tribe al-Khazrajī in Madinah
625: ‘AbdAllāh bin Jubayr, a Anṣār ṣaḥābiyy companion martyred fighting in the Rank of the Muslims in the Battle of Uhud from the Prophetic aid tribe al-Awsī in Madinah; a heroic fighter in the early Battle of Badr
625: ‘AbdAllāh ibn Jaḥsh, a Muhājiri ṣaḥābiyy companion martyred fighting in the Rank of the Muslims in the Battle of Uhud among early migrants from Mecca; the brother-in-law Allah's Apostle; a heroic fighter in the early Battle of Badr
625: ‘AbdAllāh bin Salamah, a Anṣār ṣaḥābiyy companion martyred fighting in the Rank of the Muslims in the Battle of Uhud from the Prophetic aid tribe al-Awsī in Madinah; a heroic fighter in the early Battle of Badr
625: ‘AbdAllāh bin ‘Amr, a Anṣār ṣaḥābiyy companion martyred fighting in the Rank of the Muslims in the Battle of Uhud from the Prophetic aid tribe al-Khazrajī in Madinah (father of Jabir ibn Abd-Allah); a heroic fighter in the early Battle of Badri
625: ‘AbdAllāh bin ‘Amr bin Wahb, a Anṣār ṣaḥābiyy companion martyred fighting in the Rank of the Muslims in the Battle of Uhud from the Prophetic aid tribe al-Khazrajī in Madinah
625: al-Hārith bin Aws bin Mu‘ādh, a Anṣār ṣaḥābiyy companion martyred fighting in the Rank of the Muslims in the Battle of Uhud from the Prophetic aid tribe al-Awsī in Madinah; a heroic fighter in the early Battle of Badr
625: al-Hārith bin Anas bin Rāfi‘, a Anṣār ṣaḥābiyy companion martyred fighting in the Rank of the Muslims in the Battle of Uhud from the Prophetic aid tribe al-Awsī in Madinah; a heroic fighter in the early Battle of Badr
625: al-Hārith bin‘Adī bin Kharashah, a Anṣār ṣaḥābiyy companion martyred fighting in the Rank of the Muslims in the Battle of Uhud from the Prophetic aid tribe al-Khazrajī in Madinah
625: al-Hārith bin ‘Uqbah bin Qābūs, a Muhājiri ṣaḥābiyy companion martyred fighting in the Rank of the Muslims in the Battle of Uhud among early migrants from Mecca
625: ‘Aqrabah al-Juhanī, Abū Bashīr, a Muhājiri ṣaḥābiyy companion martyred fighting in the Rank of the Muslims in the Battle of Uhud among early migrants from Mecca
625: ‘Umārah bin Ziyād bin as-Sakan, a Anṣār ṣaḥābiyy companion martyred fighting in the Rank of the Muslims in the Battle of Uhud from the Prophetic aid tribe al-Awsī in Madinah; a heroic fighter in the early Battle of Badr
625: ‘Amr ibn al-Jamuh, a Anṣār ṣaḥābiyy companion martyred fighting in the Rank of the Muslims in the Battle of Uhud from the Prophetic aid tribe Banu Salama; he was a chief of Banu Salama; a heroic fighter in the early Battle of Badr
625: ‘Amr bin Qays bin Zayd, a Anṣār ṣaḥābiyy companion martyred fighting in the Rank of the Muslims in the Battle of Uhud from the Prophetic aid tribe al-Khazrajī in Madinah; a heroic fighter in the early Battle of Badr
625: ‘Amr bin Mutarrif, a Anṣār ṣaḥābiyy companion martyred fighting in the Rank of the Muslims in the Battle of Uhud from the Prophetic aid tribe al-Khazrajī in Madinah
625: ‘Amr bin Mu‘ādh, a Anṣār ṣaḥābiyy companion martyred fighting in the Rank of the Muslims in the Battle of Uhud from the Prophetic aid tribe al-Awsī in Madinah; a heroic fighter in the early Battle of Badr
625: Anas ibn Nadhar, a ṣaḥābiyy companion died r.a.; he belonged to the Banu Khazraj tribe of the Ansar and the uncle of Anas ibn Malik
625: ‘Antarah as-Sulamī, mawla Sulaym bin ‘Amr al-Badrī, a Anṣār ṣaḥābiyy companion martyred fighting in the Rank of the Muslims in the Battle of Uhud from the Prophetic aid tribe al-Khazrajī in Madinah; a heroic fighter in the early Battle of Badri
625: ‘Asim ibn Thabit, a Anṣār ṣaḥābiyy companion martyred fighting in the Rank of the Muslims in the Battle of Uhud from the Prophetic aid tribe al-Awsī in Madinah
625: Aws bin al-Arqam, a Anṣār ṣaḥābiyy companion martyred fighting in the Rank of the Muslims in the Battle of Uhud from the Prophetic aid tribe al-Khazrajī in Madinah
625: Aws bin Thābit bin al-Mundhir, a Anṣār ṣaḥābiyy companion martyred fighting in the Rank of the Muslims in the Battle of Uhud from the Prophetic aid tribe al-Khazrajī in Madinah; a heroic fighter in the early Battle of Badr
625: Damrah bin ‘Amr, a Anṣār ṣaḥābiyy companion martyred fighting in the Rank of the Muslims in the Battle of Uhud from the Prophetic aid tribe al-Khazrajī in Madinah; a heroic fighter in the early Battle of Badr
625: Dhakwān bin ‘Abdi Qays, a Anṣār ṣaḥābiyy companion martyred fighting in the Rank of the Muslims in the Battle of Uhud from the Prophetic aid tribe al-Khazrajī in Madinah; a heroic fighter in the early Battle of Badr
625: Ḥamzah ibn ʿAbd al-Muṭṭalib, a Muhājiri ṣaḥābiyy companion martyred fighting in the Rank of the Muslims in the Battle of Uhud among early migrants from Mecca; a foster brother whose "Abū ʿUmārah" and "Abū Yaʿlā"; paternal uncle of the Prophet s.a.w.; a heroic fighter in the early Battle of Badr
625: Iyās bin Aws, a Anṣār ṣaḥābiyy companion martyred fighting in the Rank of the Muslims in the Battle of Uhud from the Prophetic aid tribe al-Awsī in Madinah; a heroic fighter in the early Battle of Badr
625: Hubāb bin Qayzī, a Anṣār ṣaḥābiyy companion martyred fighting in the Rank of the Muslims in the Battle of Uhud from the Prophetic aid tribe al-Awsī in Madinah
625: Habīb bin Zayd bin Tamīm, a Anṣār ṣaḥābiyy companion martyred fighting in the Rank of the Muslims in the Battle of Uhud from the Prophetic aid tribe al-Awsī in Madinah
625: Husayl bin Jābir, a Anṣār ṣaḥābiyy companion martyred fighting in the Rank of the Muslims in the Battle of Uhud from the Prophetic aid tribe al-Awsī in Madinah; known as Abū Hudhayfa al-Yamān (father of Hudhayfah ibn al-Yaman)
625: Hanzala Ibn Abi Amir or Ḥanẓala Ibn Abī ʿĀmir, a Muhājiri ṣaḥābiyy companion martyred fighting in the Rank of the Muslims in the Battle of Uhud among early migrants from Mecca; son of a Christian whose name was Abu Aamir; just 24 years when fighting against the polytheists
625: Khārijah bin Zayd bin Abī Zuhayr, a Anṣār ṣaḥābiyy companion martyred fighting in the Rank of the Muslims in the Battle of Uhud from the Prophetic aid tribe al-Khazrajī in Madinah; a heroic fighter in the early Battle of Badr
625: Khidāsh bin Qatādah, a Anṣār ṣaḥābiyy companion martyred fighting in the Rank of the Muslims in the Battle of Uhud from the Prophetic aid tribe al-Awsī in Madinah; a heroic fighter in the early Battle of Badr
625: Khallād bin ‘Amr bin al-Jamūh, a Anṣār ṣaḥābiyy companion martyred fighting in the Rank of the Muslims in the Battle of Uhud from the Prophetic aid tribe al-Khazrajī in Madinah; a heroic fighter in the early Battle of Badr
625: Khaythama bin al-Hārith, a Anṣār ṣaḥābiyy companion martyred fighting in the Rank of the Muslims in the Battle of Uhud from the Prophetic aid tribe al-Awsī in Madinah
625: Kaysān, mawla Banī ‘Adī bin an-Najjār, a Anṣār ṣaḥābiyy companion martyred fighting in the Rank of the Muslims in the Battle of Uhud from the Prophetic aid tribe al-Khazrajī in Madinah
625: Mālik bin Iyās, a Anṣār ṣaḥābiyy companion martyred fighting in the Rank of the Muslims in the Battle of Uhud from the Prophetic aid tribe al-Khazrajī in Madinah
625: Mālik bin Khalaf, a Muhājiri ṣaḥābiyy companion martyred fighting in the Rank of the Muslims in the Battle of Uhud among early migrants from Mecca
625: Mālik bin Sinān, a Anṣār ṣaḥābiyy companion martyred fighting in the Rank of the Muslims in the Battle of Uhud from the Prophetic aid tribe al-Khazrajī in Madinah (father of Abu Sa'id al-Khudri)
625: Mālik bin Numaylah, a Anṣār ṣaḥābiyy companion martyred fighting in the Rank of the Muslims in the Battle of Uhud from the Prophetic aid tribe al-Awsī in Madinah; a heroic fighter in the early Battle of Badr
625: Muṣʽab ibn ʽUmair, a Muhājiri ṣaḥābiyy companion martyred fighting in the Rank of the Muslims in the Battle of Uhud among early migrants from Mecca; also known as Musʽab al-Khayr ("the Good") from the Banū ʽAbd al-Dār branch of the Quraysh; the first ambassador of Islam; a heroic fighter in the early Battle of Badri
625: Nu‘mān bin Khalaf, a Anṣār ṣaḥābiyy companion martyred fighting in the Rank of the Muslims in the Battle of Uhud from the Prophetic aid tribe al-Khazrajī in Madinah
625: Nu‘mān bin ‘Abdi ‘Amr, a Anṣār ṣaḥābiyy companion martyred fighting in the Rank of the Muslims in the Battle of Uhud from the Prophetic aid tribe al-Khazrajī in Madinah; a heroic fighter in the early Battle of Badr
625: Nu‘mān bin Mālik, a Anṣār ṣaḥābiyy companion martyred fighting in the Rank of the Muslims in the Battle of Uhud from the Prophetic aid tribe al-Khazrajī in Madinah; a heroic fighter in the early Battle of Badr
625: Nawfal bin ‘Abdillāh, a Anṣār ṣaḥābiyy companion martyred fighting in the Rank of the Muslims in the Battle of Uhud from the Prophetic aid tribe al-Khazrajī in Madinah; a heroic fighter in the early Battle of Badr
625: Qays bin ‘Amr bin Zayd, a Anṣār ṣaḥābiyy companion martyred fighting in the Rank of the Muslims in the Battle of Uhud from the Prophetic aid tribe al-Khazrajī in Madinah; a heroic fighter in the early Battle of Badr
625: Qays bin Mukhallad, a Anṣār ṣaḥābiyy companion martyred fighting in the Rank of the Muslims in the Battle of Uhud from the Prophetic aid tribe al-Khazrajī in Madinah; a heroic fighter in the early Battle of Badr
625: Qurrah bin ‘Uqba, a Anṣār ṣaḥābiyy companion martyred fighting in the Rank of the Muslims in the Battle of Uhud from the Prophetic aid tribe al-Awsī in Madinah
625: Rāfi‘, mawla Ghaziyya bin ‘Amr, a Anṣār ṣaḥābiyy companion martyred fighting in the Rank of the Muslims in the Battle of Uhud from the Prophetic aid tribe al-Khazrajī in Madinah
625: Rāfi‘ bin Mālik, a Anṣār ṣaḥābiyy companion martyred fighting in the Rank of the Muslims in the Battle of Uhud from the Prophetic aid tribe al-Khazrajī in Madinah; a heroic fighter in the early Battle of Badr
625: Rifā‘ah bin ‘Amr, a Anṣār ṣaḥābiyy companion martyred fighting in the Rank of the Muslims in the Battle of Uhud from the Prophetic aid tribe al-Khazrajī in Madinah; a heroic fighter in the early Battle of Badr
625: Rifā‘ah bin Waqsh, a Anṣār ṣaḥābiyy companion martyred fighting in the Rank of the Muslims in the Battle of Uhud from the Prophetic aid tribe al-Awsī in Madinah
625: Subay‘ bin Hātib, a Anṣār ṣaḥābiyy companion martyred fighting in the Rank of the Muslims in the Battle of Uhud from the Prophetic aid tribe al-Awsī in Madinah
625: Sa‘d, mawla Hātib bin Abī Balta‘ah al-Badrī, a Muhājiri ṣaḥābiyy companion martyred fighting in the Rank of the Muslims in the Battle of Uhud among early migrants from Mecca; a heroic fighter in the early Battle of Badr
625: Saʽad ibn ar-Rabīʽ, a Anṣār ṣaḥābiyy companion martyred fighting in the Rank of the Muslims in the Battle of Uhud from the Prophetic aid tribe al-Khazrajī in Madinah; made by Allah's Apostle s.a.w. a brother with 'Abd al-Rahman ibn 'Awf; giver of half of his wealth and one of his two orchards to his brother in Islam; one of the chiefs who attended the ‘Aqabah Pledge of Allegiance; a heroic fighter in the early Battle of Badr
625: Sa‘īd bin Suwayd, a Anṣār ṣaḥābiyy companion martyred fighting in the Rank of the Muslims in the Battle of Uhud from the Prophetic aid tribe al-Khazrajī in Madinah
625: Salamah bin Thābit bin Waqsh, a Anṣār ṣaḥābiyy companion martyred fighting in the Rank of the Muslims in the Battle of Uhud from the Prophetic aid tribe al-Awsī in Madinah; a heroic fighter in the early Battle of Badr
625: Sulaym bin al-Hārith, a Anṣār ṣaḥābiyy companion martyred fighting in the Rank of the Muslims in the Battle of Uhud from the Prophetic aid tribe al-Khazrajī in Madinah; a heroic fighter in the early Battle of Badr
625: Sulaym bin ‘Amr, a Anṣār ṣaḥābiyy companion martyred fighting in the Rank of the Muslims in the Battle of Uhud from the Prophetic aid tribe al-Khazrajī in Madinah; a heroic fighter in the early Battle of Badr
625: Sahl bin Rūmī, a Anṣār ṣaḥābiyy companion martyred fighting in the Rank of the Muslims in the Battle of Uhud from the Prophetic aid tribe al-Awsī in Madinah
625: Sahl bin ‘Adī bin Zayd, a Anṣār ṣaḥābiyy companion martyred fighting in the Rank of the Muslims in the Battle of Uhud from the Prophetic aid tribe al-Awsī in Madinah
625: Sahl bin Qays bin Abī Ka‘b, a Anṣār ṣaḥābiyy companion martyred fighting in the Rank of the Muslims in the Battle of Uhud from the Prophetic aid tribe al-Khazrajī in Madinah; a heroic fighter in the early Battle of Badr
625: Shammās bin ‘Uthmān, a Muhājiri ṣaḥābiyy companion martyred fighting in the Rank of the Muslims in the Battle of Uhud among early migrants from Mecca; a heroic fighter in the early Battle of Badr
625: Sayfī bin Qayzī, a Anṣār ṣaḥābiyy companion martyred fighting in the Rank of the Muslims in the Battle of Uhud from the Prophetic aid tribe al-Awsī in Madinah
625: Thābit bin ‘Amr bin Zayd, a Anṣār ṣaḥābiyy companion martyred fighting in the Rank of the Muslims in the Battle of Uhud from the Prophetic aid tribe al-Khazrajī in Madinah; a heroic fighter in the early Battle of Badr
625: Thābit bin Waqsh, a Anṣār ṣaḥābiyy companion martyred fighting in the Rank of the Muslims in the Battle of Uhud from the Prophetic aid tribe al-Awsī in Madinah
625: Tha‘labah bin Sa‘d, a Anṣār ṣaḥābiyy companion martyred fighting in the Rank of the Muslims in the Battle of Uhud from the Prophetic aid tribe al-Khazrajī in Madinah
625: Thaqf bin Farwah, a Anṣār ṣaḥābiyy companion martyred fighting in the Rank of the Muslims in the Battle of Uhud from the Prophetic aid tribe al-Khazrajī in Madinah
625: ‘Ubayd bin at-Tayyihān, a Anṣār ṣaḥābiyy companion martyred fighting in the Rank of the Muslims in the Battle of Uhud from the Prophetic aid tribe al-Awsī in Madinah; a heroic fighter in the early Battle of Badr
625: ‘Ubayd bin al-Mu‘allā, a Anṣār ṣaḥābiyy companion martyred fighting in the Rank of the Muslims in the Battle of Uhud from the Prophetic aid tribe al-Khazrajī in Madinah
625: Unays bin Qatādah bin Rabī‘ah, a Anṣār ṣaḥābiyy companion martyred fighting in the Rank of the Muslims in the Battle of Uhud from the Prophetic aid tribe al-Awsī in Madinah; a heroic fighter in the early Battle of Badr
625: ‘Utbah bin Rabī‘ bin Rāfi‘, a Anṣār ṣaḥābiyy companion martyred fighting in the Rank of the Muslims in the Battle of Uhud from the Prophetic aid tribe al-Khazrajī in Madinah
625: Wahb bin Qābūs, a Muhājiri ṣaḥābiyy companion martyred fighting in the Rank of the Muslims in the Battle of Uhud among early migrants from Mecca
625: Yazīd bin Hātib, a Anṣār ṣaḥābiyy companion martyred fighting in the Rank of the Muslims in the Battle of Uhud from the Prophetic aid tribe al-Awsī in Madinah
625: Yazīd bin as-Sakan, a Anṣār ṣaḥābiyy companion martyred fighting in the Rank of the Muslims in the Battle of Uhud from the Prophetic aid tribe al-Awsī in Madinah; a heroic fighter in the early Battle of Badr
625: Yasār, mawla Abi’l Haytham bin at-Tayyihān, a Anṣār ṣaḥābiyy companion martyred fighting in the Rank of the Muslims in the Battle of Uhud from the Prophetic aid tribe al-Awsī in Madinah
625: Zayd bin Wadī‘ah, a Anṣār ṣaḥābiyy companion martyred fighting in the Rank of the Muslims in the Battle of Uhud from the Prophetic aid tribe al-Khazrajī in Madinah; a heroic fighter in the early Battle of Badr
625: Khubaib ibn Adiy or Khubyab bin Adi, a ṣaḥābiyy companion died r.a.; a symbolic champion and "faithful prisoner of war" who sacrificed himself in the Expedition of Al Raji; a heroic fighter in the early Battle of Badr and Battle of Uhud
625: Uthman bin Madh'oon (may also be spelled as Uthman bin Maz'oon), a ṣaḥābiyy companion died r.a.; he led the first migration of the Muslim to Africa
625: Abū Salama ʿAbd Allāh ibn ʿAbd al-Asad, a ṣaḥābiyy companion died r.a.; he was a cousin and a foster brother of the Prophet s.a.w.
625: Amir ibn Fuhayra, a ṣaḥābiyy companion died r.a.; he was known by the kunya Abu 'Amr
626: June— Expedition of Dhat al-Riqa - with participation of the Prophet s.a.w.
626: August-September— Expedition of Dumat al-Jandal - with participation of the Prophet s.a.w.
626: Birth of Husayn ibn Ali r.a., grandson of the Prophet s.a.w.
626: Zaynab bint Khuzaymah, also known as Umm al-Masakin, "Mother of the Poor", a ṣaḥābiyyah companion died r.a.; she was one of the wives of the Prophet s.a.w. about whom as a result of her early death, less is known than any of his other wives; reportedly mother of Awn, Munqidh, Ibrahim, Harith, Rabta, Khadija, Sukhayla, Amina, and Safiya from previous husband, Ubayda ibn al-Harith; a blessed wife Allah's Apostle s.a.w., Umm-ul-Mu'mineen or the "Mother of Believers"
626: Fatimah bint Asad, the mother of the Fourth Caliph Ali ibn Abi Talib r.a. died r.a.; she was married to Abu Talib, and an aunt to the Prophet s.a.w.
626: April— Expedition of Badr al-Maw'id - with participation of the Prophet s.a.w.
627: January— Expedition of al-Muraysi' - without participation of the Prophet s.a.w.
627: Battle of the Trench - with participation of the Prophet s.a.w.
627: May— Invasion of Banu Qurayza - with participation of the Prophet s.a.w.
627: June— Expedition of Muhammad ibn Maslamah - without participation of the Prophet s.a.w.
627: July— Invasion of Banu Lahyan - with participation of the Prophet s.a.w.
627: August— Expedition of Dhu Qarad - without participation of the Prophet s.a.w.
627: August— Expedition of Ukasha bin Al-Mihsan - without participation of the Prophet s.a.w.
627: August— First Raid on Banu Thalabah - without participation of the Prophet s.a.w.
627: August-September— Second Raid on Banu Thalabah - without participation of the Prophet s.a.w.
627: September— Expedition of Zaid ibn Haritha (Al-Jumum) - without the Prophet s.a.w.
627: September-October— Expedition of Zaid ibn Haritha (Al-Is) - without the Prophet s.a.w.
627: October— Third Raid on Banu Thalabah - without participation of the Prophet s.a.w.
627: October-November— Expedition of Zayd ibn Harithah (Hisma) - without the Prophet s.a.w.
627: November-December— Expedition of Zayd ibn Harithah (Wadi al-Qura) - without the Prophet s.a.w.
627: December— Expedition of Abdur Rahman bin Auf - without participation of the Prophet s.a.w.
627 - 628: December-January— Expedition of Fidak - without participation of the Prophet s.a.w.
627: Anas bin Asw bin 'Atik, a Anṣār ṣaḥābiyy companion martyred fighting in the Rank of the Muslims in the Battle of Trench (or the Battle of Khandaq) also called the Battle of Al-Ahzab (or the Battle of Confederates) from the Prophetic aid tribe al-Awsī in Madinah; a heroic fighter in the early Battle of Badr and Battle of Uhud
627: Anbdullah bin Sahl al-Ash-hali, a Anṣār ṣaḥābiyy companion martyred fighting in the Rank of the Muslims in the Battle of Trench (or the Battle of Khandaq) also called the Battle of Al-Ahzab (or the Battle of Confederates) from the Prophetic aid tribe al-Awsī in Madinah; a heroic fighter in the early Battle of Badri and Battle of Uhud
627: Ka'b bin Zayd, a Muhājiri ṣaḥābiyy companion martyred fighting in the Rank of the Muslims in the Battle of Trench (or the Battle of Khandaq) also called the Battle of Al-Ahzab (or the Battle of Confederates) among early migrants from Mecca; a heroic fighter in the early Battle of Badr and Battle of Uhud
627: Sa'd ibn Mu'adh, a Anṣār ṣaḥābiyy companion martyred fighting in the Rank of the Muslims in the Battle of Trench (or the Battle of Khandaq) also called the Battle of Al-Ahzab (or the Battle of Confederates) from the Prophetic aid tribe al-Awsī in Madinah; a heroic fighter in the early Battle of Badr and Battle of Uhud; the chief of the Aws tribe and one of the prominent companions of the Prophet s.a.w.; wounded in the Battle of Trench and became thereof martyred after returning to Medina
627: Salit bin Sufyan bin Awf, a Anṣār ṣaḥābiyy companion martyred fighting in the Rank of the Muslims in the Battle of Trench (or the Battle of Khandaq) also called the Battle of Al-Ahzab (or the Battle of Confederates) from the Prophetic aid tribe al-Khazrajī in Madinah; a heroic fighter in the early Battle of Badr and Battle of Uhud; buried together with his father Sufyan bin Aws in one grave
627: Sinan bin Sayfi, a Anṣār ṣaḥābiyy companion martyred fighting in the Rank of the Muslims in the Battle of Trench (or the Battle of Khandaq) also called the Battle of Al-Ahzab (or the Battle of Confederates) from the Prophetic aid tribe al-Khazrajī in Madinah; a heroic fighter in the early Battle of Badr and Battle of Uhud
627: Sufyan bin Awf, a Anṣār ṣaḥābiyy companion martyred fighting in the Rank of the Muslims in the Battle of Trench (or the Battle of Khandaq) also called the Battle of Al-Ahzab (or the Battle of Confederates) from the Prophetic aid tribe al-Khazrajī in Madinah; a heroic fighter in the early Battle of Badr and Battle of Uhud; buried together with his son Salit bin Sufyan bin Aws in one grave
627: Tha'labah bin Ganmah bin 'Adiy, a Anṣār ṣaḥābiyy companion martyred fighting in the Rank of the Muslims in the Battle of Trench (or the Battle of Khandaq) also called the Battle of Al-Ahzab (or the Battle of Confederates) from the Prophetic aid tribe al-Khazrajī in Madinah; a heroic fighter in the early Battle of Badri and Battle of Uhud
627: Tufail bin Malik, a Anṣār ṣaḥābiyy companion martyred fighting in the Rank of the Muslims in the Battle of Trench (or the Battle of Khandaq) also called the Battle of Al-Ahzab (or the Battle of Confederates) from the Prophetic aid tribe al-Khazrajī in Madinah; a heroic fighter in the early Battle of Badr and Battle of Uhud
627: Salām bin Abī 'l-Huqayq or Abu Rafi assissinated; he was a Jewish poet of early 7th century Arabia who financed and assisted the Pagan tribes who were fighting Prophet Muhammad s.a.w; killed in the Expedition of 'Abdullah ibn 'Atik for composing satirical peoms (hija') about the Messenger of Allah s.a.w. and other early Muslim leaders
628: January— Second Expedition of Wadi al-Qura - without participation of the Prophet s.a.w.
628: February— Expedition of Kurz bin Jabir Al-Fihri - without the Prophet s.a.w.
628: February— Expedition of Abdullah ibn Rawaha - without participation of the Prophet s.a.w.
628: March— Treaty of Hudaybiyyah - with participation of the Prophet s.a.w.
628: May— Conquest of Fidak - with participation of the Prophet s.a.w.
628: May-June— Battle of Khaybar - with participation of the Prophet s.a.w.
628: June— Third Expedition of Wadi al Qura - with participation of the Prophet s.a.w.
628: The Prophet s.a.w. sends letters to various heads of states.
628: December— Expedition of Umar ibn al-Khatab - without participation of the Prophet s.a.w.
628: December— Expedition of Abu Bakr As-Siddiq - without participation of the Prophet s.a.w.
628: December— Expedition of Bashir Ibn Sa’d al-Ansari (Fadak) - without the Prophet s.a.w.
628: Execution of Kenana ibn al-Rabi' also known as Kenana ibn al-Rabi'a and Kenana ibn al-Rabi ibn Abu al-Huqayq, a Jewish Arab tribal leader of seventh-century Arabia and an opponent of the Messenger of Allah s.a.w.; a son of the poet al-Rabi ibn Abu al-Huqayq; killed during early Muslim clashes with the Banu Nadir for breaching the agreement
628: Umm Rumān Zaynab bint ‘Āmir' ibn Uwaymir ibn Abd Shams ibn Attab Al-Kinaniyah, known by her kunyah "Umm Rumān", a ṣaḥābiyyah companion died r.a.; she was a wife of the Successor of Allah's Apostle and the First Caliph Abu Bakr r.a. and the mother of Aishah
629: The Prophet s.a.w. pilgrimage to Mecca
629: Battle of Mu'ta
629: January— Expedition of Ghalib ibn Abdullah al-Laithi (Mayfah) - without the Prophet s.a.w.
629: February— Expedition of Bashir Ibn Sa’d al-Ansari (Yemen) - without the Prophet s.a.w.
629: April— Expedition of Ibn Abi Al-Awja Al-Sulami - without participation of the Prophet s.a.w.
629: May— Expedition of Ghalib ibn Abdullah al-Laithi (Fadak) - without the Prophet s.a.w.
629: June— Expedition of Ghalib ibn Abdullah al-Laithi (Al-Kadid) - without the Prophet s.a.w.
629: June— Expedition of Shuja ibn Wahb al-Asadi - without participation of the Prophet s.a.w.
629: July— Expedition of Ka’b ibn 'Umair al-Ghifari - without participation of the Prophet s.a.w.
629: September— Battle of Mu'tah - without participation of the Prophet s.a.w.
629: October— Expedition of Amr ibn al-As - without participation of the Prophet s.a.w.
629: October— Expedition of Abu Ubaidah ibn al Jarrah - without the Prophet s.a.w.
629: November— Expedition of Abi Hadrad al-Aslami - without participation of the Prophet s.a.w.
629: December— First Expedition of Abu Qatadah ibn Rab'i al-Ansari (Khadirah) - without the Prophet s.a.w.
629: December— Second Expedition of Abu Qatadah ibn Rab'i al-Ansari (Batn Edam) - without participation of the Prophet s.a.w.
629: Thuwaybah (also Sobia), a ṣaḥābiyy companion died r.a.; she was the first foster-mother of the Prophet s.a.w.; her name means "Deserving of God's reward"; also known as Thuwaybah al-Islamiah
629: Wahb ibn Sa'd ibn Abi Sarh, a ṣaḥābiyy companion died r.a.; he embraced Islam and then moved to Yathrib, and visited the house of Kulthum ibn al-Hadam; brought brotherhood with Suwayd ibn Amr by Allah's Apostle s.a.w. Musa ibn Uqba; mentioned among those who witnessed the Battle of Badr
629: Zayd ibn Harithah, an early ṣaḥābiyy companion died r.a.; he was the adopted son of the Prophet s.a.w.; the fourth person to have accepted Islam, after wife of Allah's Apostle s.a.w., Khadija bint Khuwaylid, best friend of Allah's Apostle s.a.w., Abu Bakar, and cousin of Allah's Apostle s.a.w., the Fourth Caliph Ali r.a.; a slave in Khadija's household for several years, but later freed and legally adopted Zayd by the Prophet s.a.w. as own son
629: Zainab bint Muhammad, the eldest daughter of the Prophet s.a.w. by his first wife Khadijah died; she was wife of Abu al-As
629: Ja'far ibn Abi Talib, also known as Jaʿfar aṭ-Ṭayyār, a ṣaḥābiyy companion died r.a.; he was a cousin of the Messenger of Allah s.a.w.; an older brother of the Fourth Caliph Ali ibn Abi Talib r.a.
629: ʿAbd Allāh ibn Rawāḥah ibn Thaʿlabah, a ṣaḥābiyy companion martyred in the Battle of Mu'tah
630: January— Conquest of Mecca - with participation of the Prophet s.a.w.
630: January— Expedition of Khalid ibn al-Walid (Nakhla) - without the Prophet s.a.w.
630: January— Raid of Amr ibn al-As - without participation of the Prophet s.a.w.
630: January— Raid of Sa'd ibn Zaid al-Ashhali - without participation of the Prophet s.a.w.
630: January— Expedition of Khalid ibn al-Walid (Banu Jadhimah) - without the Prophet s.a.w.
630: January— Battle of Hunayn - with participation of the Prophet s.a.w.
630: January— Expedition of At-Tufail ibn 'Amr Ad-Dausi - without the Prophet s.a.w.
630: January— Battle of Autas - with participation of the Prophet s.a.w.
630: January— Expedition of Abu Amir Al-Ashari - without participation of the Prophet s.a.w.
630: January— Expedition of Abu Musa Al-Ashari - without participation of the Prophet s.a.w.
630: February— Siege of Ta'if - with participation of the Prophet s.a.w.
630: April-May— Expedition of Uyainah bin Hisn - without participation of the Prophet s.a.w.
630: May-June— Expedition of Qutbah ibn Amir - without participation of the Prophet s.a.w.
630: June-July— Battle of Khaybar - without participation of the Prophet s.a.w.
630: July-August— Expedition of Dahhak al-Kilabi - without participation of the Prophet s.a.w.
630: July-August— Expedition of Alqammah bin Mujazziz - without the Prophet s.a.w.
630: July-August— Expedition of Ali ibn Abi Talib (Al-Fuls) - without the Prophet s.a.w.
630: September— Expedition of Ukasha bin Al-Mihsan (Udhrah and Baliy) - without the Prophet s.a.w.
630: October— Expedition of Khalid ibn al-Walid (Dumatul Jandal) - without the Prophet s.a.w.
630: October-December— Battle of Tabuk (Tabouk, Ghassanids) - with the Prophet s.a.w.
630: December— Expedition of Abu Sufyan ibn Harb - without participation of the Prophet s.a.w.
630: December— Demolition of Masjid al-Dirar - without participation of the Prophet s.a.w.
630: Umm Kulthum, the third daughter of the Prophet s.a.w. by his first wife Khadijah bint Khuwaylid died; she was wife of the Third Caliph Uthman r.a.
630: Urwah ibn Masʽud, a semi-legendary Arab, Thaqifi chieftain of Taif, a ṣaḥābiyy companion died r.a.; he was one of the first people from his tribe to accept Islam martyred by his fellow chieftains while preaching Islam in his home city; a brother of Barza bint Mas'ud, who married Safwan ibn Umayya
630: Halimah al-Sa'diyah, the foster-mother of the Prophet s.a.w. died r.a.; she with her husband were from the tribe of Sa'd b. Bakr, a subdivision of Hawazin (a large North Arabian tribe or group of tribes)
630: Ayman ibn Ubayd, an early ṣaḥābiyy companion died martyred r.a.; he was the son of Umm Ayman who helped raise the Messenger of Allah s.a.w. by her first husband Ubayd ibn Zayd of the Banu Khazraj tribe; the half-brother of Usama ibn Zayd through his mother's second marriage to Zayd ibn Harithah; a heroic fighter who won martyrdom protecting the Prophet s.a.w. against enemy Arab tribes in the Battle of Hunayn
631: April— Expedition of Khalid ibn al-Walid (2nd Dumatul Jandal) - without the Prophet s.a.w.
631: April— Expedition of Surad ibn Abdullah - without participation of the Prophet s.a.w.
631: June-July— Expedition of Khalid ibn al-Walid (Najran) - without the Prophet s.a.w.
631: December— Expedition of Ali ibn Abi Talib (Mudhij) - without the Prophet s.a.w.
631: Ibrahim ibn Muhammad died; he was the third son of the Prophet s.a.w. and Maria al-Qibtiyya
632: Tribe of Thaqif adopts Islam
632: February— Expedition of Ali ibn Abi Talib (Hamdan) - without the Prophet s.a.w.
632: March— Farewell pilgrimage at Mecca
632: April— Demolition of Dhul Khalasa - without participation of the Prophet s.a.w.
632: May— Expedition of Usama bin Zayd (Mu'tah) - without participation of the Prophet s.a.w.
632: June— Muhammad ibn Abdullah (romanized: Muḥammad ibn ʿAbd Allāh), the Allah's Apostle, the Best Human to ever live on earth, the Blessing for All Mankind, the Prophet May Allah Have Mercy Upon Him returned to Allah; he was an Arab and world religious, social, and political leader as a prophet, sent to preach and confirm the monotheistic teachings of Adam, Abraham, Moses, Jesus, and other prophets; the final prophet of God; sent with the Holy Book of the Quran as well as his teachings and practices as a basis for mankid salvation and redeption
632: June— Abu Bakr r.a. is chosen as caliph (the First Successor of the Prophet)
632: July— Battles of Zu Qissa under Caliph Abu Bakr r.a.
632: August— Battles of Zu Abraq under Caliph Abu Bakr r.a.
632: September— Battle of Buzakha under Caliph Abu Bakr r.a.
632: September— Battle of Zafar under Caliph Abu Bakr r.a.
632: October— Battle of Naqra under Caliph Abu Bakr r.a.
632: November— Muslims defeat Bani Tamim and Mosailima under Caliph Abu Bakr r.a.
632: Salim Mawla Abi Hudhayfa, a Persian ṣaḥābiyy companion died r.a.; he was named after his freeedom from being the freed slave of Abu Hudhayfa ibn 'Utba
632: Zayd al-Khayr, a ṣaḥābiyy companion died r.a.; he belonged to the tribe of Tayy in northern Nejd; originally known as Zayd al-Khayl ("Zayd of the Steeds", a reference to his chivalry), but after becoming Muslim, renamed Zayd al-Khayr ("Zayd of Goodness" or "of Bounty") by the Prophet s.a.w.
632: Zayd ibn al-Khaṭṭāb, a ṣaḥābiyy companion died r.a.; he was a brother of the Second Caliph Umar r.a.; the son of al-Khattab ibn Nufayl, a member of the Adi clan of the Quraysh tribe in Mecca, and of Asma bint Wahb of the Asad tribe; older than his brother the Second Caliph Umar r.a.; described as "a very tall dark man"
632: Rayhāna bint Zayd, a ṣaḥābiyyah companion died r.a.; she was a Jewish woman from the Banu Nadir tribe; a blessed wife Allah's Apostle s.a.w., Umm-ul-Mu'mineen or the "Mother of Believers"
632: ʿAbd Allāh ibn Suhayl, an early ṣaḥābiyy companion died r.a.; he emigrated to Medina using a clever tactic at the Battle of Badr
632: ʿAbd Allāh ibn Atik, a ṣaḥābiyy companion died r.a.; he participated in the Expedition of 'Abdullah ibn 'Atik where he successfully assassinated Sallam ibn Abu al-Huqayq
632: Abbad ibn Bishr, a ṣaḥābiyy companion died r.a.; he was known for his devotion to worship, knowledge and courage in battle
632: Fatimah bint Muhammad, commonly known as Fatimah al-Zahra died r.a.; she was the daughter and only surviving child of the Prophet s.a.w.; she married to the Fourth Caliph Ali r.a.; mother of Hussein and Hassan the grandsons of Allah's Apostle s.a.w.
632: Abu Dujana Simak bin Kharasha, a ṣaḥābiyy companion died r.a.; he was a skilled swordsman; mentioned in Hadith narrations from the six major Hadith collections
633: Muslims invade Bahrain, Oman, Yemen, and Hadramaut under Caliph Abu Bakr r.a.
633: Raids in Iraq under Caliph Abu Bakr r.a.
633: Battle of Chains under Caliph Abu Bakr r.a.
633: Battle of Saniyy under Caliph Abu Bakr r.a.
633: Battle of Walaja under Caliph Abu Bakr r.a.
633: Battle of Ullais under Caliph Abu Bakr r.a.
633: Battle of Hira under Caliph Abu Bakr r.a.
633: Battle of Al-Anbar under Caliph Abu Bakr r.a.
633: Battle of Ayn al-Tamr under Caliph Abu Bakr r.a.
633: Battle of Dawmat al-Jandal under Caliph Abu Bakr r.a.
633: Battle of Firaz under Caliph Abu Bakr r.a.
633: Salma Umm al-Khair bint Sakhar, a ṣaḥābiyyah companion died r.a.; she was the mother of the Successor of Allah's Apostle and the First Caliph Abu Bakr r.a.
633: Thabit ibn Qais, a ṣaḥābiyy companion died r.a.; he was a first generation Muslim, someone who was converted to Islam at the hand of the Messenger of Allah s.a.w. himself, played a prominent role in the meeting at the Saqifah
633: Al-Tufayl ibn Amr al-Dawsi, the chief of the Banu Daws tribe from Tihama in pre-Islamic times died r.a.; he accepted Islam around four years before the hijra in 622 CE and helped spread Islam among his fellow tribesmen; During the Ridda wars a leader of contingent of his people against the impostor Mosailima, a martyr in the Battle of Yamama
633: Habib ibn Zayd al-Ansari, a ṣaḥābiyy companion martyred
633: Abu Hudhayfa ibn Utbah, full name Abu Hudhayfa ibn Utbah ibn Rabi'ah, an early ṣaḥābiyy companion died r.a.; he was the son of Utbah ibn Rabi'ah, one of the Leaders of Banu Abd Shams; the brother of Walid ibn Utbah and Hind bint Utbah, the wife of Abu Sufyan
633: ʿAbd Allāh ibn Abu Bakr, a son of the Successor of Allah's Apostle and the First Caliph Abu Bakr r.a., a ṣaḥābiyy companion died r.a.; he was a brother of Aishah and a popular young man of principle
634: August— Abu Bakr Abdullah ibn Uthman Abi Quhafa, an early ṣaḥābiyy companion died r.a.; he was through his daughter Aishah, a father-in-law of the Prophet s.a.w.; the first of the Rashidun Caliphs; one of the first converts to Islam and extensively contributed his wealth in support of works of the Messenger of Allah s.a.w.; among closest companions of the Prophet s.a.w., accompanying him on his migration to Medina and being present at a number of his military conflicts, such as the battles of Badr and Uhud
634: Umar ibn al-Khattab r.a. becomes the second caliph.
634: Battle of Bosra under Caliph Umar r.a.
634: Battle of Damascus under Caliph Umar r.a.
634: Battle of Ajnadin under Caliph Umar r.a.
634: Battle of Namaraq under Caliph Umar r.a.
634: Battle of Saqatia under Caliph Umar r.a.
634: Salit bin 'Amr 'Ala bin Hadrami, a ṣaḥābiyy companion died r.a.; he was a 7th-century Muslim emissary to Bahrain, among the 83 Makkans Muslims who migrated to Ethiopia from Mecca after undergoing harrowing feats of persecution by the Quraishi idolators with contingent headed by Ja`far bin Abī Tālib, the Third Caliph Uthman r.a., Rkia (the daughter of the the Messenger of Allah s.a.w. and Khadija)
634: Khālid ibn Saʿīd ibn al-ʿAs al-Umawī, a ṣaḥābiyy companion died r.a.; he was a general under the Rashidun Caliphate
634: Abu al-As ibn al-Rabi', a ṣaḥābiyy companion died r.a.; he was son-in-law of Allah's Apostle s.a.w.; his original name was said to have been Hushaym or Yasser
634: Bashir ibn Sa'ad, a ṣaḥābiyy companion died r.a.; he was a member of the Banu Khazraj and later became its leader; the first one who pledged of allegiance to the first caliph, the First Caliph Abu Bakr r.a., in a meeting in Saqifa; wise handler of the situation when there was a huge dispute and division on the matter of succession to Allah's Apostle s.a.w.
635: Battle of Bridge under Caliph Umar r.a.
635: Battle of Buwaib under Caliph Umar r.a.
635: Conquest of Damascus under Caliph Umar r.a.
635: Battle of Fahl under Caliph Umar r.a.
635: Nāfi‘ ibn Al-Ḥārith ibn Kaladah ath-Thaqafī, a ṣaḥābiyy companion died r.a.; he was an Arab physician of the Banu Thaqif; recommended by the Messenger of Allah s.a.w. to treat Sa`d ibn Abi Waqqas and the First Caliph Abu Bakr r.a.
635: Hisham ibn al-A'as, the son of A'as ibn Wa'il of Banu Sahm, a ṣaḥābiyy companion died r.a.; he was brother of Amr ibn al-A'as and one of the early companions; a prominent in statement of the Second Caliph Umar r.a. and in accounts of early coverts into Islam
635: Al-ʿAlāʾ al-Haḍramī, a Haḍramī, a ṣaḥābiyy companion died r.a.; he was an envoy sent by the Messenger of Allah s.a.w. in the 7th century CE to spread Islam to the region that extends from Kuwait to Ras al-Khaimah, from Hadhramaut in Yemen
636: Battle of Yarmuk under Caliph Umar r.a.
636: Battle of al-Qādisiyyah under Caliph Umar r.a.
636: Conquest of Madain under Caliph Umar r.a.
636: Umm Hakim, daughter of Harith al Makhzumi (ibn Hisham ibn Mughirah ibn Abdallah ibn Umar ibn Makhzum), a ṣaḥābiyy companion martyred r.a.; she was the wife of Ikrimah ibn Abu Jahl; attained martyrdom in the Battle of Yarmouk
636: Ikrima ibn Abi Jahl Amr ibn Hishām, a ṣaḥābiyy companion died r.a.; he was a leading opponent-turned companion; a Muslim commander in the Ridda wars and the conquest of Syria martyred during the Battle of Yarmouk
636: Abū Sufyān ibn al-Ḥārith ibn ‘Abd al-Muṭṭalib, born al-Mughīrah, a ṣaḥābiyy companion died r.a.; he was first cousin of the Prophet s.a.w.
636: Ayyash ibn Abi Rabiah, a ṣaḥābiyy companion died r.a.; he converted into Islam before immigration; also a half brother of Abu Jahl by sharing the same mother, as well as paternal cousin
637: Conquest of Syria under Caliph Umar r.a.
637: Conquest of Jerusalem under Caliph Umar r.a.
637: Battle of Jalula under Caliph Umar r.a.
637: Saʽd ibn ʽUbadah ibn Dulaym, the chief of the Sa'ida clan of the Khazraj tribe in Medina in the early seventh century, a ṣaḥābiyy companion died r.a.; he was regarded as the chief of the whole Khazraj tribe, and then of all the Ansar
637: Barakah bint Tha'alaba, commonly known by her kunya Umm Ayman, an early , a ṣaḥābiyyah companion died r.a.; she was an Abyssinian slave of parents of Prophet Muhammad, Abdullah ibn Abdul-Muttalib and Aminah bint Wahb who following the death of Aminah, helped to raise the Messenger of Allah s.a.w. in the household of his grandfather, Abdul-Muttalib ibn Hashim
637: Maria bint Shamʿūn, better known as Maria al-Qibtiyya, Maria Qubtiyya, or Mary the Copt, an Egyptian who, along with her sister Sirin died r.a.; she was sent to the Prophet s.a.w. in 628 as a gift by Muqawqis, a Christian governor of Alexandria, Egypt
637: Abū Miḥjan ʿAbd Allāh ibn Ḥabīb, called al-Thaqafī died r.a.; she was an Arab poet of the Jāhiliyya and the early Islamic period; a member of the Banū Thaqīf tribe, Abū Miḥjan, a ṣaḥābiyy companion died r.a.; he was a mukhaḍram (non-Muslim) who took part in the defence of al-Ṭāʾif against Muḥammad in year 8 AH (630 AD)
638: Conquest of Jazirah under Caliph Umar r.a.
638: Utba ibn Ghazwan al-Mazini, a ṣaḥābiyy companion died r.a.; he was the seventh person to convert to Islam and participated in the hijra to Abyssinia, but returned to stay with the Messenger of Allah s.a.w. in Mecca before making the second hijrah to Medina; a participant of the battle of Badr (624), the battle of Uhud (625), the Battle of the Trench (627) and many others, including the battles of Yamamah
639: Conquest of Khuzistan under Caliph Umar r.a.
639: Advance into Egypt under Caliph Umar r.a.
639: Plague of Emmaus during Caliph Umar r.a.
639: Abū ʿAbd Allāh Shuraḥbīl ibn Ḥasana, an early ṣaḥābiyy companion died r.a.; he was a key commander in the Rashidun army during the Muslim conquest of the Levant
639: Suhayl ibn Amr, also known as Abu Yazid; a contemporary of the Prophet s.a.w., and a prominent leader among the Quraysh of Mecca; clever and articulate, known as the Khatib or orator of the tribe whose opinion carried great weight among people
639: Yazid ibn Abi Sufyan, a ṣaḥābiyy companion died r.a.; he was a leading Arab general at the time of the Islamic conquest of Syria; the elder brother of the Fifth Caliph Mu'awiyah ibn Abi Sufyan r.a. (who later became a caliph and the founder of Umayyad dynasty)
639: Muadh ibn Jabal, a ṣaḥābiyy companion died r.a.; he was an Ansar of Banu Khazraj and compiled the Quran with five companions while the Messenger of Allah s.a.w. was still alive; known as the one with a lot of knowledge; called by the Prophet s.a.w. "the one who will lead the scholars into Paradise"
639: Umayr ibn Sa'd al-Ansari, a ṣaḥābiyy companion died r.a.; he lost his father when he was young, leaving him and his mother poor and destitute and whose mother eventually remarried to one of the richest men in Medina, Julas ibn Suwayd from the powerful tribe of al-Aws; a Muslim convert barely ten years old and known to frequent the mosque despite his young age
639: Al-Ḥārith ibn Hishām ibn al-Mughīra ibn ʿAbd Allāh, a ṣaḥābiyy companion died r.a.; he was a noble of the Banu Makhzum and a participant in the Muslim conquest of Syria until his death
639?: Khawlah bint Hakim Umm Sharīk, a ṣaḥābiyyah companion died r.a.; she was married to Uthman bin Maz'oon, both being two of the earliest converts to Islam; the woman who asked Allah's Apostle s.a.w. whether he would like to marry any woman after the death of Khadijaa, as he had loved Khadija dearly
639: Fadl ibn Abbas, a ṣaḥābiyy companion died r.a.; he was a brother of Abdullah ibn Abbas and a cousin of the Prophet s.a.w.
639: al-As ibn Suhayl, known as Abu Jandal, a ṣaḥābiyy companion died r.a.; he was the first person returned to Mecca after the Treaty of Hudaybiyyah; also the brother of Abdullah ibn Suhayl and son of Suhayl ibn Amr, the orator of Quraysh
639: Abu Ubaidah ibn al-Jarrah, fully Abū ‘Ubaydah ‘Āmir ibn ‘Abdillāh ibn al-Jarāḥ,, a ṣaḥābiyy companion died
640: Battle of Babylon in Egypt under Caliph Umar r.a.
640: Safiyya bint Abd al-Muttalib, a ṣaḥābiyyah companion died r.a.; she was an aunt of the Prophet s.a.w.
640: Al-Shifaa bint Abdullah, whose given name was Layla, a ṣaḥābiyyah companion died r.a.; she was the daughter of Abdullah ibn Abdshams and Fatima bint Wahb and a member of the Adi clan of the Quraysh in Mecca; married to Abu Hathma ibn Hudhayfa, and with whome she had two sons, Sulayman and Masruq
640: Rabi'ah ibn al-Harith, a ṣaḥābiyy companion died r.a.; he was a first cousin
640: Bilal ibn Rabah, a ṣaḥābiyy companion died r.a.; he was a famous African and one of the most trusted and loyal aids of the Prophet s.a.w.; he was born in Mecca and considered to have been the first mu'azzin in history, chosen by the Messenger of Allah s.a.w. himself
640: Dhiraar ibn al-Azwar, also spelled as Dirar or Dhirar, a ṣaḥābiyy companion died r.a.; he was a warrior participating in the early Islamic conquests; widely known as a skilled warrior and horseman since before the time of Islam
641: Conquest of Alexandria in Egypt under Caliph Umar r.a.
641: An-Numan ibn Muqarrin, a ṣaḥābiyy companion died r.a.; he was the leader of the tribe of Banu Muzaynah; his tribe's habitations some distance from Yathrib on the caravan route which linked the city to Makkah
641: Al-Bara' ibn Malik al-Ansari, a ṣaḥābiyy companion marytyred; he was an Ansar belonging to the Banū al-Najjār branch of the Banu Khazraj; the brother of Anas ibn Malik
641: ʿIyāḍ ibn Ghanm ibn Zuhayr al-Fihrī, a ṣaḥābiyy companion died r.a.; he was an Arab general who played a leading role in the Muslim conquests of al-Jazira (Upper Mesopotamia) and northern Syria; one of the handful of Qurayshi tribesmen to embrace Islam before the mass conversion of the tribe in 630, and was a companion of the Prophet s.a.w.
641: Mowaz ibn Amr, a ṣaḥābiyy companion died r.a.; he was, along with his brother, Muaaz ibn Amr, wounded Abu Jahl in the Battle of Badr; the son of Amr ibn al-Jamuh who converted to Islam, at first secretly
641: Said ibn Aamir al-Jumahi, a ṣaḥābiyy companion died r.a.; he was the governor of Homs in Syria during the caliphate of Omar who was in the list when the Second Caliph Umar r.a. asked a delegation from people of Homs to provide list of needy people of hums so that he could make arrangement for meeting those needs
641?: Umm Umais, Umm Ubais or Umm Ubays, a ṣaḥābiyy companion died r.a.; She was a slave in Mecca who became an early convert to Islam; tortured after 614 in an attempt to force her to renounce her faith; bought and manumitted by the First Caliph Abu Bakr r.a.
641: Zaynab bint Jahsh, a first cousin of the Messenger of Allah s.a.w. died r.a.; previously married to Zayd ibn Harithah; a blessed wife Allah's Apostle s.a.w., Umm-ul-Mu'mineen or the "Mother of Believers"
642: Battle of Nihawand; Conquest of Egypt under Caliph Umar r.a.
642: Amr ibn Ma'adi Yakrib al-Zubaīdi al-Madḥ'hijī, a ṣaḥābiyy companion died r.a.; he was a famous Arabian knight before and during Islam; the owner of the legendary sword al-Samsama; from the prominent House of Zubaid, part of the House of Madhhij
642: Khalid ibn al-Walid ibn al-Mughira al-Makhzumi, a ṣaḥābiyy companion died r.a.; he was an Arab Muslim commander; a military leader in the service of the Prophet s.a.w. and the First Caliph Abu Bakr (r. 632–634) and the Second Caliph Umar r.a. (r. 634–644); played a leading role in the Ridda wars against rebel tribes in Arabia in 632–633 and the early Muslim conquests of Sasanian Iraq in 633–634 and Byzantine Syria in 634–638
642?: Al-Walid ibn al-Walid ibn al-Mughira, an early ṣaḥābiyy companion died r.a.; he belonged to the Banu Makhzum clan of the Quraysh tribe of Mecca; a brother of the prominent Muslim commander Khalid ibn al-Walid; formerly in the rank of the Quraysh against the Messenger of Allah s.a.w. at the Battle of Badr in 624 during which many of his clansmen were slain; captured by the Muslims during the battle of Badr, but released and embraced Islam
642: Al-Hubab ibn al-Mundhir ibn Zayd, a ṣaḥābiyy companion died r.a.; he belonged to the Khazraj tribe; a participant in the meeting at saqifah during the Succession to the Messenger of Allah s.a.w.; also the one who advised the Prophet s.a.w. on filling all but one well during the battle of Badr
643: Conquest of Azarbaijan and Tabaristan (Mazandaran) under Caliph Umar r.a.
644: Conquest of Fars, Kerman, Sistan, Mekran and Kharan under Caliph Umar r.a.
644: ʿAttāb ibn Asīd ibn Abīʿl-ʿĪs ibn Umayya ibn ʿAbd Shams, a ṣaḥābiyy companion died r.a.; he was a member of the Banu Umayya (Umayyad) clan; at a young age, appointed governor of Mecca in the wake of its conquest by the Prophet s.a.w. in 629/30
644: November— ʿUmar ibn al-Khaṭṭāb (also spelled Omar or Umar), "Umar, Son of Al-Khattab", a ṣaḥābiyy companion died r.a.; he was one of the most powerful and influential Muslim caliphs in history; a senior companion and father-in-law of the Prophet s.a.w. who succeeded the First Caliph Abu Bakr (632–634) as the second caliph of the Rashidun Caliphate on 23 August 634; an expert Muslim jurist known for his pious and just nature, which earned him the epithet Al-Farooq ("the one who distinguishes (between right and wrong)")
645: Uthman ibn Affan becomes the third caliph
645: Suraqah bin Malik ibn Ju'shum al-Kinani, a member of the Kenanah tribe, a ṣaḥābiyy companion died r.a.; he was, like Quraish, belonging to the Adnani branch of Arabs; a skilled horseman who is known for being the only man from Quraish to successfully locate the Messenger of Allah s.a.w. and the First Caliph Abu Bakr r.a. during their migration to Medina, hoping to win the bounty that Quraish had put on their heads while witnessed a miraculous, divine force that stopped him in his tracks before he succeed in this mission only to convert to Islam
646: Muslims invade Khurasan, Armenia and Asia Minor under Caliph Uthman r.a.
646: Tumāḍir bint ʿAmr ibn al-Ḥārith ibn al-Sharīd al-Sulamīyah, usually simply referred to as al-Khansāʾ (meaning "snub-nosed"), a ṣaḥābiyyah companion died r.a.; she was an Arabic epithet for a gazelle as metaphor for beauty); a 7th-century tribeswoman, living in the Arabian Peninsula; one of the most influential poets of the pre-Islamic and early Islamic periods
647: Muslims invade North Africa under Caliph Uthman r.a.
647: Conquest of the island of Cyprus under Caliph Uthman r.a.
647: Ka‘b ibn Zuhayr, a ṣaḥābiyy companion died r.a.; he was an Arabian poet of the 7th century; the writer of Bānat Suʿād (Su'ād Has Departed), a qasida in praise of the Messenger of Allah s.a.w.; also recited this poem in front of the Messenger of Allah s.a.w. after embracing Islam
648: Muslims battle against the Byzantines under Caliph Uthman r.a.
648: Umayr ibn Wahb, a ṣaḥābiyy companion died r.a.; he was one of the enemies of the Muslim before converting to Islam; converted to Islam after the Battle of Badr
648: Sahla bint Suhail, a ṣaḥābiyyah companion died r.a.; she was married to Abu Hudaifah ibn Utbah with whom she had an adoptive son named Salim mawla Abu Hudaifa
649: Ubayy ibn Ka'b, also known as Abu Mundhir, a ṣaḥābiyy companion died r.a.; he was a person of high esteem in the early Muslim community
649?: Sahl ibn Hunaif, a ṣaḥābiyy companion died r.a.; he narrated about 40 Ahadith from Allah's Apostle s.a.w.
650: First conflict between Arabs and Turks under Caliph Uthman r.a.
650: Battle of Khazar town of Balanjar under Caliph Uthman r.a.
650: Lubaba bint al-Harith, also known as Umm Fadl, a prominent early ṣaḥābiyyah companion died r.a.; two of her sisters, Maymuna bint al-Harith and Zaynab bint Khuzayma, became wives of the Messenger of Allah s.a.w.
650: Rumaysa bint Milhan, popularly known by her kunya as Umm Sulaym, a ṣaḥābiyyah companion died r.a.; she was one of the earliest women to convert to Islam in Yathrib (now Medina); first married to Malik ibn an-Nadr and her son by this marriage was Anas ibn Malik, a notable companion of the Prophet s.a.w.
651?: Wahb ibn Umayr, a ṣaḥābiyy companion died r.a.; he was the son of Umayr ibn Wahb; he witnessed the conquest of Egypt; the leader of the Battle of Amuriyah in the Egyptian sea in 23 AH; martyred in battle in Bilad al-Sham
652: Abu Dardā' al-Anṣāri, a ṣaḥābiyy companion died r.a.; he was the husband of fellow companion Umm al-Darda al-Kubra
652: Abu Dharr (or Abu Zarr) al-Ghifari al-Kinani, born Jundab ibn Junādah, a ṣaḥābiyy companion died r.a.; he was the fourth or fifth person to convert to Islam; of the Banu Ghifar, the Kinanah tribe; died at al-Rabadha, in the desert east of Medina
652: Abu Dardā' al-Anṣāri, a ṣaḥābiyy companion died r.a.; he was the husband of fellow companion Umm al-Darda al-Kubra
652: Al-Nuayman ibn Amr an-Najjari, a ṣaḥābiyy companion died r.a.; he married the sister of 'Abd al-Rahman ibn 'Awf
653: Al-Abbas ibn Abd al-Muttalib, a ṣaḥābiyy companion died r.a.; he was paternal uncle; just three years older than his nephew Allah's Apostle s.a.w.; wealthy merchant, a protector of Allah's Apostle s.a.w. in Mecca during the early years of Islam, a convert after the Battle of Badr in 624 CE
653: Salman the Persian or Salman al-Farsi, born Roozbeh (Persian: "good day"), a ṣaḥābiyy companion died r.a.; he was the first Persian who converted to Islam; referred to by the kunya Abu Abdullah ("Father of Abdullah")
653?: Tamim ibn Zayd al-Ansari, a ṣaḥābiyy companion died, an Al-Ansari born in the city of Medina; a Badr Sahabi (companion of the Prophet s.a.w. and participated in Badr war) who traveled to the Asian continent during the caliphate of Umar ibn al-Khattab and stayed in Sindh for 18 years
653: ʽAbdullah ibn Masʽud, or Abdullah ibn Masʽood, a ṣaḥābiyy companion died r.a.; he was a knowledgeable and well-versed tranmiter of traditions; known by the kunya Abu Abdur Rahman
654: Muaaz ibn Amr, a ṣaḥābiyy companion died r.a.; he was part of the Banu Salmah tribe of Medina had 3 sons, Muawwaz ibn Amr, Muaaz ibn Amr and Khallad ibn Amr who submitted to the will of Allah and embraced Islam immediately
654: Umm Kulthum bint Uqba, a ṣaḥābiyyah companion died r.a.; in response to her situation a verse of the Qur'an, 60:10, was revealed
655: Naval battle of the Masts against the Byzantines under Caliph Uthman r.a.
655: Miqdad ibn Amr al-Bahrani, a ṣaḥābiyy companion died r.a.; he was better known as al-Miqdad ibn al-Aswad al-Kindi or simply Miqdad
655?: `Ubadah ibn al-Samit, a ṣaḥābiyy companion died r.a.; he was a well-respected chieftain of the Ansar tribes confederation; a participant in almost every battle during era of Allah's Apostle s.a.w.; also known as Ubadah bin Saamit al-Ansari al-Badri for his actions at the Battle of Badr
656: ʽUthmān ibn ʽAffān, also spelled by the Turkish and Osman (or Ottoman), a ṣaḥābiyy companion martyred r.a. by group later known to be among them Shia; he was a son-in-law; as well as the third of the Rāshidun, or "Rightly Guided Caliphs"; from a prominent Meccan clan, Banu Umayya of the Quraysh tribe; a major player and activist in early Islamic history; known for having ordered the compilation of the standard version of the Quran; a successor aged 64/65 to the Second Caliph Umar ibn al-Khattab r.a. died in office aged 59/60 years; the second-oldest to rule as Caliph
656: Ali ibn Abi Talib r.a. becomes the fourth caliph
656: December— Battle of the Camel outside Basra between forces loyal to Ali r.a. and other Muslims
656: Al-Ḥakam ibn Abī al-ʿĀs ibn Umayya, a ṣaḥābiyy companion died r.a.; he was the father of the founder of the Marwanid line of the Umayyad dynasty, Marwan I (r. 684–685) died r.a.; he was a paternal uncle of the Third Caliph Uthman r.a. (r. 644–656)
656?: Nāʾila bint al-Furāfiṣa, a ṣaḥābiyyah companion died r.a.; she was the wife of Uthman, the third Caliph of the Islam; born into a Christian family in Kufa but helped to convert to Islam by Aishah; married 649 CE to the Third Caliph Uthman r.a., who had succeeded to the Caliphate in 644
656?: Nuaym ibn Masud Al-Ghatafani, a ṣaḥābiyy companion died r.a.; he hailed from Najd in the northern highlands of Arabia; belonged to the powerful Ghatafan tribe whose first exposure to the Messenger of Allah s.a.w. was when Abu Sufyan sent him to Medina to convince the Muslims to not fight the Qurayshi army by exaggerating their numbers
656: Talhah ibn Ubaydullah, a ṣaḥābiyy companion died r.a.; he was known for being of the Ten Promised Paradise; best known for his roles in the Battle of Uhud and the Battle of the Camel, in which he was martyred
656: Az-Zubayr ibn Al-Awam, a ṣaḥābiyy companion died r.a.; he was a cousin; one of the first converts to Islam; one of the ten companions whom the Messenger of Allah s.a.w. promised paradise; one of the political and military leaders of the community following the death of the Messenger of Allah s.a.w.; martyred in the Battle of the Camel
656: Abu Qatada al-Ansari, also known as Harith ibn Rab'i, a ṣaḥābiyy companion died r.a.; he assisted Allah's Apostle s.a.w. in the battles of Uhud and Hudaybiyyah
656: Uwais ibn Amir ibn Jaz' ibn Malik al-Qarani, also spelled Uways or Owais, a tābi' successor of ṣaḥābah died; he was a Muslim from Yemen who lived during the lifetime of the Prophet s.a.w.
657: Battle of Siffin in the late spring or early summer between Alli's and Muawiyah's forces
657: ʿAmmār ibn Yāsir ibn ʿĀmir ibn Mālik al-ʿAnsīy, also known as ʿAbū al-Yaqẓān ʿAmmār ibn Yāsir al-ʿAnsīy al-Maḏḥijīy, a ṣaḥābiyy companion died r.a.; he was one of the Muhajirun in the history of Islam and, for his dedicated devotion to Islam's cause, considered to be one of the most loyal and beloved companions of the Prophet s.a.w.
657: Khuzaima ibn Thabit Dhu'sh-Shahadatain, a ṣaḥābiyy companion died
657: Muhammad ibn Ja'far, a ṣaḥābiyy companion died r.a.; he was the son of cousin of the Prophet s.a.w., Ja'far ibn Abu Talib, and of Asma bint Umais
657: Hashim ibn Utba ibn Abi Waqqas, a ṣaḥābiyy companion died r.a.; he was a Muslim army commander; nephew of Sa'd ibn Abi Waqqas' through his father; a participant in the Ridda wars against the rebellious Arabic tribes following the death of Mohammad in order to return them to Islam
658: The Battle of Nahrawan takes place
658: Khabbab ibn al-Aratt, a ṣaḥābiyy companion died r.a.; he hailed from the Yamama region and an ethnic Chaldean; a revered member of the early Muslim community
658: Malik al-Ashtar, also known as Mālik bin al-Ḥārith al-Nakhaʿīy al-Maḏḥijīy, a ṣaḥābiyy companion died r.a.; he was cousin of the Prophet s.a.w.; a Muslim covert during the time of the Messenger of Allah s.a.w. and an avid and loyal supporter of the Prophet s.a.w.
658: Suhayb the Roman or Suhayb al-Rumi, also known as Suhayb ibn Sinan, also spelled Suhaib, a ṣaḥābiyy companion died r.a.; he was a former slave in the Byzantine Empire who went on to become a companion of the Messenger of Allah s.a.w. and member of the early Muslim community
658?: Umm Hiram bint Milhan (Hala Sultan, Aunt Sultan), a ṣaḥābiyyah companion died r.a.; she was the aunt and one of the companions of the Prophet s.a.w. who was also one of the Ansar of Medina died
659: Conquest of Egypt by Muawiyah I r.a.
659 - 660: The Syrians pledge their allegiance to Muawiyah as caliph
660: Asmāʾ bint ʿUmays, a ṣaḥābiyyah companion died r.a.; she was known for having married three companions of Allah's Apostle s.a.w. in Ja'far ibn Abi Talib, the First Caliph Abu Bakr r.a. and the Fourth Caliph Ali r.a.
660: Hujr ibn 'Adi al-Kindi, a ṣaḥābiyy companion died
660?: Umm Kulthum bint Abi Bakr, a ṣaḥābiyyah companion died r.a.; she was a daughter of the Successor of Allah's Apostle and the First Caliph Abu Bakr r.a. and Habiba bint Kharija; born in Medina shortly after her father's death whose entitlements were instructed to Aishah in the will of some palm trees as inheritance with two brothers and two sisters
660: Wahshi ibn Harb ("The Savage, Son of War"), also known as Abu Dusmah, a ṣaḥābiyy companion died r.a.; a former slave of Jubayr ibn Mut'im before becoming a freedman and a Sahabi (companion of the Prophet s.a.w.); best known for killing a leading Muslim fighter, Hamza ibn ‘Abd al-Muttalib, uncle of the Prophet s.a.w., prior to accepting Islam, and afterwards for killing Musaylimah, the leader of an enemy apostate army who were waging war against the Muslims
660: Zayd bin Thabit, a ṣaḥābiyy companion died r.a.; he was the personal scribe of the Prophet s.a.w. from the ansar (helpers); joined the ranks of the Muslim army at age 19; ordered after the passing of Allah's Apostle s.a.w. to collect the Quran into a single volume from various written and oral sources; a noted expert on the Quran who spent much time reciting it
661: Ali ibn Abi Talib, a ṣaḥābiyy companion martyred r.a. by group later known to be among them Shia's Qurra; he was a cousin and son-in-law; the fourth Rashidun caliph from 656 until his assassination in 661; the son of Abu Talib and Fatimah bint Asad, the wife of Fatemeh Zahra, and the father of Hasan, Husayn and Zaynab
661: Kharija ibn Hudhafa, a ṣaḥābiyy companion died r.a.; he was a commander in the Muslim conquest of Egypt during the reign of the Second Caliph Umar r.a. (r. 634–644); the chief judge and commander of the security forces in Egypt under the governor Amr ibn al-As
661: Labīd (Abu Aqil Labīd ibn Rabī'ah), a ṣaḥābiyy companion died r.a.; he was an Arabian poet of the Bani Amir, a division of the tribe of the Hawazin
661: Tamim bin Aws ad-Dari, a ṣaḥābiyy companion died r.a.; he was an early convert from Christianity to Islam; known for encountering the Dajjal during one of his journeys
661: Uthman Ibn Talha, a ṣaḥābiyy companion died r.a.; he was the keeper of the key to the Kaaba before the conquest of Mecca therefore known as the "Sadin of Mecca" whose descendants have been inheriting the key and the title Sadin of the Kaaba to this day since the Messenger of Allah s.a.w. handed the key to the Kaaba over to him
661: Muawiya I becomes caliph
661: Umm Kulthum bint Abi Bakr, a tābi'a successor of ṣaḥābah died; she was a daughter of the Successor of Allah's Apostle s.a.w. and the First Caliph Abu Bakr r.a. and Habiba bint Kharija
662: Kharijites' revolts
662?: Jamila bint Thabit, originally named Asiya, a ṣaḥābiyyah companion died r.a.; she was a wife of the Second Caliph Umar r.a. and a companion of the Prophet s.a.w.
663: ʿAbd Allāh ibn Salam, born Al-Husayn ibn Salam, a ṣaḥābiyy companion died r.a.; he was a Jew who converted to Islam
663: Zunairah al-Rumiya (other transliterations include Zaneera, Zannirah, Zanira or in some sources Zinra or Zinnirah), a ṣaḥābiyy companion died r.a.; he was among the slaves freed by the Successor of Allah's Apostle and the First Caliph Abu Bakr r.a.
666: Muawia bin Hudeij raids Sicily
664: Amr ibn al-As al-Sahmi, a ṣaḥābiyy companion died r.a.; he was the Arab commander who led the Muslim conquest of Egypt and served as its governor in 640–646 and 658–664; son of a wealthy Qurayshite, assigned important roles in the nascent Muslim community by the Prophet s.a.w.
664?: Abū Maymān Jābān al-Kurdī (Kurdish: Cabanê Kurdî‎), a ṣaḥābiyy companion died r.a.; he was also referred to as Jaban Sahabi (Jābān Ṣaḥābiyy, 'Jaban the Companion'); he was a Kurdish
665: Ḥafṣah bint ʿUmar, a ṣaḥābiyyah companion died r.a.; she was daughter of the Second Caliph Umar r.a.; a blessed wife Allah's Apostle s.a.w., Umm-ul-Mu'mineen or the "Mother of Believers"
665: Umm Habiba Ramla bint Abi Sufyan, a ṣaḥābiyyah companion died r.a.; she was a blessed wife Allah's Apostle s.a.w., Umm-ul-Mu'mineen or the "Mother of Believers"
665: Fākhitah bint Abī Tālib, also known as Hind and better known by her kunya Umm Hani, a ṣaḥābiyyah companion died r.a.; she was a cousin of the Prophet s.a.w.
666?: Fatimah bint al-Khattab, a ṣaḥābiyy companion died r.a.; she was the sister of the Second Caliph Umar ibn al-Khattab r.a. along with Zayd ibn al-Khattab; was one of the early women followers of the Prophet s.a.w.; the youngest daughter of Khattab ibn Nufayl, who married her off with his nephew, hanif Sa'id ibn Zayd; along with her husband both converted to Islam together at the same time
666: Ṣa‘ṣa‘ah ibn Suhān, a ṣaḥābiyy companion died r.a.; he was born about 24 years before Hijra in Qatif, Saudi Arabia
666: Muhammad ibn Maslamah, a ṣaḥābiyy companion died r.a.; he was known as "The Knight of Allah's Prophet"
669: Martyrdom of Hasan ibn Ali, the groandson of the Prophet s.a.w.
670: Advance in North Africa
670: Uqba bin Nafe founds the town of Kairouan in Tunisia
670: Conquest of Kabul
670: Safiyyah bint Huyayy, a ṣaḥābiyyah companion died r.a.; she was a blessed wife Allah's Apostle s.a.w., Umm-ul-Mu'mineen or the "Mother of Believers"
670: Umāmah bint Abī Al-ʿĀṣ ibn Ar-Rabīʿ, a ṣaḥābiyyah companion died r.a.; she was a granddaughter of the Prophet s.a.w., via their daughter Zaynab; known as Umāmah bint Zaynab and numbered among Allah's Apostle s.a.w.'s companions
670: Al-Hasan ibn Ali ibn Abi Talib, also spelled Hasan or Hassan, the older son of the Fourth Caliph Ali ibn Abi Talib r.a. and daughter of the Messenger of Allah s.a.w. Fatimah died r.a.; he was the older brother of Husain
670: Dihyah bin Khalifah al-Kalbi, sometimes spelled Dahyah, a ṣaḥābiyy companion died r.a.; he was the envoy who delivered message of Allah's Apostle s.a.w. to the Roman Emperor Heraclius
670: Abu Lubaba ibn Abd al-Mundhir, a ṣaḥābiyy companion died r.a.; he was a leading member of the Banu Aws, an Arabic tribe in Yathrib, today known as Medina
671: Abū Bakra ibn Kalada al-Thaqafī, better known as Nufay' ibn al-Ḥārith, a ṣaḥābiyy companion died r.a.; he was the half brother of Nafi ibn al-Harith; reported to have an encounter with another Islamic general al-Mughira ibn Shu'ba during a military expedition
672: Capture of the island of Rhodes
672: Muslims invade Khurasan
672: Atiqa bint Zayd, a ṣaḥābiyyah companion died r.a.; she was a wife of the Second Caliph Umar ibn al-Khattab r.a.; a poet notable for having married Muslim men who died as martyrs
672: Abu Musa Abd Allah ibn Qays al-Ash'ari, better known as Abu Musa al-Ash'ari, a ṣaḥābiyy companion died r.a.; he was an important figure in early Islamic history
673: Maymunah bint al-Harith al-Hilaliyah, original name was Barrah, but the Messenger of Allah s.a.w. changed it to Maymunah, meaning "good tidings" died r.a.; married to the Prophet s.a.w. to mark the first time in seven years when Allah's Apostle s.a.w. could enter his hometown of Mecca; a blessed wife Allah's Apostle s.a.w., Umm-ul-Mu'mineen or the "Mother of Believers"
673: Sinan bin Salamah bin Mohbik, a ṣaḥābiyy companion died r.a.; he was born on the day of conquest of Makkah
673: Imran ibn Husain ibn ‘Ubayd ibn Khalaf al-Khuzā’i, a ṣaḥābiyy companion died r.a.; he was a well-known reciter of the Quran, a Qadhi (Judge) and narrator of hadith
673: Abu Abdallah Fayruz al-Daylami, a ṣaḥābiyy companion died r.a.; he was a Persian from the descendants (abna') of the early Muslims that had been sent by Khosrow I to Yemen, conquered it, and drove out the Abyssinians
673: ʿAbd Allāh ibn Unais, a ṣaḥābiyy companion died r.a.; he participated in several military campaigns ordered by the Messenger of Allah s.a.w.; the first was to kill at the time of the Messenger of Allah s.a.w. taking life of Khaled bin Sufyan Al-Hathali who belonged to the Banu Lahyan tribe who was planning on attacking Madinah and inciting the people of Nakhla and Uranah to attack Allah's Apostle s.a.w.
674: The Muslims cross the Oxus
674: Bukhara becomes a vassal state
674: Saʿd ibn Abī Waqqās, also known as Saʿd ibn Malik, a ṣaḥābiyy companion died r.a.; he was reportedly the seventh person to embrace Islam, which he did at the age of seventeen
674: Sufyān ibn ʿAwf ibn al-Mughaffal al-Azdī al-Ghāmidī, a ṣaḥābiyy companion died r.a.; he was an Arab commander in the service of the Second Caliph Umar r.a. (r. 634–644) and the Third Caliph Uthman r.a. (r. 644–656) and the Fifth Caliph Mu'awiyah r.a. (r. 661–680)
674: Sawdah bint Zamʿah, a ṣaḥābiyyah companion died r.a.; she was married to the Messenger of Allah s.a.w. at around 50; a blessed wife Allah's Apostle s.a.w., Umm-ul-Mu'mineen or the "Mother of Believers"
674: Hakīm ibn Hizām, a ṣaḥābiyy companion died r.a.; he was a nephew of Khadija
674: Hassan ibn Thabit, a ṣaḥābiyy companion died r.a.; he was an Arabian poet; best known for his poems in defense of the Prophet s.a.w.
674: Abu Ayyub al-Ansari — born Khalid bin Zayd bin Kulayb bin Thaalba in Yathrib, a ṣaḥābiyy companion died r.a.; he belonged to the tribe of Banu Najjar; a close companion and the standard-bearer of the Prophet s.a.w.
674: Sawdah bint Zamʿah, a ṣaḥābiyyah companion died r.a.; married the Prophet s.a.w. at around 50; a blessed wife Allah's Apostle s.a.w., Umm-ul-Mu'mineen or the "Mother of Believers"
675?: Lubaynah, a ṣaḥābiyyah companion died r.a.; she was one of the slaves freed by the Successor of Allah's Apostle and the First Caliph Abu Bakr r.a.; formerly in the possession of the Muammil branch of the Adi clan of the Quraysh with Zaneerah her companion in slavery while both were among the early converts to Islam in Mecca
675: Arqam ibn Abi'l-Arqam, a ṣaḥābiyy companion died r.a.; he was the owner of the house where the early Muslim community held its meetings
675: Abdul-Rahman ibn Abi Bakr, a ṣaḥābiyyah companion died r.a.; she was the eldest son of the Successor of Allah's Apostle and the First Caliph Abu Bakr r.a.; her mother was Um Ruman bint Amir ibn Uwaymir ibn Zuhal ibn Dahman; the full brother of Aishah
676: Occupation of Samarkand and Tirmiz
676: Siege of Constantinople
676: ʿAbd Allāh ibn Masʿada al-Fazārī, a ṣaḥābiyy companion died r.a.; he was a commander from the Arab Banu Fazara tribe; served under the Fifth Caliph Mu'awiyah r.a. (r. 661–680) and Yazid I (r. 680–683)
677: Shadad ibn Aus, a ṣaḥābiyy companion died r.a.; he was a narrator of hadith; known for his narrations of hadis regarding Good deeds, Morals and Al-Sham; known for his own statements and quotes which provide some guidance
677: Uqba ibn Amir al-Juhani, a ṣaḥābiyy companion died r.a.; he was the Umayyad governor 665–667 in Egypt
677: Uthman ibn Hunaif, a ṣaḥābiyy companion died r.a.; he narrated the Hadith of the blind man
678?: Rufaida Al-Aslamia (also transliterated Rufaida Al-Aslamiya or Rufaydah bint Sa`ad), a ṣaḥābiyyah companion died r.a.; she was an Islamic medical and social worker; regarded as the first female Muslim nurse and the first female surgeon in Islam
678?: Utban ibn Malik, a ṣaḥābiyy companion died r.a.; he was declared by Allah's Apostle s.a.w. the "brother" of the Second Caliph Umar r.a.
678: Zayd ibn Arqam, a ṣaḥābiyy companion died r.a.; he belonged to the tribe of Khazraj; he was a senior Companion from the Ansar "Helpers" in Madina who attended 17 campaigns with the Messenger of Allah s.a.w.; the first person in Islam to give his home for the first Salat (ritual prayer) in Islam, which was led by the Messenger of Allah s.a.w.; among first allegiance to the Successor of Allah's Apostle and the First Caliph Abu Bakr r.a.
678: ʿĀʾishah bint Abī Bakr, also transcribed as Aishah, the third, youngest and beloved wife of Allah's Apostle s.a.w. died r.a.; she was highly intelligent and well-versed in traditions; a scholar, jurist and teacher who legacy in Islamic studies remain forever; one of the Mukhthireen reporting thousands of hadith; a blessed wife Allah's Apostle s.a.w., Umm-ul-Mu'mineen or the "Mother of Believers"
678: Abu Abd al-Rahman Abdallah ibn Amir ibn Kurayz, a ṣaḥābiyy companion died r.a.; he was a Rashidun politician and general; governor of Basra from 647 to 656 AD under the reign of Rashidun Caliph Uthman ibn Affan r.a.
679: Samura ibn Jundab al-Fazārī (father Jundab's name also commonly transliterated as Jundub), a ṣaḥābiyy companion died r.a.; a participant in the Battle of Uhud in 627 and later participated in the Muslim conquest of Iran in the 630s–640s
679: Ṣafwān ibn al-Muʿaṭṭal al-Sulamī, a ṣaḥābiyy companion died r.a.; he was an Arab commander in the Muslim conquests; one of the first members of the Banu Sulaym to embrace Islam
679: Jubayr ibn Muṭʽim, a ṣaḥābiyy companion died r.a.; he accepted Islam after initially being a non-believer and became very steadfast thereafter
680: April— Mu'awiya I, a ṣaḥābiyy companion martyred r.a.; he was the founder and first caliph of the Umayyad Caliphate; served from 661 until his death who become caliph less than 30 years following the death of the Prophet s.a.w. (his brother in law) and very shortly after the reign of the four "rightly guided" (Rashidun) caliphs
680: April— Yazid I becomes caliph
680: October— Battle of Karbala
680: October— Husayn ibn Ali ibn Abi Talib, a ṣaḥābiyy companion martyred r.a.; he was a grandson of the Prophet s.a.w.; one of the sons of the Fourth Caliph Ali ibn Abi Talib r.a. and daughter of the Prophet s.a.w. Fatimah; the younger brother of Hassan
680: Al-Walīd ibn ʿUqba ibn Abī Muʿayṭ, a ṣaḥābiyy companion died r.a.; he was the governor of Kufa in 645–649 C.E. during the reign of his half-brother, the Third Caliph Uthman r.a. (r. 644–656)
680: Ali al-Akbar ibn Al-Husayn, commonly known as simply Ali al-Akbar, a tābi' successor of ṣaḥābah died; he was the son of Al-Husayn ibn Ali, the third Imam, and Umm Layla
681: Abd al-Rahman ibn Sakhr Ad-Dausi Al-Zahrani, better known as Abu Hurayrah, a ṣaḥābiyy companion died r.a.; he was one of the brightest companions and the most prolific narrator of hadith; known by the kunyah Abu Hurayrah "Father of a Kitten", in reference to his attachment to cats, and he was a member of Ashab al-Suffa
681: Usama ibn Zayd, an early ṣaḥābiyy companion died r.a.; he was the son of Zayd ibn Harithah, a companion of the Prophet s.a.w.; freed slave of Allah's Apostle s.a.w. and his adopted son; his mother was Umm Ayman (Barakah), a servant of the Messenger of Allah s.a.w.
682: North Africa Uqba bin Nafe' marches to the Atlantic
682: North Africa Uqba bin Nafe' killed at Biskra
682: The Muslims evacuate Kairouan and withdraw to Burqa
682: Maslama ibn Mukhallad ibn Samit al-Ansari, a ṣaḥābiyy companion died r.a.; to him the tecnonymics Abu Ma'n or Sa'id or the Second Caliph Umar r.a. were ascribed; active in Egypt in the decades after its conquest by the Muslims
682: Bilal ibn al-Harith, a ṣaḥābiyy companion died r.a.; his full name was Bilal ibn al-Harith ibn 'Asim ibn Sa'id ibn Qurrah ibn Khaladah ibn Tha'labah Abu 'Abd ar-Rahman al-Mazani
682: Zaynab bint Ali, also spelled Zainab, the daughter of the Fourth Caliph Ali ibn Abi Talib r.a. and daughter of the Prophet Fatimah died r.a.; she was grand-daughter of the Prophet s.a.w.
682: Alqama ibn Qays al-Nakha'i, a well-known scholar and pupil of Abd-Allah ibn Mas'ud, a tābi' successor of ṣaḥābah died; he was regarded the most erudite of his disciples and traditions; a traditions narrator from Ali ibn Abi Talib, Sa`d ibn Abi Waqqas (Sa`d ibn Malik) and `Uthman
682: Al-Rabi ibn Khuthaym al-Thawri, a tābi' successor of ṣaḥābah died; he was a pupil of Abdullah ibn Masud and a famous ascetic of Kufa; afflicted with a form of palsy; a symbol of endurance in the face of suffering who emphasized the importance of silence, scrupulousness in religious observance, and the fear of Hell
682: Masruq ibn al-Ajda', a tābi' successor of ṣaḥābah died; he was jurist and muĥaddith (transmitter of Prophetic traditions or hadith); chiefly a resident of Kufa (Iraq) among the many students of Abdullah ibn Mas'ud
682: Masruq ibn al-Ajda', a tābi' successor of ṣaḥābah died; he was jurist and muĥaddith (transmitter of Prophetic traditions or hadith)
683: November— Muawiya II becomes caliph
683: Umm Salama Hind bint Abi Umayya (ʾUmm Salamah Hind ʾibnat ʾAbī ʾUmayyah), also known as Hind al-Makhzumiyah or Hind bint Suhayl, a ṣaḥābiyyah companion died r.a.; she was one of wives of the Prophet s.a.w. whose kunya meaning, "mother of Salama"; a blessed wife Allah's Apostle s.a.w., Umm-ul-Mu'mineen or the "Mother of Believers"
683: ʿAbd Allāh ibn Ḥanẓala ibn Abī ʿĀmir al-Anṣārī, a ṣaḥābiyy companion died r.a.; he was the leader of the Ansar faction of Medina during the city’s revolt against Caliph Yazid I in 682–683
684: June— Muawiya II abdicated
684: Abd Allah ibn Zubayr declares himself as the caliph at Mecca
684: Marwan I becomes the caliph at Damascus
684: Battle of Marj Rahit
684: Saʽid ibn Malik ibn Sinan al-Khazraji al-Khudri (kunya: Abu Saeed), a ṣaḥābiyy companion died r.a.; he was an inhabitant of Medina and early ally (Ansari) of Prophet Muhammad s.a.w; one of the younger companions of Allah's Apostle s.a.w.; too young to fight at the Battle of Uhud in 625 where his father Malik ibn Sinan fell, a participant in subsequent campaigns
684: Nuʿmān ibn Bashīr al-Ansārī, a ṣaḥābiyy companion died r.a.; he was a commander and statesman of the Umayyad Caliphate; appointed governor of Kufa in 678–680 and governor of Homs
684: 'Abd Allah ibn 'Amr ibn al-'As, a ṣaḥābiyy companion died r.a.; he was the author of "Al-Sahifah al-Sadiqah", the first known hadith compilation document which recorded about one thousand of narrations of the Messenger of Allah s.a.w.
684: Abu Muslim Al-Khawlani, a tābi' successor of ṣaḥābah died; he was a prominent religious figure in Damascus, Syria; one of the 'Eight Ascetics,' who also included Amir ibn Abd al-Qays, Uways al-Qarani, Al-Rabi ibn Khuthaym, al-Aswad ibn Yazid, Masruq ibn al-Ajda', Sufyan al-Thawri ibn Said and Hasan al-Basri
685: Abd al-Malik becomes the caliph at Damascus
685?: Sîrîn bint Sham'ûn, a ṣaḥābiyyah companion died r.a.; she was an Egyptian Coptic Christian, sent with her sister Maria al-Qibtiyya as gifts to the Prophet s.a.w. from the Egyptian official Muqawqis in 628
685: Battle of 'Ayn al-Warda
686: Al-Mukhtar becomes caliph at Kufa
687: Battle of Kufa between the forces of Mukhtar and Abd Allah ibn Zubayr
687: ʿAbd Allāh ibn Abbas, also known simply as Ibn Abbas, a ṣaḥābiyy companion died r.a.; he was the cousins of the Prophet s.a.w. and the greatest mufassir of Qur'an
688: Adi ibn Hatim, a leader of the Arab tribe of Tayy, a ṣaḥābiyy companion died r.a.; he was the son of the poet Hatim al-Tai who was widely known for his chivalry and generosity among Arabs
688: Fāṭimah bint Ḥuzam al-Kulābīyah, better known as ʾUmm al-Banīn (meaning "Mother of the Sons"), a ṣaḥābiyyah companion died r.a.; she was a wife of the Fourth Caliph Ali r.a. from the tribe of Banu Kilab Kalbasi, Khasaes al-Abbasiah which was a branch of Qais Ailan tribes
688: Ukasha bin Al-Mihsan, a ṣaḥābiyy companion died r.a.; he led a famous expedition during the 2nd raid on the Banu Assad bin Qhuzayma tribe, which took place in August, 627AD in 3rd month of, 6AH of the Islamic calendar at the order of the Messenger of Allah s.a.w. with a platoon of 30 Muslim fighters led; his great expedition army despatched to a place called Al-Ghamir inhabited by Bani Asad in the year six Hijri
689?: Salma bint Umays, a ṣaḥābiyyah companion died r.a.; she was among the early converts to Islam from the Khath'am tribe whose father was Umays ibn Maadd, and her mother was Hind bint Awf from the Himyar tribe with full siblings Asma bint Umays and Awn ibn Umays, and her maternal half-siblings included Maymuna bint al-Harith, Lubaba bint al-Harith and Mahmiya ibn al-Jaz'i
691: Battle of Maskin
691: Kufa falls to Abd al-Malik
691: Abu Bahr Al-Ahnaf ibn Qays, a ṣaḥābiyy companion died r.a.; he was a Muslim general; lived during the time of the Messenger of Allah s.a.w.; from the Arab tribe of Banu Tamim and was born of two noble parents whose father named him ad-Dhahhak, but everybody called him al-Ahnaf (strait path)
692: October— The fall of Mecca
692: October— Abdul Malik becomes the sole caliph
692: Asmā' bint Abi Bakr, a ṣaḥābiyyah companion died r.a.; she was sister of the third wife of Allah's Apostle s.a.w. Aishah; one of the most prominent islamical figures who helped Allah's Apostle s.a.w. during his arduous hijra from Mecca to Medina
692: ʿAbd Allāh ibn al-Zubayr ibn al-Awwam, a ṣaḥābiyy companion died r.a.; he was the leader of a caliphate based in Mecca that rivaled the Umayyads from 683
693: Salamah Ibn AlAqwa', a ṣaḥābiyy companion died r.a.; one of the celebrated early Muslims
693: ʿAbd Allāh ibn Umar ibn al-Khattab, a ṣaḥābiyy companion died r.a.; he was son of the Second Caliph Umar r.a.; a prominent authority in hadith and law
693: Salim ibn 'Abd-'Allâh ibn 'Umar ibn al-Khattâb, a tābi' successor of ṣaḥābah died; he was a well known narrator of hadith (sayings of Muhammad), many of which he related first hand from either his father, Abd-Allah ibn Umar, or his grandfather, the caliph Umar ibn al-Khattab (r. 634-644); paternal nephew of Hafsa bint Umar, one of Muhammad's wives
697: Jabir ibn Abdullah ibn Amr ibn Haram al-Ansari died; he was a prominent companion of the Prophet s.a.w.
695: Battle of the Karun
695: Battle against Kahina in North Africa
695: The Muslims once again withdraw to Barqa
695: The Muslims advance in Transoxiana and occupy Kish
695: Martyrdom of Salih Ibn Ashyam Al-Adawi, a tābi' successor of ṣaḥābah died; he was from Basra, in modern-day Iraq who participated in the conquest of Sijistan and Ghazna (Afghanistan) where he was martyred during the reign of Umayyad caliph Abd al-Malik ibn Marwan (r.685–705)
697: Jabir ibn Abdullah ibn Amr ibn Haram al-Ansari, a ṣaḥābiyy companion died r.a.; he was regarded as one of the most content and simple Muslims
697: Shuraih ibn al-Hârith ibn Qays ibn al-Jahm al-Kindî, a tābi' successor of ṣaḥābah died; he accepted Islam in Yemen during the lifetime of Muhammad though he never met Allah's Apostle s.a.w.; relocated to Kufah in Iraq during the reign of Abū Bakr al-Siddīq; a judge renowned for his justice and good judgement
699: Junada ibn Abi Umayya al-Azdi died; he was a Syria-based commander of naval and land forces under the Umayyad caliph Mu'awiya I (r. 661–680) and a transmitter of hadiths (earliest Islamic traditions)
700: Muslims attack the pagan Berbers in North Africa
700: Large populations of North Africa convert to Islam
700: Muhammad ibn Ali ibn Abi Talib, a tābi' successor of ṣaḥābah died; he was known as Muhammad ibn al-Hanafiyyah and surnamed Abu'l-Qasim
701: Ibn al-Ash'ath's revolts in Iraq
701: Battle of Dayr al-Jamajim
704: ʿAbd Allāh ibn Ja'far, a ṣaḥābiyy companion died r.a.; he was a nephew of the Fourth Caliph Ali r.a. and a half-brother of Muhammad son of the First Caliph Abu Bakr r.a.
705: Amr ibn Hurayth ibn Amr ibn Uthman al-Makhzumi, a ṣaḥābiyy companion died r.a.; he was a prominent member of the Quraysh in Kufa; appointed the deputy governor of the city under the Umayyad governors of Iraq Ziyad ibn Abihi (670–673), Ubayd Allah ibn Ziyad (675–683) and Bishr ibn Marwan (692–694)
705: Al-Walid I abecomes Umayyad Caliph
708: Sahl ibn Sa'd al-Sa'idi, a ṣaḥābiyy companion died r.a.; he was a member of the Ansar and an early Muslim scholar; born as a Muslim, narrated 188 hadeth's; married to Aishah bint Khuzayma with a son named Abbas ibn Sahl
711: Conquest of Spain by Tariq ibn Ziyad and of Transoxiana by Qutayba ibn Muslim
712: Conquest of Sindh by Muhammad ibn Qasim
712: Anas ibn Malik ibn Nadr al-Khazraji Al-Ansari, a ṣaḥābiyy companion died r.a.; very knowledgeable who preserved many narrations and traditional reports
713: 'Urwah ibn al-Zubayr ibn al-'Awwam al-Asadi, a tābi' successor of ṣaḥābah died; he was among the seven fuqaha (jurists) who formulated the fiqh of Medina in the time of the Tabi‘in and one of the Muslim historians
713: 'Urwah ibn al-Zubayr ibn al-'Awwam al-Asadi, a tābi' successor of ṣaḥābah died; he was among the seven fuqaha (jurists) who formulated the fiqh of Medina in the time of the Tabi‘in and one of the Muslim historians
713: Ali ibn Husayn Zayn al-Abidin, also known as al-Sajjad ("The Consistently Prostrating") or simply Zayn al-Abidin ("Adornment of the Worshippers"), a tābi' successor of ṣaḥābah died; he was son of Husayn ibn Ali, whos uncle was Hasan ibn Ali, and grandfather, Ali
713: Ata ibn Abi Rabah, a tābi' successor of ṣaḥābah died; he was a prominent early Muslim jurist and hadith transmitter who served as the mufti of Mecca in the seventh and eighth centuries
713: Conquest of Multan
714: Sa'id ibn Jubayr, also known as Abū Muhammad, a tābi' successor of ṣaḥābah died; he was originally from Kufa, in modern-day Iraq; one of the leading members of the Tabi'in
715: Walid I. Sulayman ibn Abd al-Malik becomes Umayyad Caliph
715: Sa‘id Ibn Al-Musayyib of Medina, a tābi' successor of ṣaḥābah died; he was among the foremost authorities in jurisprudence (fiqh)
715: Sa‘id Ibn Al-Musayyib of Medina died; he was one of the foremost authorities in jurisprudence (fiqh) among the Taba'een (generation succeeding the Sahaba)
716: Musa ibn Nusayr, a tābi' successor of ṣaḥābah died; he was Umayyad governor and an Arab general under the Umayyad caliph Al-Walid I; ruler of the Muslim provinces of North Africa (Ifriqiya) who directed the Islamic conquest of the Visigothic Kingdom in Hispania (Spain, Portugal, Andorra and part of France)
716: Abd-Allah ibn Muhammad ibn al-Hanafiyya, known as Abu Hashim, a tābi' successor of ṣaḥābah died; he was a member of the Banu Hashim clan of the Quraish tribe in Mecca; one of the Salaf and a Narrator of hadith whose son Abu Hashim proclaimed an Imam after his death
717: Beginning of the Second Muslims' siege of Constantinople
717: Sulayman ibn Abd al-Malik (romanized: Sulaymān ibn ʿAbd al-Malik) died; he was the seventh Umayyad caliph, ruling from 24 February 715; began his career as governor of Palestine, while his father Abd al-Malik (r. 685–705) and brother al-Walid I (r. 705–715) reigned as caliphs
717: Umar II becomes Umayyad Caliph
717: Pact of Umar.
718: End of the Second Arab siege of Constantinople
719: Hammam ibn Munabbih, a tābi' successor of ṣaḥābah died; he was an Islamic scholar; one of the narrators of hadith
720: Umar ibn Abd al-Aziz (romanized: ʿUmar ibn ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz), commonly known as Umar II died; he was the eighth Umayyad caliph; made various significant contributions and reforms to the society; described as "the most pious and devout" of the Umayyad rulers; often called the first Mujaddid and sixth righteous caliph of Islam
720: Yazid II becomes Umayyad Caliph
720: Abu Salih as-Samman died; he was an early Islamic scholar of Medinah, a narrator of Hadith among the Tabi'un generation of Muslims
721: First Turgesh invasion into Transoxiana under Kursul
723: Abū Saʾīd Abān ibn ʿUthmān ibn ʿAffān, a muhaddith, faqīh, mufassir, Muslim historian died; he was a governor of Medina in 695–702, during the reign of the Umayyad caliph Abd al-Malik
724: Yazid ibn Abd al-Malik (romanized: Yazīd ibn ʿAbd al-Malik), also referred to as Yazid II died; he was the ninth Umayyad caliph, ruling from 9 February 720 until his death
720: Hisham becomes Umayyad Caliph
720: Battle of Turgesh under ibn Sa'id al-Kilabi in the Day of Thirst
720: Ṭāriq ibn Ziyād also known simply as Tarik in English, a tābi' successor of ṣaḥābah died; he was a Berber Umayyad commander who initiated the Muslim Umayyad conquest of Visigothic Hispania (Present day Spain and Portugal) in 711–718 AD; leader of a large army that crossed the Strait of Gibraltar from the North African coast, consolidating Muslims at what is today known as the Rock of Gibraltar; after whom "Gibraltar" the Spanish derivation of the Arabic name Jabal Ṭāriq, meaning "mountain of Ṭāriq" was named
720: Umar ibn Abd al-Aziz, commonly known as Umar II, a tābi' successor of ṣaḥābah died; he was the eighth Umayyad caliph
720: Umar ibn Abd al-Aziz, commonly known as Umar II, a tābi' successor of ṣaḥābah died; he was the eighth Umayyad caliph who made various significant contributions and reforms to the society; described as "the most pious and devout" of the Umayyad rulers; often called the first Mujaddid and sixth righteous caliph of Islam
722: Mujahid ibn Jabr, a tābi' successor of ṣaḥābah died; he was one of the major early Islamic scholars
723: Tawus Ibn Kaysan, one of the Tabi‘in, a tābi' successor of ṣaḥābah died; he was one of the narrators of hadith and scholars of fiqh, also known as Tawoos ibn Kaysaan, "Tawoos" or "al-Taus,"
723: Tawus Ibn Kaysan, a tābi' successor of ṣaḥābah died; he was one of the narrators of hadith and scholars of fiqh; known as Tawoos ibn Kaysaan, "Tawoos" or "al-Taus,"
725: The Muslims occupy Nîmes in France
728: Salim ibn 'Abd-'Allâh ibn 'Umar ibn al-Khattâb, a tābi' successor of ṣaḥābah died; he was a well known narrator of hadith (sayings of Muhammad), many of which he related first hand from either his father, Abd-Allah ibn Umar, or his grandfather, the caliph Umar ibn al-Khattab (r. 634-644); paternal nephew of Hafsa bint Umar, one of Muhammad's wives
728: Abū Saʿīd b. Abi ’l-Ḥasan Yasār al-Baṣrī died; he was often referred to as Ḥasan of Basra for short, or reverentially as Imam Ḥasan al-Baṣrī; an early Muslim preacher, ascetic, theologian, exegete, scholar, and judge
729: Khurasani army under Ashras ibn Abdallah al-Sulami scores a narrow victory over the Turgesh at the Battle of Baykand and recovers Bukhara
729: Retreating Turgesh undertake the Siege of Kamarja
729: Iyas Ibn Muawiyah Al-Muzani (full name, Abû Wâthîlet Iyâs ibn Mu’âwiyet ibn Korrah), a tābi' successor of ṣaḥābah died; he was a Qadi (judge) in the 2nd century AH who lived in Basra (modern day Iraq)
729: Hasan ibn Muhammad ibn al-Hanafiyyah, a tābi' successor of ṣaḥābah died; he was one of the Salaf and a narrator of hadith whose father Muhammad ibn al-Hanafiyyah and brother of Abd-Allah ibn Muhammad ibn al-Hanafiyyah
729: Muhammad Ibn Sirin (born in Basra), a tābi' successor of ṣaḥābah died; he was lived in the 8th century CE; a contemporary of Anas ibn Malik
729: Muhammad Ibn Sirin, a tābi' successor of ṣaḥābah died; he lived in the 8th century CE, a contemporary of Anas ibn Malik; said to have been an interpreter of dreams, though others regard the books falsely attributed to him
730: Khazars invade northwestern Iran
730: Al-Qāsim ibn Muhammad ibn Abī Bakr, a tābi' successor of ṣaḥābah died; he was an important jurist in early Islam; considered the fourth in the Naqshbandi Golden Chain of Sufi masters
730: Rajaʾ ibn Ḥaywa ibn Khanzal al-Kindī, a tābi' successor of ṣaḥābah died; he was a prominent Muslim theological and political adviser of the Umayyad caliphs Abd al-Malik (r. 685–705), al-Walid I (r. 705–715), Sulayman (r. 715–717) and Umar II (r. 717–720)
730: Al-Qāsim ibn Muhammad ibn Abī Bakr, a tābi' successor of ṣaḥābah died; he was an important jurist in early Islam; considered the fourth in the Naqshbandi Golden Chain of Sufi masters; considered by Naqshbandis to have passed the chain to his maternal grandson Ja'far al-Sadiq
730: Rajaʾ ibn Ḥaywa ibn Khanzal al-Kindī died; he was a prominent Muslim theological and political adviser of the Umayyad caliphs Abd al-Malik (r. 685–705), al-Walid I (r. 705–715), Sulayman (r. 715–717) and Umar II (r. 717–720)
731: Khurasani Battle of the Defile against the Turgesh
732: The Battle of Tours in France
732: Ata ibn Abi Rabah, a tābi' successor of ṣaḥābah died; he was a prominent early Muslim jurist and hadith transmitter who served as the mufti of Mecca in the seventh and eighth centuries
733: Muhammad al-Baqir (full name Muhammad bin 'Ali bin al-Husayn bin Ali bin Abi Talib, a tābi' successor of ṣaḥābah died; he was known as Abu Ja'far or simply al-Baqir ("the one who opens knowledge")
734: Rebellion of al-Harith ibn Surayj erupts in Khurasan
734: Ubayd-Allah ibn Abd-Allah, a tābi' successor of ṣaḥābah died; he was a hadith narrator who retold the event of the pen and paper as reported from Ibn Abbas
735: Abu Suhail an-Nafi, Nafi` Mawla ibn `Umar, a tābi' successor of ṣaḥābah died; he was the great Muhaddith and key person in the Golden chain of Madina
736: Qatada ibn Di'ama al-Sadusi or Abu Khattab died; he was a mufassir and traditionalist who lived in Basra
737: The Muslims meet a reverse at Avignon in France
737: Marwan ibn Muhammad (later Caliph Marwan II) raid across the Caucasus
737: Caliph Marwan II Defeated a Khazar army led by Hazer Tarkhan, briefly occupying Atil itself
737: Asad ibn Abdallah al-Qasri drives back the Turgesh invasion of Khurasan at the Battle of Kharistan
737: Abu Ma‘bad Abdullah al-‘Attar al-Dari, a tābi' successor of ṣaḥābah died; he was better known as Ibn Kathir al-Makki, one of the transmitters of the seven canonical Qira'at, or methods of reciting the Qur'an; generally popular among the people of Mecca
740: Shi'a Zaydi terror and rebellion under Zayd ibn Ali
740: Berber rebellion in North Africa
740: Battle of the Nobles
740: Battle of Akroinon against the Byzantines
741: Battle of Bagdoura in North Africa
742: The Muslim rule restored in Qairawan
742: Muhammad ibn Muslim ibn Ubaydullah ibn Abdullah ibn Shihab al-Zuhri (romanized: Muḥammad ibn Muslim ibn ʿUbayd Allāh ibn ʿAbd Allāh b. S̲h̲ihāb al-Zuhrī), a tābi' successor of ṣaḥābah died; he was referred to as Ibn Shihab or al-Zuhri; a tabi'i Arab jurist and traditionist credited with pioneering the development of sīra-maghazi and hadith literature
742: Muhammad ibn Muslim ibn Ubaydullah ibn Abdullah ibn Shihab al-Zuhri (romanized: Muḥammad ibn Muslim ibn ʿUbayd Allāh ibn ʿAbd Allāh b. S̲h̲ihāb al-Zuhrī) died; he was also referred to as Ibn Shihab or al-Zuhri; a tabi'i Arab jurist and traditionist credited with pioneering the development of sīra-maghazi and hadith literature
743: Muhammad al-Baqir is killed
743: Hisham ibn Abd al-Malik (romanized: Hishām ibn ʿAbd al-Malik) died; he was the tenth Umayyad caliph who ruled from 724 until his death in 743; born in 691 his father named him after his mother
743: Al-Walid II becomes Umayyad Caliph
744: Deposition of Walid II
744: Yazid III becomes Umayyad Caliph
744: Yazid ibn al-Walid ibn 'Abd al-Malik or Yazid III died; he was the twelfth Umayyad caliph; reigned for six months
744: Ibrahim becomes Umayyad Caliph
744: Ibrahim overthrown
744: Marwan II becomes Umayyad Caliph
744: Battle of Ain al Jurr
744: Atikah bint Yazid, an Umayyad princess died; she was the daughter of Yazid I, and wife of Abd al-Malik ibn Marwan; counted among the scholars of and promoter for studying of Hadith; known for giving all of her money for a poor member of Abu Sufyan's family
747: Muhammad ibn Munkadir, also known as Ibn al-Munkadir or Muhammad al-Taymi, a tābi' successor of ṣaḥābah died; he was reciter of the Qur'an, who transmitted a number of hadith
745: Kufa and Mosul occupied by rebels
746: Battle of Rupar Thutha, Kufa and Mosul under Marwan II
747: Revolt of Abu Muslim in Khurasan
748: Battle of Rayy
748: Malik Deenar, a tābi' successor of ṣaḥābah died; he was Persian scholar and traveller; one of the first known Muslims to have come to India in order to propagate Islam in the Indian Subcontinent after the departure of King Cheraman Perumal
748: Malik Deenar (Mālik b. Dīnār), a tābi' successor of ṣaḥābah died; he was a Persian scholar and traveller; one of the first known Muslims to have come to India in order to propagate Islam in the Indian Subcontinent after the departure of King Cheraman Perumal
749: Battle of Isfahan
749: Battle of Nihawand
749: The Abbasids captures Kufa
749: As-Saffah becomes the Abbasid Caliph at Kufa
750: Battle of Zab. Fall of Damascus
751: The Abbasids conquire Wasit. Murder of the Minister Abu Salama
751: In the Battle of Talas, the Abbasid armies defeat Tang Dynasty of China
751: Muhammad Ibn Wasi' Al-Azdi, a tābi' successor of ṣaḥābah died; he was Islamic scholar of hadith, judge, and soldier who noted for his asceticism (zuhd) whose statements were much discussed by later Sufis
751: Sulayman ibn Dawud Al Tayalisi or Abu Dawud Al Tayalisi died; he was a Muslim scholar and muhaddith (collector of hadiths) of the second century of Muslim calendar
752: Yahya ibn Yahya ibn Qays al-Ghassani (romanized: Yaḥyā ibn Yaḥyā ibn Qays al-Ghassānī) died; he was the Umayyad governor of Mosul during the reign of Caliph Umar II (r. 717–720), a transmitter of hadiths (traditions and sayings attributed to the Prophet s.a.w.) in Damascus, where he spent the majority of his life
754: Abu al-‘Abbās ‘Abdu'llāh ibn Muhammad al-Saffāḥ, or Abul ‘Abbas as-Saffaḥ died; he was the first caliph of the Abbasid caliphate, one of the longest and most important caliphates (Islamic dynasties) in Islamic history
754: Accession of al-Mansur as the Caliph
754: Rebellion of al-Mansur's uncle Abdallah ibn Ali
755: Murder of Abu Muslim
755: Sunbadh revolt in Khurasan
756: Abd-ar-rahman I founds the Umayyad state in Spain
758: Khazar army under Ras Tarkhan invaded
758: Khazar occupied parts of Azerbaijan and Arran
759: Abbasid conquest of Tabaristan
763: Foundation of Baghdad. Defeat of the Abbasids in Spain
766: Sayram in Central Asia taken from the Nestorians
767: Abd al-Malik ibn Abd al-Aziz ibn Jurayj (romanized: ʿAbd al-Malik ibn ʿAbd al-Azīz ibn Jurayj) died; he was an eighth-century faqīh, exegete and hadith transmitter from the Taba' at-Tabi'in
767: Muḥammad ibn Isḥāq ibn Yasār ibn Khiyār also according to some sources, ibn Khabbār, or Kūmān, or Kūtān, simply ibn Isḥaq died; he was an Arab Muslim historian and hagiographer
768: ʿAbd Allāh bin ʿAwn bin Arṭabān al-Muzanī al-Ḥāfiẓ died; he was a ḥadīth transmitter from Baṣra who was a part of a core group of Islamic intellectuals
770: Wuhayb ibn al-Ward al-Makki, a tābi' successor of ṣaḥābah died; he was Islamic scholar of hadith; born and raised in Mecca (modern-day Saudi Arabia), said to spend life in mortification and worship (ibadah)
770: Ma'mar ibn Rashid died; he was an eighth-century hadith scholar; a Persian cited as an authority in all six of the canonical hadith collections
772: Battle of Janbi in North Africa
772: Rustamid state set up in Morocco
773: Abdullah Shah Ghazi died; he was an eighth-century Muslim mystic and Sufi whose shrine is located in Clifton in Karachi, in Sindh province of Pakistan
774: Abu Amr Abd al-Rahman ibn Amr al-Awzai died; he was the chief representative and eponym of the Awza'i school of Islamic jurisprudence; referred to by his tribe "Awza", part of Banu Hamdan
775: Death or the Abbasid Caliph Al-Mansur
775: Accession of Al-Mahdi
767: Abū Ḥanīfa al-Nuʿmān b. Thābit b. Zūṭā b. Marzubān, known as Abū Ḥanīfa for short died; he was or reverently as Imam Abū Ḥanīfa; an 8th-century Muslim theologian and jurist of Persian origin
776: Shuʿba bin al-Ḥajjāj bin al-Ward, Abū Busṭām al-ʿAtakī died; he was an early, devout Muslim, who was known for both his knowledge of poetry and of ḥadīth; scrupulous in ḥadīth transmission, alongside other scholars such as Sufyān al-Thawrī; understood to have laid the foundation for the concretization of ḥadīth sciences
777: Siege of Saragossa in Spain
778: Abu Abdullah Sufyan ibn Said ibn Masruq al-Thawri died; he was jurist, sufi and founder of the Thawri madhhab; a great hadith compiler (muhaddith)
781: Salamah Ibn Dinar al-Madani, a tābi' successor of ṣaḥābah died; he was also known as Abu Hazim Al-A'raj, Muslim ascetic, jurist and narrator of hadith; an important figure for the early Sufis
782: Harun al-Rashid leads a huge expedition against the Byzantines and reaches Chalcedon
786: Alid rebellion in Mecca is suppressed in the Battle of Fakhkh
786: Abu Muhammad Musa ibn Mahdi al-Hadi died; he was the fourth Abbasid caliph who succeeded his father Al-Mahdi and ruled from 169 AH (785 AD) until his death; his short reign ended with internal chaos and power struggles with his mother
786: Accession of Harun al-Rashid
787: Abu Maʿshar Najīḥ (or Nujayḥ) ibn ʿAbd al-Raḥmān al-Sindī al-Madanī died; he was a Madani historian and a contemporary of Ibn Ishaq; author of wrote Kitāb al-Maghāzī fragments of which are said to be preserved in the works of al-Waqidi and Ibn Sa'd
787: Abu Sa'id Al-Mufaddal ibn Muhammad ibn Ibrahim al-Janadi died; he was an Islamic scholar and muhaddith from Mecca
788: Idrisid state set up in the Maghreb
788: Abd al-Rahman I, more fully Abd al-Rahman ibn Mu'awiya ibn Hisham ibn Abd al-Malik ibn Marwan; he was the founder of the Arab dynasty that ruled the greater part of Iberia for nearly three centuries including the succeeding Caliphate of Córdoba; a member of the Umayyad dynasty in Damascus, and his establishment of a government in Iberia represented a break with the Abbasids, who had overthrown the Umayyads in 750
788: Accession of Hisham I
790: Abū Abd al-Raḥmān Abdallāh Ibn Lahīʿa ibn ʿUqba ibn Furʿān ibn Rabīʿa ibn Thawbān al-Ḥaḍramī al-Aʿdūlī died; he was more commonly known as Ibn Lahi'a, an Arab historian, scholar of hadith and Qadi ('judge') of Egypt
791: Al-Layth ibn Saʿd ibn ʿAbd Al-Raḥmān Al-Fahmi Al-Qalqashandī died; he was the chief representative, imam, and eponym of the Laythi school of Islamic Jurisprudence; regarded as the scholar of Egypt, even for decades following his death
792: Invasion of South France
795: Malik ibn Anas died; his full name was Mālik bin Anas bin Mālik bin Abī ʿĀmir bin ʿAmr bin Al-Ḥārith bin Ghaymān bin Khuthayn bin ʿAmr bin Al-Ḥārith al-Aṣbaḥī al-Madanī, reverently known as al-Imām Mālik; an Arab Muslim jurist, theologian, and hadith traditionist
795: Abū ʿAbdillāh Muhammad ibn Idrīs al-Shāfiʿī died; he was an Arab Muslim theologian, writer, and scholar; the first contributor of the principles of Islamic jurisprudence (Uṣūl al-fiqh)
796: Hisham I or Hisham Al-Reda died; he was the second Umayyad Emir of Cordoba, ruling from 788 to 796 in al-Andalus; was born April 26, 757 in Cordoba; the first son of Abd al-Rahman I and his wife, Halul, and the younger half brother of Suleiman
796: Accession of al-Hakam I
797: ʿAbd Allāh ibn al-Mubārak died; he was born during the reign of Hisham ibn Abd al-Malik; an early, pious Muslim known for his memory and zeal for knowledge, collected hadīth (muhaddith); remembered for his asceticism
797: ʿAbd Allāh ibn al-Mubārak died; he was born during the reign of Hisham ibn Abd al-Malik; an early, pious Muslim known for his memory and zeal for knowledge, collected hadīth (muhaddith); and remembered for his asceticism
798: Yaqub ibn Ibrahim al-Ansari better known as Abu Yusuf died; he was a student of jurist Abu Hanifah who helped spread the influence of the Hanafi school of Islamic law through his writings and the government positions he held



^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
Prime Age 800 C.E. - 900 C.E.
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^


800: Musa al-Kazim is killed
800: Aghlabid rule is established in North Africa
803: Execution of Ja'far ibn Yahya
805: Revolt of Rafi ibn al-Layth in Khurasan
805: Muhammad al-Shaybani died; he was known as father of Muslim international law
806: Harun al-Rashid leads a huge campaign against the Byzantines
809: Harun al-Rashid (Hārūn Ar-Rašīd; "Aaron the Just" or "Aaron the Rightly-Guided" died; he was the fifth Abbasid Caliph; his epithet "al-Rashid" translates to "the Orthodox", "the Just", "the Upright", or "the Rightly-Guided"; ruled from 786 to 809, traditionally regarded to be the beginning of the Islamic Golden Age
809: Accession of al-Amin
809: Abu Bishr Isma'il ibn Ibrahim ibn Muqsim (commonly known as Ibn 'Ulayya) died; he was a hadith scholar, faqih and a mufti from Basra
810: Ismail Ibn Ibrahim died; he was most notable for being the father of Imam Bukhari who passed away when Imam Bukhari was only an infant, under 1 year old
811: Battle of Rayy in Persia
812: The Siege of Baghdad begins
813: The Siege of Baghdad ends with the capture of the city by the forces of al-Ma'mun
813: Tahir ibn Husayn appointed as Governor of Mosul by Al-Ma'mun
814: Malik ibn Anas died; his full name was Mālik bin Anas bin Mālik bin Abī ʿĀmir bin ʿAmr bin Al-Ḥārith bin Ghaymān bin Khuthayn bin ʿAmr bin Al-Ḥārith al-Aṣbaḥī al-Madanī, reverently known as al-Imām Mālik; an Arab Muslim jurist, theologian, and hadith traditionist
814: Abū Muḥammad Sufyān ibn ʽUyaynah ibn Maymūn al-Hilālī al-Kūfī died; he was a prominent eighth-century Islamic religious scholar from Mecca; among the third generation of Islam referred to as the Tābiʽu al-Tābiʻīn, "the followers of the followers"
814: Abū Muḥammad Sufyān ibn ʽUyaynah ibn Maymūn al-Hilālī al-Kūfī died; he was a prominent eighth-century Islamic religious scholar from Mecca; of the third generation of Islam referred to as the Tābiʽu al-Tābiʻīn, "the followers of the followers"
815: Shi'a terror and rebellion under Abu 'l-Saraya al-Sirri in Iraq
815: Harthama ibn A'yan quells Shi'a terror and rebellion
816: The Umayyads capture the island of Corsica in Spain
816: Harthama ibn A'yan is executed
816: Abu Muhamamd Asbat ibn Muhammad al-Qurashi al-Kufi died; he was a muhaddith (hadith scholar) from Kufa
816: Jabir ibn Hayyan died; he was known as father of chemistry
818: The Umayyads of Spain capture the islands of Ibiza, Majorca, and Sardinia
820: Caliph al-Ma'mun appointed Tahir ibn Husayn as Governor of Khorasan
820: Abdallah ibn Tahir is appointed governor of Syria
822: Abu al-As al-Hakam ibn Hisham ibn Abd al-Rahman died; he was Umayyad Emir of Cordoba from 796 until 822 in Al-Andalus (Moorish Iberia)
822: Accession of Abd ar-Rahman II
822: Talha is appointed Governor by Al-Ma'mun in 822
822: Jafar ibn al-Mu'tasim (future Al-Mutawakkil) born in Baghdad
825: Establishment of the Emirate of Crete
826: Abdallah ibn Tahir is appointed as Governor of Egypt
827: Beginning of the Muslim conquest of Sicily
828: Abdallah ibn Tahir is appointed as Governor of Khorasan by Al-Ma'mun
833: Abu al-Abbas Abdallah ibn Harun al-Rashid (romanized: al-Maʾmūn) died; he was the seventh Abbasid caliph, who reigned from 813 until his death in 833; succeeded his half-brother al-Amin after a civil war, during which the cohesion of the Abbasid Caliphate was weakened by rebellions and the rise of local strongmen; much of his domestic reign was consumed in pacification campaigns
833: Accession of al-Mu'tasim
836: Al-Mu'tasim moves the capital to Samarra
837: Revolt of the Jats
838: Al-Abbas ibn al-Ma'mun died; he was an Abbasid prince and general, the son of the Abbasid Caliph al-Ma'mun (r. 813–833); a distinguished military leader in the Arab–Byzantine wars, he was passed over in the succession in favour of his uncle al-Mu'tasim (r. 833–842); arrested in 838 for his involvement in a failed conspiracy against al-Mu'tasim; prisoned
839: The Muslims occupy South Italy
833: Capture of the city of Messina in Sicily
834: ʿAbdallāh ibn al-Zubayr al-Ḥumaydī died; he was a hafiz, faqih from Shafi'i jurisprudence scholar and Shaykh of the al-Haram; a student of Imam Shafi'i, especially, in majlis
842: Abū Isḥāq Muḥammad ibn Hārūn al-Rashīd died; he was better known by his regnal name Al-Muʿtaṣim biʾllāh ("he who seeks refuge in God"); the eighth Abbasid caliph, ruling from 833 until his death
833: Accession of al-Wathiq
838: Abu Ubaid al-Qasim ibn Salam al-Khurasani al-Harawi died; he was an Arab philologist and the author of many standard works on lexicography, Qur’anic sciences, hadith, and fiqh
842: Qaratis also known as Umm Harun or Umm al-Wathiq died; she was the mother of ninth Abbasid caliph Al-Wathiq who ruled Abbasid Caliphate from 842 to 847
845: Abū ‘Abd Allāh Muḥammad ibn Sa‘d ibn Manī‘ al-Baṣrī al-Hāshimī or simply Ibn Saʿ'd and nicknamed Scribe of Waqidi (Katib al-Waqidi) died; he was born in 784/785 CE, a scholar and Arabian biographer
845: Abdallah ibn Tahir al-Khurasani died; he was a military leader and the Tahirid governor of Khurasan from 828 until his death; perhaps the most famous of the Tahirids; served under three Caliphs (Al-Ma'mun, Al-Mu'tasim, and Al-Wathiq)
846: Battle of Mauropotamos between Byzantines and Abbasids in Asia Minor
847: Abū Jaʿfar Hārūn ibn Muḥammad died; he was better known by his regnal name al-Wāthiq bi’llāh (lit. 'He who trusts in God'); an Abbasid caliph who reigned from 842 until 847 AD (227–232 AH in the Islamic calendar); he was famous for suppressing a Bedouin rebellion in the Hejaz in 845 and an abortive uprising in Baghdad in 846
847: Accession of al-Mutawakkil
849: Abū al-Ḥasan ʻAlī ibn ʻAbdillāh ibn Jaʻfar al-Madīnī died; he was a ninth-century Islamic scholar who was influential in the science of hadith
850: Al-Mutawakkil restores orthodoxy
850: Ibn Abi Shaybah or Imam Abu Bakr Ibn Abi Shaybah or Abu Bakr 'Abdullaah bin Muhammad Ibn Abee Shaybah Ibraaheem bin 'Uthmaan Al-'Abasee Al-Koofee died; he was an early Muslim scholar of hadith; author of a musannaf work commonly known as Musannaf Ibn Abi Shaybah that is one of the earliest extant works in that genre
850: Al-Khawarizmi died; he was known as the "father of algebra"
852: Abd ar-Rahman II died; he was the fourth Umayyad Emir of Córdoba in the Al-Andalus Iberia from 822 until his death; was born in Toledo, the son of Emir Al-Hakam I; from 700 to 5,000 people came to pay homage to the princes who were killed by order of Al-Hakam
852: Accession of Muhammad I
854: Sahnun ibn Sa'id ibn Habib at-Tanukhi died; he was a jurist in the Maliki school from Qayrawan in modern-day Tunisia
855: Abū ʿAbdillāh Aḥmad ibn Muḥammad ibn Ḥanbal Ash-Shaybānī, often referred to as Aḥmad ibn Ḥanbal or Ibn Ḥanbal for short died; he was an Arab Muslim jurist, theologian, ascetic, hadith traditionist, and founder of the Hanbali school of jurisprudence — one of the four major orthodox legal schools
856: Umar ibn Abd al-Aziz founds the Habbarid rule in Sind
858: Al-Mutawakkil founds the town of Jafariya
860: Ahmad founds the Samanid rule in Transoxiana
861: Murder of the Abbasid Caliph al-Mutawakkil
861: Accession of al-Muntasir
862: Muntasir killed; accession of al-Musta'in
863: The Battle of Lalakaon breaks the power of the emirate of Malatya
863: Start of the Byzantine counter-offensive
866: Al-Musta'in flees from Samarra
868: Ahmad ibn Tulun finds the Tulunid rule in Egypt
869: The Abbasid Caliph Mu'tazz forced to abdicate
869: Al-Darimi died; he was a Muslim scholar and Imam of Arab ancestry or Persian background; best known for his works Sunan al-Darimi, a book collection of hadith
869: Abū ʿAbd Allāh Muḥammad ibn Jaʿfar died; he was better known by his regnal title al-Muʿtazz bi-ʾllāh ("He who is strengthened by God"); the Abbasid caliph from 866 to 869, during a period of extreme internal instability within the Abbasid Caliphate, known as the "Anarchy at Samarra"
869: Accession of al-Muhtadi
869: Beginning of Zanj Revolts in Basra
870: Turks revolt against Muhtadi
870: Abū Isḥāq Muḥammad ibn al-Wāthiq died; he was better known by his regnal name al-Muhtadī bi-'llāh ("Guided by God"); the Caliph of the Abbasid Caliphate from July 869 to June 870, during the "Anarchy at Samarra"
870: Accession of al-Mu'tamid
870: Muḥammad ibn Ismā‘īl al-Bukhārī, commonly referred to as Imam al-Bukhari or Imam Bukhari died; he was a Persian Islamic scholar who was born in Bukhara (early Khorasan and present day Uzbekistan); compiler of the hadith collection known as Sahih al-Bukhari, regarded as the most authentic (sahih) hadith collections
871: Bari is captured by Louis II of Italy
871: Ending the Emirate of Bari
872: Abu Ishaq Ibrahim ibn Ya'qub ibn Ishaq al-Sa'di al-Juzajani died; he was a Muslim hadith scholar, one of the imams of al-jarh wa al-ta'deel and a student of Ahmad ibn Hanbal
873: Tahirid rule extinguished
874: Zanji state established at al-Muktara during the Zanj Revolts in South Iraq
874: Ahmad ibn Asad died; he was a Samanid ruler of Ferghana (819-864/5) and Samarkand (851/2-864/5); a son of Asad.; granted in 819 authority over the city of Ferghana by Caliph Al-Ma'mun's governor of Khorasan, Ghassan ibn 'Abbad, as a reward for his support against the rebel Rafi' ibn Laith
874: Accession of Nasr I.
875: Abū al-Ḥusayn ‘Asākir ad-Dīn Muslim ibn al-Ḥajjāj ibn Muslim ibn Ward ibn Kawshādh al-Qushayrī an-Naysābūrī or Muslim Nayshāpūrī (commonly known as Imam Muslim) died; he was an Islamic scholar from the city of Nishapur (early Khorasan and present day Iran), particularly known as a muhaddith (scholar of hadith)
878: Fall of Syracuse to the Muslims
879: Ya'qūb ibn al-Layth al-Saffār, or Ya'qūb-i Layth-i Saffārī died; he was a Persian coppersmith and the founder of the Saffarid dynasty of Sistan, with its capital at Zaranj (a city now in south-western Afghanistan); under his military leadership he conquered much of the eastern portions of the Greater Iran consisting of modern-day Iran, Afghanistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan as well as portions of western Pakistan and a small part of Iraq; succeeded by his brother, Amr ibn al-Layth
879: Accession of Amr bin Layth
883: End of Zanj Revolts
883: Dawud bin Ali bin Khalaf al-Zahiri died; he was a scholar of Islamic law during the Islamic Golden Age, specializing in the fields of hermeneutics, biographical evaluation, and historiography
884: Ahmad ibn Tulun (romanized: Aḥmad ibn Ṭūlūn) died; he was the founder of the Tulunid dynasty that ruled Egypt and Syria between 868 and 905; originally a Turkic slave-soldier, in 868 Ibn Tulun was sent to Egypt as governor by the Abbasid caliph; established himself as a virtually independent ruler by evicting the caliphal fiscal agent, Ibn al-Mudabbir, taking over control of Egypt's finances, and establishing a large military force personally loyal to himself
884: Accession of Khumarawayh ibn Ahmad ibn Tulun
886: Muhammad Idied; he was the Umayyad emir of Córdoba from in the Al-Andalus (Moorish Iberia)
886: Accession of al-Mundhir
887: Abū ʻAbdillāh Muḥammad ibn Yazīd Ibn Mājah al-Rabʻī al-Qazwīnī, commonly known as Ibn Mājah died; he was a medieval scholar of hadith of Persian origin
887: Abbas Ibn Firnas died; he was known as father of medieval aviation
886: Abdullah ibn Umar the Habbari died; he was a ruler of Sind, an Arab dynasty that ruled much of Greater Sindh, in modern-day Pakistan, as a semi-independent emirate from 854 to 1024
888: Al-Mundhir died; he was Emir of Córdoba from 886 to 888. He was a member of the Umayyad dynasty of Al-Andalus (Moorish Iberia), the son of Muhamad bin Abd al-Rahman
888: Accession of Abdullah ibn Muhammad al-Umawi
889: Abū Dāwūd (Dā’ūd) Sulaymān ibn al-Ash‘ath ibn Isḥāq al-Azdī al-Sijistānī died; he was commonly known simply as Abū Dāwūd al-Sijistānī, a scholar of prophetic hadith who compiled the third of the six "canonical" hadith collections, the Sunan Abu Dāwūd; a Persian of Arab descent
890: Abu Hatim, Muhammad ibn Idris al-Razi died; he was a notable hadith scholar born in Ray; the father of Ibn Abi Hatim
892: Abū ʿĪsā Muḥammad ibn ʿĪsā as-Sulamī aḍ-Ḍarīr al-Būghī at-Tirmidhī died; he was often referred to as Imām al-Termezī/Tirmidhī, a Persian Islamic scholar, and collector of hadith from Termez (early Khorasan and in present-day Uzbekistan)



^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
Golden Age 900 C.E. - 1200 C.E.
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^


891: The Qarmatian state established at Bahrain
892: Abu’l-ʿAbbās Aḥmad ibn Jaʿfar died; he was better known by his regnal name al-Muʿtamid ʿalā ’llāh ("Dependent on God"); the Caliph of the Abbasid Caliphate from 870 to 892; his reign marks the end of the "Anarchy at Samarra" and the start of the Abbasid restoration
892: Accession of al-Mu'tadid
892: Nasr I died; he was amir of the Samanids from 865 to 892; the son and successor of Ahmad ibn Asad; with the weakening of the Tahirid governors of Khurasan at the hand of the Saffarid ruler Ya'qub ibn Layth (r. 861–879), able to virtually rule as an independent monarch; sent his brother Ismail Samani in 874 to capture the city of Bukhara, which had recently been ravaged by troops of Khwarazm
892: Accession of Ismail I
894: The Rustamids become the vassals of Spain
896: Abu 'l-Jaysh Khumārawayh ibn Aḥmad ibn Ṭūlūn died; he was a son of the founder of the Tulunid dynasty, Ahmad ibn Tulun; his father, the autonomous ruler of Egypt and Syria, designated him as his successor. succeeded Ibn Tulun died in May 884; after defeating an attempt to depose him, in 886 he managed to gain recognition of his rule over Egypt and Syria as a hereditary governor from the Abbasid Caliphate
896: Accession of Abu 'l-Asakir Jaysh
897: Abu 'l-Asakir Jaysh ibn Khumarawayh assassinated; he was the third Emir of the Tulunids in Egypt, ruling briefly in 896; the eldest son of Khumarawayh ibn Ahmad ibn Tulun whom he succeeded early in 896 at the age of fourteen; ordered the execution of his uncle Mudar ibn Ahmad ibn Tulun; ruling for only a few months, the faqihs and qadis declared him deposed and he was killed
897: Accession of Abu Musa Harun
902: Abu'l-Abbas Ahmad ibn Talha al-Muwaffaq (romanized: Abū al-ʿAbbās Aḥmad ibn Ṭalḥa al-Muwaffaq) died; he was better known by his regnal name al-Mu'tadid bi-llah ("Seeking Support in God"); the Caliph of the Abbasid Caliphate from 892 until his death
902: Accession of al-Muktafi
902: Amr ibn al-Layth or Amr-i Laith Saffari died; he was the second ruler of the Saffarid dynasty of Iran from 879 to 901; the son of a whitesmith and the younger brother of the dynasty's founder, Ya'qub ibn al-Layth al-Saffar
902: Fall of Taormina signals the completion of the Muslim conquest of Sicily
905: Abdallah bin Hamdan founds the Hamdanid rule in Mosul and Jazira
905: End of the Tulunid rule in Egypt
908: Abū Muḥammad ʿAlī ibn Aḥmad died; he was better known by his regnal name al-Muktafī bi-llāh (lit. 'Content with God Alone'); the caliph of the Abbasid Caliphate from 902 to 908; essentially initiated several liberal policies, although most of the actual conduct of government was left to his viziers and officials
908: Accession of al-Muqtadir
908: End of the Saffarid rule
908: Annexation of their territories by the Samanids
909: Founding of the Fatimid rule in North Africa
912: Abdallah ibn Muhammad died; he was an Umayyad ruler in Spain
912: Accession of Abd-ar-rahman III
913: Abu Sa'id Hasan ibn Bahram al-Jannabi (romanized: Abū Saʿīd Ḥasan ibn Bahrām al-Jannābī) assassinated; he was the founder of the Qarmatian state in Bahrayn; his followers by 899 controlled large parts of the region, and in 900 he scored a major victory over an Abbasid army sent to subdue him
913: Accession of Abu Tahir
914: Ahmad ibn Ismail assassinated; he was amir of the Samanids; the son of Ismail Samani; known as the "Martyred Amir"
914: Accession of Nasr II
915: Al-Nasā'ī, full name Abū `Abd ar-Raḥmān Aḥmad ibn Shu`ayb ibn Alī ibn Sīnān al-Nasā'ī, (variant: Abu Abdel-rahman Ahmed ibn Shua'ib ibn Ali ibn Sinan ibn Bahr ibn Dinar Al-Khurasani) died; he was a noted collector of hadith (sayings of Muhammad), of Persian origin from the city of Nasa (early Khorasan and present day Turkmenistan); the author of "As-Sunan", one of the six canonical hadith collections
917: Abu Abdullah `Ubaidullah bin Muhammad bin Battah al-`Ukbari al-Hanbali, known as Ibn Battah died; he was a Hanbali theologian and jurisconsult born at 'Ukbara in 304/c. 917
922: Abū Isḥāq Ibrāhīm ibn Muḥammad ibn al-Sarī al-Zajjāj died; he was a grammarian of Basrah, a scholar of philology and theology and a favourite at the Abbāsid court in Baghdād, the capital city in his time
923: Abu Bakr Muhammad ibn Ishaq ibn Khuzaymah died; he was a Muslim Muhaddith and Shafi'i Faqih; best known for his hadith collection, Sahih Ibn Khuzaymah
928: Mardavij ibn Ziyar founds the Ziyarid rule in Tabaristan
929: Abd-ar-rahman III declares himself Caliph of Córdoba in Spain
931: Deposition of the Abbasid Caliph al-Muqtadir
931: Restoration of the Abbasid Caliph al-Muqtadir
931: Accession of Abu Mansur
932: Abu’l-Faḍl Jaʿfar ibn Ahmad al-Muʿtaḍid die; he was better known by his regnal name al-Muqtadir bi-llāh ("Mighty in God"); the eighteenth Caliph of the Abbasid Caliphate from 908 to 932 CE (295–320 AH), with the exception of a brief deposition in favour of al-Qahir in 928
932: Accession of al-Qahir
932: Saltuk Buğra Khan of Karahan Turks embraced Islam
932: Rhazes whose treatise on Diseases in Children led many to consider him the "father of pediatrics"
933: Abū Bakr Muhammad ibn al-Ḥasan ibn Duraid al-Azdī al-Baṣrī ad-Dawsī Al-Zahrani, or Ibn Duraid died; he was a leading grammarian of Baṣrah; described as "the most accomplished scholar, ablest philologer and first poet of the age" from Baṣra in the Abbasid era
933: Abu Ja'far Ahmad al-Tahawi (romanized: Abū Jaʿfar Aḥmad aṭ-Ṭaḥāwī), or simply aṭ-Ṭaḥāwī died; he was an Egyptian Arab; Hanafi jurist and a hadith scholar who studied with al-Muzani and was a Shafi'i jurist, then with Ahmad b. Imran and to follow the Hanafi school; known for his work al-'Aqidah al-Tahawiyyah, a summary of Islamic creed which influenced Hanafis, especially, in Egypt
934: Deposition of the Abbasid Caliph al-Qahir
934: Accession of ar-Radi
934: ʿUbayd Allāh al-Mahdī died; he was the founder of the Fāṭimid dynasty, who established the town in 912 and in 921 made it his capital; he disguised himself as a merchant and traveled toward northwest Africa
934: Accession of al Qaim.
936: Ibn Raiq becomes the Amir al-Umara under Abbasid Caliph ar-Radi
938: Bajkam gains power in Baghdad
940: Abu'l-Abbas Ahmad (Muhammad) ibn Ja'far al-Muqtadir (romanized: Abū al-ʿAbbās Aḥmad (Muḥammad) ibn al-Muqtadir)died; he usually simply known by his regnal name al-Radi bi'llah (romanized: al-Rāḍī bi'llāh, lit. 'Content with God'); the twentieth Caliph of the Abbasid Caliphate, reigning from 934 to his death; his reign marked the end of the caliph's political power and the rise of military strongmen, who competed for the title of amir al-umara
940: Accession of al-Muttaqi
941: Abū al-Husayn Bajkam al-Mākānī, referred to as Bajkam, Badjkam or Bachkam died; he was a Turkish military commander and official of the Abbasid Caliphate; a former ghulam of the Ziyarid dynasty, Bajkam entered Abbasid service following the assassination of the Ziyarid ruler Mardavij in 935
941: Kurtakin gains power
941: Al-Ḥasan ibn ʻAlī al-Barbahārī died; he was a Muslim theologian and populist religious leader from Iraq; a scholar and jurist who is infamous for his role in suppressing Shīʿa missionaries and Mu'tazilism in the Abbasid Caliphate during the 10th–11th (4th–5th AH) centuries
942: Ibn Raiq regains power in Baghdad
943: Al-Baridi captures power
943: The Abbasid Caliph al-Muttaqi is forced to seek refuge with the Hamdanids
943: Nasir al-Dawla captures power at Baghdad
943: The Caliph returns to Baghdad
944: Al-Muttaqi is deposed
944: Accession of al-Mustakfi
944: Abu Bakr Muhammad b. al-Yamān al-Samarqandi died; he was a Hanafi scholar from Samarqand, who combined jurisprudence and theology whose compatriots included Abu Mansur al-Maturidi; famous for opposing the emerging Karramiyya, an anthropomorphist sect
944: Abu Tahir Sulayman al-Jannabi (romanized: Abū Tāhir Sulaymān al-Jannābī) died; he was an Iranian warlord and the ruler of the Qarmatian state in Bahrayn (Eastern Arabia); led the sacking of Mecca in 930; a younger son of Abu Sa'id al-Jannabi, the founder of the Qarmatian state; became leader of the state in 923, after ousting his older brother Abu'l-Qasim Sa'id
945: Abu'l-Wafa Tuzun died; he was a Turkish soldier who served first the Iranian ruler Mardavij ibn Ziyar and subsequently the Abbasid Caliphate; rising to a position of leadership in the Abbasid army, he evicted the Hamdanid Nasir al-Dawla from Baghdad and assumed the position of amir al-umara on 31 May 943; became the Caliphate's de facto ruler until his death
945: Shirzad becomes Amir ul-Uamra
945: Mu'izz al-Dawla captures power and establishes the Buwayhid dynasty in Iraq
945: Deposition of the Abbasid Caliph al-Mustakfi
945: Muḥammad ibn Tamīm ibn Tamām al-Tamīmī more commonly known as Abu al-Arab (أlit. 'Father of the Arabs') died; he was a 10th-century Arab Muslim historian, poet, traditionist and faqih of the Maliki school
946: Abu'l-Qasim Muhammad ibn Abdallah died; he was better known by his regnal name al-Qa'im bi-Amr Allah or bi-Amri 'llah ("He who carries out God's orders"); the second caliph of the Fatimid Caliphate in Ifriqiya and ruled from 934 to 946
946: Accession of Mansur
946: Abū Bakr Muḥammad ibn Ṭughj ibn Juff ibn Yiltakīn ibn Fūrān ibn Fūrī ibn Khāqān died; he was better known by the title al-Ikhshīd after 939; an Abbasid commander and governor who became the autonomous ruler of Egypt and parts of Syria (or Levant) from 935 until his death in 946; the founder of the Sunni Ikhshidid dynasty, which ruled the region until the Fatimid conquest of 969
946: Accession of Abul Qasim Ungur
946: Sayf al-Dawla gains power in Aleppo
950: Al-Farabi died; he was known as regarded as the "founder of Islamic/Arab Neoplatonism" and by some as the "father of formal logic in the Islamic world"
954: Nuh ibn Nasr, or Nuh I died; he was the amir of the Samanids in 943–954; the son of Nasr II; rumoured that he married a Chinese princess
954: Accession of 'Abd al-Malik I
961: Abd al-Malik I died; he was amir of the Samanid Empire from 954 to 961. He was the son and successor of Nuh I (r. 943–954). His reign was marked by internal strife, with the Turkic slave-soldiers (ghulam) increasing in power
961: Accession of Mansur I
961: Turkish mameluk Alptigin founds the rule of the Ghazanavids
961: Abd al-Raḥmān III died; he was also known as 'Abd al-Rahmān ibn Muḥammad ibn 'Abd Allāh ibn Muḥammad ibn 'Abd al-Raḥmān ibn al-Ḥakam al-Rabdī ibn Hishām ibn 'Abd al-Raḥmān al-Dākhil), the Umayyad Emir of Córdoba from 912 to 929, at which point he founded the Caliphate of Córdoba, serving as its first Caliph until his death; won the laqab (sobriquet) al-Nasir li-Dīn Allāh – Defender of God's Faith – in his early 20s when he supported the Maghrawa in North Africa against Fatimid expansion and rose to the Caliphate
961: Accession of al-Hakam II
961: Abul Qasim Ungur Bin Ikhshid died; he was the second Ikhshidid Emir of Egypt, under Abbasid Empire, ruled from 946 to 961
961: Accession of Abul Hasan Ali
965: Fall of Tarsus to the Byzantines
965: Muhammad ibn Hibban al-Busti died; he was a Muslim Arab scholar, Muhaddith, historian and author of well-known works, “Sheikh of Khorasan”
969: Byzantines occupy Antioch and force Aleppo to become a protectorate
969: The Fatimids conquer Egypt
970: Imam Abu Bakr al-Ajurri died; he was an Islamic scholar from 10th century (4th century AH) from Darb al-Ajurr in western Baghdad who moved to Mecca after studying with many scholar in Iraq; a teacher in Mecca for 30 years 290-320 AH
970: Abū Muḥammad al-Ḥasan ibn ʻAbd al-Raḥmān ibn Khallād al-Rāmahurmuzī died; he was commonly referred to in medieval literature as Ibn al-Khallād, a Persian hadith specialist and author of one of the first comprehensive books compiled in hadith terminology literature, al-Muḥaddith al-Fāṣil bayn al-Rāwī wa al-Wāʻī
972: Buluggin ibn Ziri founds the rule of the Zirids in Algeria
973: Turkish General Sabuktigin captures Baghdad
974: Abdication of the Abbasid Caliph Al-Muti
974: Accession of at-Ta'i
975: Abu Tamim Ma'ad al-Muizz li-Din Allah (romanized: Abū Tamīm Maʿad al-Muʿizz li-Dīn Allāh) died; he was the fourth Fatimid Caliph, reigning from 953 to 975; his center of power of the Fatimid dynasty was moved from Ifriqiya (modern Tunisia) to Egypt
976: Abu Salih Mansur (romanized: Abu Ṣāliḥ Manṣur) died; he was better known as Mansur I; amir of the Samanids from 961 to 976; the son of Nuh I (r. 943–954), his reign was characterized by weak rule and perpetual financial troubles; notably the first Samanid ruler to the use title of King of Kings (shahanshah), most likely as a response to his rival, the Buyid ruler Rukn al-Dawla, who likewise used the title
976: Accession of Nuh II
976: Al-Hakam II also known as 'Abu al-'As al-mustansyir billah al-Hakm ibn 'Abd died; he was an Arab Caliph of Córdoba, Spain; the second Umayyad Caliph of Córdoba in Al-Andalus; son of Abd-ar-Rahman III and Murjan
976: Accession of Hisham II in Spain
977: Sabuktigin becomes the Amir of Ghaznavids
978: Bakhtiyar, better known by his laqab of ʿIzz al-Dawla died; he was the Buyid amir of Iraq (967–978); born as Bakhtiyar, and was the son of Mu'izz al-Dawla; had three brothers named Sanad al-Dawla, Marzuban and Abu Ishaq Ibrahim; Bakhtiyar, during his early life, married a daughter of the Dailamite officer Lashkarwarz
978: The Hamdanids of Aleppo overthrown by the Buwayhids
981: End of the Qarmatian rule at Bahrain
982: 'Ali ibn al-'Abbas al-Majusi died; he was known as known as Haly Abbas: founder of anatomic physiology"
983: Fannā (Panāh) Khusraw, better known by his laqab of ʿAḍud al-Dawla died; he was an emir of the Buyid dynasty, ruling from 949 to 983; at his height of power ruling an empire stretching from Makran to Yemen and the shores of the Mediterranean Sea; widely regarded as the greatest monarch of the dynasty, and by the end of his reign was the most powerful ruler in the Middle East
983: Accession of Samsam al-Dawla
984: Death of the Zirid dynasty ruler Buluggin
984: Accession of al-Mansur ibn Buluggin
986: The Buwayhid Sultan Samsam al-Dawla overthrown
986: Accession of Sharaf al-Dawla
989: Death of the Buwayhid Sultan Sharaf al-Dawla
989: Accession of Baha al-Dawla
991: Deposition of the Abbasid Caliph at-Ta'i
991: Accession of al-Qadir
995: Abu Hasan Ali ibn Umar ibn Ahmad ibn Mahdi al-Daraqutni (romanized: Abū ‘l-Ḥasan ‘Alī ibn ‘Umar ad-Dāraquṭnī) died; he was a 10th-century muhaddith best known for compiling the hadith collection Sunan al-Daraqutni
996: Death of the Zirid dynasty ruler Mansur
996: Accession of Badis ibn Mansur
997: Death of the Samanid ruler Nuh II
997: Accession of Mansur II
998: Death of the Samanid ruler Mansur II
998: Accession of 'Abd al-Malik II
998: Mahmud of Ghaznavid becomes the Amir of Ghazni
999: Bughra Khan of Karahan Turks capture Bukhara
998: End of the Samanids
998–1030: Mahmud of Ghazni persuades mass conversions to Islam in present-day Afghanistan

^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
Serene Age 1000 C.E. - 1200 C.E.
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^


1001: Mahmud of Ghazni defeats the Hindu Shahis at Peshawar
1004: Mahmud of Ghazni captures Bhatiya
1005: Mahmud of Ghazni captures Multan and Ghur
1005: Abū ʿAbdullāh Muḥammad bin Isḥāq Ibn Manda died; he was an eminent Isfahani Hadith scholar of Persian origin
1008: Mahmud of Ghazni defeats the Rajput confederacy
1010: Abdication of Hisham II in Spain
1010: Accession of Muhammad II
1011: In Spain Muhammad II is overthrown by Sulaiman II
1012: Bani Hamud gains power in Spain
1012: Death of the Buwayhid Baha' al-Dawla
1012: Accession of Sultan al-Dawla
1013: Abu al-Qasim al-Zahrawi died; he was known as "father of modern surgery" and the "father of operative surgery"
1013: Hisham II or Abu'l-Walid Hisham II al-Mu'ayyad bi-llah (Abū'l-Walīd Hishām al-Muʾayyad bi-ʾllāh) died; he was son of Al-Hakam II and Subh of Cordoba; the third Umayyad Caliph of Spain, in Al-Andalus from 976–1009, and 1010–13
1016: Death of the Zirid ruler Nasir al-Dawla Badis
1016: Accession of Al Muizz
1018: Abd-ar-Rahman IV in Spain
1019: Conshest of the Punjab by Mahmud of Ghazni
1020: The Buwayhid Sultan al-Dawla is overthrown
1020: Accession of Musharrif al-Dawla
1020: Death of the Fatimid Caliph Al Hakim
1020: Accession of Ali az-Zahir
1024: Abd ar-Rahman IV Mortada (romanized: ʿAbd ar-Raḥmān al-Murtaḍā) assassinated; the Caliph of Córdoba in the Umayyad dynasty in Al-Andalus, succeeding Sulayman ibn al-Hakam, in 1018; murdered at Cadiz while fleeing from a battle in which he had been deserted by the very supporters which had brought him into power
1025: Death of the Buwayhid Musharrif al-Dawla
1025: Accession of Jalal al-Dawla
1025: Mahmud of Ghazni raids Gujarat
1029: Death of Mustaft in Spain
1029: Accession of Hisham III
1030: Death of Mahmud of Ghazni
1031: Deposition of Hisham III in Spain
1031: End of the Umayyad Caliphate of Córdoba
1031: Death of the Abbasid Caliph al-Qadir
1031: Accession of al-Qa'im
1035: Many other African Muslims, the Serer community in West Africa embraces Islam through King Jabi and his Almoravid allies
1036: Death of the Fatimid Caliph Ali az-Zahir
1036: Accession of Ma'ad al-Mustansir Billah Toghrül is crowned as the king of the Seljuqs
1037: Ibn Sina died; he was known as father of early modern medicine
1040: Battle of Dandanaqan
1040: The Seljuqs defeat the Ghazanavids
1040: Deposition of Mas'ud I of Ghazni Sultan
1040: Accession of Mohammad Ghaznavi
1040: Al Moravids come to power in North Africa
1041: The Ghaznavid Sultan Mohammad Ghaznavi is overthrown
1040: Accession of Maw'dud Ghaznavi
1040: Alhazen died; he was known as "father of modern optics"
1044: Death of the Buwayhid Jalal al-Dawla
1044: Accession of Abu Kalijar
1046: Basasiri captures power in Baghdad
1047: The Zirids in North Africa repudiate allegiance to the Fatimid and transfer allegiance to the Abbasids
1048: Death of the Buwayhid Abu Kalijar
1048: Accession of Malik al-Rahim
1050: Yusuf ibn Tashfin comes to power in the Maghrib
1050: Al-Biruni died; he was known as the "founder of Indology", "father of comparative religion" and geodesy, and "first anthropologist" titles for his remarkable description of early 11th-century India
1055: Tuğrul Bey overthrows the Buwayhids
1057: Basasiri deposes Al-Qa'im and offers allegiance to the Fatimid Caliph
1057: Accession of Basasiri in Baghdad
1059: Tuğrul Bey recaptures power in Baghdad
1059: Al-Qa'im is restored as the Caliph
1060: Ibrahim of Ghazna becomes the Sultan
1060: Yusuf ibn Tashfin founds the city of Marrakesh
1062: Death of the Zirid ruler Al Muizz
1062: Accession of Tamin
1063: Death of the Seljuq Sultan Tuğrul Bey
1062: Accession of Alp Arslan
1064: Seljuk army under Alp Arslan captured Ani
1064: Ibn Hazm died; he was known as father of comparative religion and "honoured in the West as that of the founder of the science of comparative religion"
1066: Abū Bakr Aḥmad ibn Ḥusayn Ibn 'Alī ibn Mūsa al-Khosrojerdi al-Bayhaqi died; he was known as Imām al-Bayhaqi; born in the small town of Khosrowjerd near Sabzevar, then known as Bayhaq, in Khurasan
1066: Abū Yaʿlā Muḥammad ibn al-Ḥusayn Ibn al-Farrāʾ, commonly known as al-Qāḍī Abū Yaʿlā or simply as Ibn al-Farrāʾ died; he was a Mujaddid and a great Hanbali Mujtahid scholar and one of the early Muslim jurists who played dynamic roles in formulating a systematic legal framework and constitutional theory on Islamic system of government during the first half of the 5th/11th Century in Baghdad
1071: Battle of Manzikert
1071: The Byzantine emperor Romanos IV is taken captive by the Seljuq Turks
1071: Yusuf ibn Abdallah ibn Mohammed ibn Abd al-Barr died; he was Abu Umar al-Namari al-Andalusi al-Qurtubi al-Maliki, commonly known as Ibn Abd-al-Barr, an eleventh-century Arab Maliki judge and scholar in Lisbon
1071: Abū Bakr Aḥmad ibn ʿAlī ibn Thābit ibn Aḥmad ibn Māhdī al-Shafī`ī, commonly known as al-Khaṭīb al-Baghdādī or "the lecturer from Baghdad" died; he was a Muslim scholar and historian
1073: Death of Alp Arslan
1073: Accession of Malik Shah
1073: Badr al-Jamali gains power as the vizier of the Fatimid Caliphate
1077: Death of the Abbasid Caliph Al-Qa'im
1077: Accession of Al-Muqtadi
1077: Seljuq Turks found Sultanate of Rûm in Turkey
1082: The Almoravids conquer Algeria
1085: Toledo surrenders to Alfonso VI after a four-year siege
1086: Battle of Zallakha
1086: The Almoravids defeat the Christians in Spain
1086: Death of Suleyman I of Rum
1086: Accession of Kilij Arslan I
1091: The Normans conquer the island of Sicily
1091: End of the Muslim rule in Sicily
1092: Death of the Seljuq Sultan Malik Shah I
1092: Accession of Mahmud I of Great Seljuq
1094: Death of Seljuq Sultan Mahmud I
1092: Accession of Barkiyaruq
1092: Death of the Abbasid Caliph Al-Muqtadi
1092: Accession of Mustahzir
1095: The first crusade
1099: The crusaders capture Jerusalem
1101: Death of the Fatimid Caliph al-Musta'li
1101: Accession of al-Amir Bi-Ahkamillah
1105: Death of the Seljuk Sultan Barkiyaruq
1105: Accession Of Mehmed I of Great Seljuk
1106: Death of the Al Moravid Yusuf bin Tashfin
1107: Death of the Rum Seljuk Sultan Kilij Arslan I
1107: Accession of Malik Shah of Rüm
1108: Death of the Zirid dynasty ruler Tamin
1108: Accession of Yahya of Zirid
1111: Al-Ghazali full name Abū Ḥāmid Muḥammad ibn Muḥammad aṭ-Ṭūsiyy al-Ġaz(z)ālīy, Latinized Algazelus or Algazel died; he was known in Persian-speaking countries as Imam Muhammad-i Ghazali; a Persian polymath, who was one of the most prominent and influential philosophers, theologians, jurists, logicians and mystics
1116: Death of the Rum Seljuk Sultan Malik Shah
1116: Accession of Mas'ud of Rüm
1118: Death of the Seljuk Sultan Muhammad
1118: Accession of Mahmud II of Great Seljuk
1118: Death of the Abbasid Caliph al-Mustazhir
1118: Accession of al-Mustarshid
1121: Death of the Fatimid ruler Al-Amir bi-Ahkami l-Lah
1121: Accession of Al-Hafiz
1122: Abū Muḥammad al-Ḥusayn ibn Masʻūd ibn Muḥammad al-Farrā' al-Baghawī died; he was a renowned Persian Muslim mufassir, hadith scholar, and Shafi‘i faqih; best known for his major work Maʻālim at-Tanzīl
1127: Imad ad-Din Zengi establishes the Zengid dynasty rule in Mosul.
1128: Death of the Khawarzam Shah Qutb ud Din Muhammad
1128: Accession of Atsiz
1130: Death of the Seljuk Sultan Mahmud II of Great Seljuk
1130: Accession of Toghrül II
1113: Abu al-Fadl Muhammad bin Tahir bin Ali bin Ahmad al-Shaibani al-Maqdisi died; he was commonly known as Ibn Tahir of Caesarea ("Ibn al-Qaisarani" in Arabic), a Muslim historian and traditionist
1135: Al-Mustarshid Billah died; he was the Abbasid caliph in Baghdad from 1118 to 1135; son of his predecessor, caliph al-Mustazhir; succeeded his father in the year 1118 as the twenty-ninth Abbasid Caliph; also recognized as an Arabic poet
1135: Accession of al-Rashid
1135: Death of the Seljuk Sultan Toghrül II
1135: Accession of Mas'ud of Great Seljuk.
1136: Deposition of the Abbasid Caliph Al-Rashid
1136: Accession of Al-Muqtafi
1141: Abū al-Ḥakam ʿAbd al-Salām b. ʿAbd al Raḥmān b. Abī al-Rijāl Muḥammad b. ʿAbd al-Raḥmān al-Lakhmī al-Ifrīqī al-Ishbīlī died; he was born in Seville where he lived, one of the greatest Sufi figures of Al-Andalus and a hadith scholar
1144: Zengi captures Edessa from the Christians,
1144: Second crusade
1146: Death of Zengi
1146: Accession of Nur ad-Din
1147: Al Moravids overthrown in North Africa
1147: The Almohad comes under Abd al-Mu'min in North Africa.
1148: End of the Zirid dynasty rule' in North Africa
1148: Siege of Damascus repulsed
1148: Defeat of the Second Crusade
1148: Abu Bakr ibn al-Arabi or, in full Abū Bakr Muḥammad ibn ʿAbdallāh ibn al-ʿArabī al-Maʿāfirī al-Ishbīlī died; he was a Muslim judge and scholar of Maliki law from al-Andalus
1149: Death of the Fatimid Caliph al-Hafiz
1149: Accession of Az-Zafir
1152: Death of the Seljuk Sultan Mas'ud of Great Seljuk
1152: Accession of Malik Shah III
1152: Hamadid rule comes to an end in North Africa
1153: Death of the Seljuk Sultan Malik Shah III
1153: Accession of Mehmed II of Great Seljuk
1154: Death of the Fatimid Caliph az-Zafir
1154: Accession of Al-Faiz
1156: Death of the Rum Seljuk Sultan Mas'ud of Rüm
1156: Accession of Kilij Arslan II
1159: Death of the Seljuk Sultan Mehmed II of Great Seljuk
1159: Accession of Süleyman
1160: Death of the Abbasid Caliph al-Muqtafi
1160: Accession of al-Mustanjid
1160: Death of the Fatimid Caliph al-Faiz
1160: Accession of al-Adid
1161: Death of the Seljuk Süleyman of Great Seljuk
1161: Accession of Arslan Shah
1163: Death of the Almohad ruler Abd al-Mu'min
1163: Accession of Yusuf I, Almohad Caliph
1165: Muhammad al-Idrisi died; he was known as father of world map
1166: ʿAbdul Qādir Gīlānī, Turkish: Abdülkâdir Geylânî, known as Muḥyī l-Dīn Abū Muḥammad b. Abū Sāliḥ ʿAbd al-Qādir al-Gīlānī al-Ḥasanī wa'l-Ḥusaynī died; he was a Hanbali preacher, ascetic, mystic, jurist, and theologian, known for being the eponymous founder of the Qadiriyya tariqa (Sufi order) of Sufism
1170: Death of the Abbasid Caliph Al-Mustanjid
1170: Accession of Al-Mustadi
1170: Abū ʿAbd Allāh Muḥammad ibn Yūsuf ibn Saʿāda al-Mursī died; he was an Andalusī Muslim judge and scholar with Ṣūfī tendencies
1171: Death of the Fatimid Caliph Al-Adid
1171: End of the Fatimid caliphate
1171: Saladin founds the Ayyubid dynasty in Egypt
1172: Death of the Khawarzam Shah Arsalan
1172: Accession of Sultan Shah
1173: The Khawarzam Shah Sultan Shah is overthrown
1172: Accession of Tukush Shah
1174: Saladin annexes Syria
1175: The Ghurids defeat the Guzz Turks
1175: The Ghurids occupy Ghazni
1175: Ibn Asakir (Ibn ‘Asākir) died; he was a Islamic scholar, a historian and a disciple of the Sufi mystic Abu al-Najib Suhrawardi
1176: Death of the Seljuk Sultan Arslan Shah
1176: Accession of Toghrül III
1179: Death of the Abbasid Caliph al-Mustadi
1179: Accession of an-Nasir
1179: Shahab ud Din Ghuri captures Peshawar
1183: Ibn Bashkuwāl, full name Khalaf ibn ‘Abd al-Malik ibn Mas'ud ibn Musa ibn Bashkuwāl ibn Yûsuf al-Ansârī, Abū'l-Qāsim, (var. Ḫalaf b.'Abd al- Malik b. Mas'ūd b. Mūsā b. Baškuwāl, Abū'l-Qāsim, born September 1101 in Córdoba) died; he was an influential Andalusian traditionist and biographer working in Córdoba and Seville
1183: Ibn Bashkuwāl, full name Khalaf ibn ‘Abd al-Malik ibn Mas'ud ibn Musa ibn Bashkuwāl ibn Yûsuf al-Ansârī, Abū'l-Qāsim, (var. Ḫalaf b.'Abd al- Malik b. Mas'ūd b. Mūsā b. Baškuwāl, Abū'l-Qāsim, born September 1101 in Córdoba) died; he was an influential Andalusian traditionist and biographer working in Córdoba and Seville
1185: Death of the Almohad ruler Abu Yaqub Yusuf
1185: ccession of Abu Yusuf Yaqub al-Mansur
1186: The Ghurids overthrow the Ghaznavid in the Punjab
1187: Saladin recaptures Jerusalem from the Christians
1187: Third crusade
1191: First Battle of Tarain between the Rajputs and the Ghurids
1191: Suhrawardi died; he was known as founder of the Illuminationist school of Islamic philosophy
1192: Second Battle of Tarain
1193: Death of Saladin
1193: Accession of Al-Aziz Uthman
1194: Occupation of Delhi by the Muslims
1194: End of the Seljuk rule
1197: Burhān al-Dīn Abu’l-Ḥasan ‘Alī bin Abī Bakr bin ‘Abd al-Jalīl al-Farghānī al-Marghīnānī died; he was an Islamic scholar of the Hanafi school of jurisprudence; born in Marghinan near Farghana in 530/1135 (in present day Uzbekistan)
1198: Ibn Rushd, romanized: Abū l-Walīd Muḥammad Ibn ʾAḥmad Ibn Rušd died; he was often Latinized as Averroes, was a Muslim Andalusian; a polymath and jurist of Berber descent who wrote about many subjects, including philosophy, theology, medicine, astronomy, physics, psychology, mathematics, Islamic jurisprudence and law, and linguistics
1198: Averroes (Ibn Rushd), known in west as The Commentator died; he was also known as "father of free thought and unbelief", "father of rationalism"
1199: Death of the Khawarzam Shah Tukush Shah
1199: Accession of Ala ud Din
1199: Death of the Almohad ruler Abu Yusuf Yaqub al-Mansur
1199: Accession of Muhammad an-Nasir
1199: Conquest of Northern India and Bengal by the Ghurids

^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
Deficient Time 1200 C.E. - 1330 C.E.
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^


1201: ʿAbd al-Raḥmān b. ʿAlī b. Muḥammad Abu 'l-Faras̲h̲ b. al-Jawzī died; he was often referred to as Ibn al-Jawzī for short, or reverentially as Imam Ibn al-Jawzī, an Arab Muslim jurisconsult, preacher, orator, heresiographer, traditionist, historian, judge, hagiographer, and philologist
1202: Bakhtiyar Khalji conquers large parts of Bengal
1202: Death of the Ghurid Sultan Ghiyath al-Din Muhammad
1202: Accession of Mu'izz al-Din
1202: Ṣafwān ibn Idrīs or Abū Baḥr al-Tujībī, full name Abū Baḥr Ṣafwān ibn Idrīs ibn Ibrāhīm ibn ʿAbd al-Raḥmān ibn ʿĪsā ibn Idrīs al-Tujībī al-Mursī al-Kātib died; he was a Muslim traditionist and adīb from al-Andalus (Spain) famous for advanced Arabic poetry under the Almohads
1204: Shahab ud Din Ghuri defeated by the Ghuzz Turks.
1206: Death of Shahab ud Din Ghuri
1206: Qutbu l-Din Aibak crowned king in Lahore
1206: Tibetan Expedition of Islamic Bengal
1206: Ismail al-Jazari died; he was known as father of Automaton and Robotics
1210: Ghurid Sultan Mahmud died; he was the leader of a dynasty converted to Islam from Buddhism; overthrew the Ghaznavid Empire in 1186 when Sultan Mu'izz ad-Din Muhammad of Ghor conquered the last Ghaznavid capital of Lahore
1210: Accession of Sam
1210: Death of Qutb ud Din Aibak
1210: Accession of Aram Shah in India
1211: End of the Ghurid rule
1211: Aram Shah overthrown in India
1211: Accession of Iltutmish in India
1212: Battle of Las Navas de Tolosa in Spain
1212: End of the Almohad rule in Spain
1212: The Almohads suffer defeat by the Christians in Spain at the Las Navas de Tolosa
1212: The Almohad Sultan Muhammad an-Nasir escapes to Morocco
1213: Almohad Sultan Muhammad an-Nasir's death
1213: Accession of his son Yusuf II, Almohad Caliph
1216: The Marinids under their leader Abdul Haq occupy north eastern part of Morocco
1216: The Almohad suffer defeat by the Marinids at the Battle of Nakur
1217: The Marinids suffer defeat in the battle fought on the banks of the Sibu river
1217: Abdul Haq is killed in Morocco
1217: The Marinids evacuate Morocco
1218: Death of the Ayyubid ruler Al-Adil I
1218: Accession of Al-Kamil
1218: The Marinids return to Morocco under their leader Othman and occupy Fez
1220: Death of the Khwarezmid Shah Muhammad II of Khwarezm
1220: Accession of Jalal ad-Din Mingburnu
1223: Death of the Almohad ruler Yusuf II, Almohad Caliph
1223: Accession of Abdul-Wahid I, Almohad Caliph
1223: Brother of Yusuf II, Abdallah, Almohad Caliph declares his independence in Spain
1223: Abdallah, Brother of Yusuf II assumes the title of Al Adil (Abdallah, Almohad Caliph)
1223: Ibn Qudāmah al-Maqdisī Muwaffaq al-Dīn Abū Muḥammad ʿAbd Allāh b. Aḥmad b. Muḥammad died; he was often referred to as Ibn Qudamah or Ibn Qudama for short, an ascetic, jurisconsult, Traditionalist theologian
1224: Death of the Almohad ruler Abd al-Wahid I
1224: Accession of Abdallah, Almohad Caliph
1225: Death of the Abbasid Caliph An-Nasir
1225: Accession of Az-Zahir
1227: Abu Muhammad ʿAbdallah 'al-ʿAdil' died; he was an Almohad Caliph, a former governor in al-Andalus who challenged and secured the murder of his predecessor, Abd al-Wahid I; his 1224 coup ushered in a period of instability that lasted well beyond his own death
1227: Accession of his son, Yahya
1229: Death of the Almohad ruler Yahya
1229: Accession of Idris I
1229: The Ayyubid Al-Kamil restores Jerusalem
1230: End of the Khwarezmid Empire
1231: Abu al-Hasan Ali ibn Mohammed ibn al-Qattan al-Fasi died; he was an imam, a hadith scholar and one of the leading intellectuals of the time of the Almohad dynasty; born in Cordoba and lived in Fes
1232: Death of the Almohad ruler Idris I
1232: Accession, of Abdul Wahid II
1234: Death of the Ayyubid ruler Al-Kamil
1234: Accession of Al-Adil II
1236: Death of Delhi Sultan Altamash
1236: Accession of Rukn ud din Firuz
1237: Accession of Razia Sultan as Delhi Sultan
1239: Mubarak Ibn Ahmad Sharaf al-Din Ibn al-Mustawfi al-Lakhmi al-Irbili died; he was a famous Muslim historian of Erbil, who was born in the ancient citadel of Erbil
1241: Death of Razia Sultan, accession of Muiz ud din Bahram
1242: Death of Muiz ud din Bahram
1242: Accession of Ala ud din Masud as Delhi Sultan
1242: Death of the Almohad ruler Abd al-Wahid II
1242: Accession of Abu al-Hasan as-Said al-Mutadid
1242: Death of the Abbasid Caliph Al-Mustansir
1242: Accession of Al-Musta'sim
1244: The Almohad defeat the Marinids at the battle of Abu Bayash
1244: The Marinids evacuate Morocco
1245: The Muslims reconquer Jerusalem
1245: Abū ‘Amr ‘Uthmān ibn ‘Abd il-Raḥmān Ṣalāḥ al-Dīn al-Kurdī al-Shahrazūrī died; he was commonly known as Ibn al-Ṣalāḥ, a Kurdish Shafi'i hadith specialist and the author of the seminal Introduction to the Science of Hadith
1245: Ḍiyāʼ al-Dīn Abu ʻAbdallah Muhammad ibn ʻAbd al-Wahid al-Saʻdi al-Maqdisi al-Hanbali died; he was known as Thiyaa Al-Diin Al-Maqdisi, was a Hanbali Islamic scholar
1246: Death of the Delhi Sultan Ala ud din Masud
1246: Accession of Nasiruddin Mahmud
1248: Death of the Almohad ruler Abu al-Hasan as-Said al-Mutadid
1246: Accession of Umar, Almohad Caliph
1250: The Marinids return to Morocco
1250: The Marinids occupy a greater part thereof
1257: Muhammad 'Abid al-Sindi al-Ansari died; he was a Hanafi jurist (faqih), hadith expert (muhaddith), judge (qadi); considered the shaykh of the 'ulama of his time in the city of Madina during the Ottoman Caliphate from lineage reaches back to Abu Ayyub al-Ansari
1258: Battle of Baghdad
1258: Death of the Abbasid Caliph Al-Musta'sim
1258: End of the Abbasid rule
1258: The Mongols under Hulagu Khan establish their rule in Iran and Iraq
1259: The Hafsid ruler Abd Allah Muhammad declares himself as the Caliph and assumes the name of Al Mustansir
1260: Battle of Ayn Jalut in Syria
1260: The Mongols are defeated by the Mamluks of Egypt
1260: The spell of the invincibility of the Mongols is broken
1260: Baibars becomes the Mamluk Sultan
1262: Death of Baha-ud-din Zakariya in Multan who is credited with the introduction of the Suhrawardiyya Sufi order in the South Asia
1262: Abu Muhammad Izz al-Din Abdul Aziz bin Abd al-Salam bin Abi al-Qasim bin Hassan al-Salami al-Shafi’i died; he was also known by his titles, Sultan al-'Ulama/ Sulthanul Ulama, Abu Muhammad al-Sulami, a famous mujtahid, theologian, jurist and the leading Shafi'i authority of his generation
1265: Death of Hulagu Khan
1265: Death of Fariduddin Ganjshakar the Chishti Sufi saint of the South Asia
1266: Death of Berke Khan, the first ruler of the Golden Horde to be converted to Islam
1266: The eighth crusade
1266: The crusaders invade Tunisia
1266: Failure of the crusade
1267: Malik ul Salih establishes the first Muslim state of Samudra Pasai in Indonesia
1267: Umar, Almohad Caliph wins cooperation of the Christians
1267: The Spaniards invade Morocco
1267: The Marinids drive away the Spaniards from Morocco
1267: Abū Ḥafṣ ‘Umar al-Murtaḍā died; he was an Almohad caliph who reigned over part of present-day Morocco from 1248 until his death; during his time as caliph, the area of Morocco under Almohad control was reduced to the region around and including Marrakesh; forced to pay tribute to the Marinids
1267: Accession of Idris II, Almohad Caliph
1269: Idris II, Almohad Caliph is overthrown
1269: The Marinids capture power in Morocco
1269: End of the Almohad
1267: Accession of Abu Yaqub
1270: Death of Mansa Wali the founder of the Muslim rule in Mali
1272: Death of Muhammad I of Granada the founder of the Emirate of Granada
1272: Yaghmurason invades Morocco but meets a reverse at the battle
1272: Imam Abu 'Abdullah Al-Qurtubi or Abu 'Abdullah Muhammad ibn Ahmad ibn Abu Bakr al-Ansari al-Qurtubi died; he was an Andalusian jurist, Islamic scholar and muhaddith; taught by prominent scholars of Córdoba, Spain; well known for his commentary of the Quran named Tafsir al-Qurtubi
1273: Death of Jalal al-Din Muhammad Rumi
1274: Death of Nasir al-Din Tusi
1274: The Marinids wrest Sijilmasa from the Ziyyanids
1274: Ninth crusade under Edward I of England
1274: The crusade ends in fiasco and Edward returns to England
1274: Al-Tusi died; he was known as "father of trigonometry" as a mathematical discipline in its own right
1277: Death of Baibars
1277: Abū Zakariyyā Yaḥyā ibn Sharaf al-Nawawī, popularly known as al-Nawawī or Imam Nawawī died; he was a Shafi'ite jurist and hadith scholar
1280: Battle of Hims
1282: Aḥmad bin Muḥammad bin Ibrāhīm Abu ’l-ʿAbbās S̲h̲ams al-Dīn al-Barmakī al-Irbilī al-S̲h̲āfiʿī, ibn Khallikān died; he was a 13th century Shafi'i Islamic scholar who compiled the celebrated biographical encyclopedia of Muslim scholars and important men in Muslim history
1283: Death of Yaghmurasan
1283: Accession of his son Othman
1285: Tunisis splits in Tunis and Bougie
1286: Death of Ghiyas ud din Balban
1286: Death of Abu Yusuf Yaqub
1286: Bughra Khan declares his independence in Bengal under the name of Nasiruddin
1288: Ibn Al-Nafis died; he was known as "father of circulatory physiology and anatomy
1290: End of the slave dynasty in India Jalal ud din Firuz Khalji comes into power
1290: Othman embarks on a career of conquest
1290: Most of the Central Maghreb is conquered by the Ziyyanids
1296: Mongol ruler Ghazan Khan converted to Islam
1299: Mongols invade Syria
1299: The Marinids besiege Tlemcen, the capital of the Ziyyanid Kingdom of Tlemcen
1300: Zainab Bint ‘Umar Bin Kindi died; she was a female muhaddith in 13th century Damascus and Baalbek; most notable for being the most prominent "shaykha" or teacher of the Muslim scholar and historian Al-Dhahabi
1301: Rukunuddin Kaikaus, the king of Bengal dies in Bengal
1383: Accession of Shamsuddin Firoz Shah, brother of Rukunuddin Kaikaus
1302: Muhammad II dies in Granada
1302: Accession of Muhammad III
1302: Ibn Daqiq al-'Id died; he was born in Yanbu into the Arab tribe of Banu Qushayr; accounted as one of Islam's great scholars in the fundamentals of Islamic law and belief, and was an authority in the Shafi'i legal school
1304: Ghazan dies in the Mongol Ilkhanate
1304: Accession of Khudabanda Oljeitu, brother of Ghazan
1304: Uthman dies in Algeria
1304: Accession of Abu Zayyan Muhammad, son of Uthman
1305: Alauddin Khalji conquers Rajputana in the Khalji Empire
1306: Duwa dies in the Chagatai Khanate
1306: Accession of Konchek, son of Duwa
1307: The Marinid Sultan Abu Yaqub Yusuf is assassinated in Morocco
1307: Accession of Abu Thabit
1308: Konchek is deposed in the Chagatai Khanate
1308: Accession of Taliqu in the Chagatai Khanate
1308: Abu Zayyan Muhammad in Algeria
1308: Accession of Abu Hammu Musa, brother of Abu Zayyan Muhammad
1308: Abu Thabit is overthrown in Morocco
1308: Accession of Abu'l-Rabi Sulayman
1309: Taliku is assassinated in the Chagatai Khanate
1309: Accession of Kebek
1309: Muhammad III is overthrown in Granada
1309: Accession of Abul Juyush Nasr, uncle of Muhammad III
1310: Kebek is overthrown in the Chagatai Khanate
1310: Accession of Isan Buga, brother of Kebek
1310: Abu'l Rabi Sulayman is overthrown in Morocco
1310: Accession of Abu Said Uthman
1310: Alauddin conquers the Deccan in the Khaljis empire
1312: Abul Baqa is overthrown in Tunisia
1312: Accession of Al Lihiani in Tunisia
1313: The Ilkhanate invades Syria, but the Mongols are repulsed
1313: Toktu dies in the Golden Horde Empire
1313: Accession of Uzbeg, nephew of Toktu
1314: In Kashmir, Rinchan, an adventurer from Baltistan, overthrows Sinha Deva the Raja of Kashmir
1314: Accession of Rinchan in Kashmir
1314: Rinchan is converted to Islam
1314: Rinchan adopts the name of Sultan Sadruddin
1314: Abul Juyush is overthrown in Granada
1314: Accession of Abul Wahid Ismail, nephew of Abul Juyush
1315: War breaks out between Bougie and Tunis
1315: Lihani is defeated and killed
1315: Abu Bakr becomes the ruler of Bougie and Tunis
1316: Oljeitu dies in the Ilkhanate
1316: Accession of Abu Said
1316: Alauddin dies in the Khaljis Empire
1316: Accession of Shahabuddin Umar accedes
1316: Accession of Malik Kafur, a Hindu convert Muslim, usurps power
1318: Malik Kafur in the Khaljis Empire is assassinated
1318: Shahabuddin Umar is deposed
1318: Accession of Qutbuddin Mubarak
1318: In the Chagatai Khanate, Isan Buga is overthrown
1318: Accession of Ibn Kebek in the Chagatai Khanate
1320: Qutbuddin Mubarak in the Khaljis Empire is assassinated
1320: Khusro Khan, a Hindu convert Muslim, usurps power
1320: Khusro Khan is overthrown
1320: Accession of Ghazi Malik
1320: Accession of End of the Khalji Dynasty
1320: Ghazi Malik founds the Tughluq dynasty
1320: In Tunisia, Abu Bakr is expelled from Tunis by Abu Imran
1321: Ibn Kebek is succeeded by Hebbishs in the Chagatai Khanate, who is later overthrown by Duwa Timur
1322: Duwa Timur is overthrown in the Chagatai Khanate by Tarmashirin, who converts to Islam
1322: Shamsuddin Firuz dies in Bengal
1322: The Bengal kingdom is divided into two parts
1322: Ghiasuddin Bahadur becomes the ruler of East Bengal with the capital at Sonargaon
1322: Shahabuddin becomes the ruler of West Bengal with the capital at Lakhnauti
1324: Shahabuddin dies in Bengal
1324: Accession of Nasiruddin, brother of Shahabuddin
1325: Ghazi Malik (Ghiasuddin Tughluq) dies in the Tughluq Empire
1325: Accession of Muhammad Tughluq, son of Ghazi Malik
1325: Abul Wahid Ismail is assassinated in Granada
1325: Accession of Muhammad IV, son of Abul Wahid Ismail
1325: Muhammad IV is assassinated
1325: Accession of Abul Hallaj Yusuf, brother of Muhammad IV
1325: With the help of Ghiasuddin Tughluq, Nasiruddin over-throws Ghiasuddin Bahadur in Bengal and unites Bengal
1326: Osman I dies in the Ottoman Empire
1325: Accession of Orhan in the Ottoman Empire
1325: Orhan conquers Bursa
1325: Bursa becomes capital of the Ottoman Empire
1327: The Ottoman Turks capture the city of (Iznik)
1328: Taqī ad-Dīn Aḥmad ibn Abd al-Halim ibn Abd al-Salam al-Numayri al-Ḥarrānī, known simply Ibn Taymiyyah died; he was a top Islamic jurist scholar, muhaddith, theologian, judge, philosopher, economist, and polymath
1329: Muhammad Tughluq in the Tughluq empire shifts the capital from Delhi to Daulatabad in the Deccan.


^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
Exigent Time 1330 C.E. - 1480 C.E.
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^


1330: In the Chagatai Khanate, Tarmashirin dies and is succeeded by Changshahi
1330: Amir Hussan establishes the Jalairid Sultanate at Baghdad
1330: In Tunisia, Abu Bakr overthrows Abu Imran, and the state is again united under him
1331: In Bengal, Muhammad bin Tughluq reverses the policy of his father and restores Ghiasuddin Bahadur to the throne of Sonargaon
1331: In the Marinid Empire, Abu Said Othman dies and is succeeded by Abul Hasan
1331: The Tughluqs annex Bengal
1335: In the Ilkhanate, Abu Said dies, and Arpa Koun assumes power
1335: In the Chagatai Khanate, Changshahi is assassinated
1335: Burun accedes to the throne in the Chagatai Khanate
1336: In the Ilkhanate, Arpa is defeated and killed, and Musa succeeds him
1336: In the Jalayar empire, Amir Hussain dies and is succeeded by Hasan Buzurg
1336: The Ottoman Empire annexes the state of Karesi
1336: In Bengal, the Tughluq governor at Sonargaon is assassinated by an armour bearer, who takes power and declares his independence; he assumes the name Fakhruddin Mubarak Shah
1337: In the Ilkhanate, Musa is overthrown, and Muhammad becomes the Sultan
1337: In the Sarbadaran Empire, on the disintegration of the II-Khan rule, Abdur Razaq a military adventurer establishes an independent principality in Khurasan with the capital at Sabzwar
1337: In Persia, upon the disintegration of the Ilkhanate, Mubarazud Din Muhammad establishes the Muzaffarid Empire
1337: In the Ottoman Empire, The Ottomans capture the city of Nicomedia (İzmit)
1337: In Algeria, Algeria is occupied by Marinids
1338: In the Ilkhanate, Muhammad is overthrown and succeeded by Sati Beg
1338: Sitt al-Wuzara' al-Tanukhiyyah died; he was a female Syrian hadith scholar, one of the last students of Husayn ibn al-Mubarak al-Zabidi and Abu al- Munajja Ibn al-Latti; considered - like Umm al-Darda and Fatima bint 'Abd al- Malik ibn Marwan, wife of the pious caliph 'Umar ibn 'Abd al-'Aziz - a pioneer of what Mohammad Akram Nadwi terms as hadith scholarship from al-Sham (The Levant)
1337: Sati Beg marries Sulaiman who becomes the co-ruler in the Ilkhanate
1339: In Kashmir, Sadrud Din dies, and his throne is captured by a Hindu, Udyana Deva
1339: In the Chagatai Khanate, Burun is deposed by Isun Timur
1339: In Bengal, the Tughluq governor at Lakhnauti, Qadr Khan, is assassinated, and power is assumed by the army commander-in-chief, who declares his independence and assumes the title of Alauddin Ali Shah
1339: Zaynab bint al-Kamāl full name was Um Abdullah Zaynab bint Ahmad b. Abdulraheem al-Maqdisiya al-Dimashqiya died; she was a hadith scholar and teacher from Damascus, commonly referred to under name Zaynab bint al-Kamāl
1340: The Muzaffarid Empire conquers Kirman
1340: In the Chagatai Khanate, Isun Timur is deposed by Muhammad
1341: In the Golden Horde empire, Uzbeg dies and is succeeded by his son Tini Beg
1341: Jamāl al-Dīn Abū al-Ḥajjāj Yūsuf ibn al-Zakī ʻAbd al-Raḥmān ibn Yūsuf ibn Abd al-Malik ibn Yūsuf al-Kalbī al-Quḍā’ī al-Mizzī died; he was also called Al-Ḥāfiẓ Abī al-Hajjāj, a Syrian muhaddith and the foremost `Ilm al-rijāl Islamic scholar
1342: In the Golden Horde empire, Tini Beg is overthrown by his brother Jani Beg
1343: In the Chagatai Khanate, Muhammad is overthrown, and power is captured by Kazan
1343: In Bengal, Ilyas, an officer of Alauddin, murders his patron and captures the throne of West Bengal
1343: Shams ad-Din Abi Abdillah Muhammad bin Ahmad bin Abd al-Hadi al-Maqdisi al-Hanbali died; he was better known as Ibn Abd al-Hadi, a Hanbali Islamic Muhaddith scholar from the Levant
1344: In the Ilkhanate, Sulaiman is deposed by Anusherwan
1345: In the Samudra Pasai Empire, Malik al Tahir II dies and is succeeded by Tahir III
1345: In Bengal, llyas captures East Bengal, and under him Bengal is again united
1345: In Bengal, llyas establishes his capital at Gaur
1346: In the Chagatai Khanate, Kazan is deposed by Hayan Kuli
1346: In Tunisia, Abu Bakr dies and is succeeded by his son Fadal
1346: In Kashmir, Udyana Deva dies and the throne is taken by Shah Mirza, who assumes the name of Shah Mir and founds the Shah Mir Dynasty
1346: Sadr al-Shari'a al-Asghar, also known as Sadr al-Shari'a al-Thani died; he was a Hanafi-Maturidi scholar, faqih (jurist), mutakallim (theologian), mufassir (Qur'anic exegete), muhaddith (expert of the Hadith), nahawi (grammarian), lughawi (linguist), logician, and astronomer; known for both his theories of time and place and his commentary on Islamic jurisprudence, indicating the depth of his knowledge in various Islamic disciplines
1347: The Marinids capture Tunisia
1347: In the Bahmanid Empire, Hasan Gangu declares his independence and establishes a state in the Deccan with the capital at Gulbarga
1348: Shams ad-Dīn adh-Dhahabī died; he was known as Shams ad-Dīn Abū ʿAbdillāh Muḥammad ibn Aḥmad ibn ʿUthmān ibn Qāymāẓ ibn ʿAbdillāh at-Turkumānī al-Fāriqī ad-Dimashqī, a Syrian Islamic historian and Hadith expert
1349: In Kashmir, Shah Mir dies and is succeeded by his son Jamsbed
1349: In Algeria, The Zayanids under Abu Said Othman recapture Algeria
1350: In the Sarbadaran Empire, a revolt erupts against Abdur Razaq
1350: Power is captured by Amir Masud in the Sarbadaran Empire
1350: In Tunisia, Fadal is deposed and succeeded by his brother Abu Ishaq
1350: In Kashmir, Jamshed is overthrown by his step brother Alauddin Ali Sher
1350: Shams al-Dīn Abū ʿAbd Allāh Muḥammad ibn Abī Bakr ibn Ayyūb al-Zurʿī l-Dimashqī l-Ḥanbalī died; he was commonly known as Ibn Qayyim al-Jawziyya ("The son of the principal of [the school of] Jawziyyah") or Ibn al-Qayyim ("Son of the principal") for short, or reverentially as Imam Ibn al-Qayyim in tradition; an important medieval Islamic jurisconsult, theologian, and spiritual writer
1351: In the Marinid Empire, Abul Hasan dies, and is succeeded by Abu Inan
1351: In the Tughluq Empire, Muhammad Tughluq dies and Firuz Shah Tughluq assumes power
1352: The Marinids again capture Algeria
1352: Abu Said Othman is taken captive and killed
1353: The Ilkhanate ends
1353: The Ottoman Empire acquires the fortress of Tympa on the European side of the Hollespoint
1353: The Muzaffarids conquer Shiraz and establish their capital there
1354: The Muzaffarids annex Isfahan. In Granada, Abu Hallaj Yusuf is assassinated; his son Muhammad V succeeds him
1355: Abu Al-Hasan Taqī al-Dīn Ali ibn Abd al-Kafi ibn Ali al-Khazraji al-Ansari al-Subkī died; he was a famous Shafi'i scholar, hadith master, jurist, Qur'anic exegete and chief judge of Damascus
1356: In the Jalayar Empire, Death of Hasan Buzurg, succession of his son Owaia
1357: In the Golden Horde Empire, Death of Jani Beg, succession of Berdi Beg
1358: In the Bahmanid Empire, Death of Hasan Gangu, accession of his son Muhammad Shah
1358: In the Muzaffarid Empire, Death of Mubarazuddin Muhammad; accession of Shah Shuja
1358: In the Marinid Empire, Assassination of Abu Inan, succession of Abu Bakr Said
1358: In Bengal, Death of Ilyas, succession of his son Sikandar Shah
1359: In the Ottoman Empire, Death of Orhan, succession of Murad I
1359: In the Muzaffarid Empire, Shah Shuja deposed by his brother Shah Mahmud
1359: In Tunisia, Abul Abbas a nephew of Abu Ishaq revolts and establishes his rule in Bougie
1359: In Algeria, The Zayanids under Abu Hamuw II recapture Algeria
1359: In the Marinid Empire, Abu Bakr Said overthrown by Abu Salim Ibrahim
1359: In Granada, Muhammad V loses the throne in palace revolution, succeeded by Ismail
1359: In the Golden Horde, Death of Berdi Beg, succession of Qulpa
1360: In the Muzaffarid Empire, Death of Shah Mahmud
1360: Shah Shuja recaptures power. In the Chagatai Khanate, Power captured by Tughluq Timur
1360: In Granada, Ismail overthrown by his brother-in-law Abu Said
1361: In the Ottoman Empire, Murad I conquers a part of Thrace and establishes his capital at Edirne(Hadriaunus) in Thrace
1361: In the Golden Horde empire, Kulpa overthrown by his brother Nauroz
1361: In the Marinid Empire, Abu Salim Ibrahim overthrown by Abu Umar
1361: Abu Umar overthrown by Abu Zayyan in the Marinid Empire
1362: In the Golden Horde empire, State of anarchy
1362: In Granada, Abu Said overthrown by Muhammad V who comes to rule for the second time
1362: In Kashmir, Death of Alauddin Ali Sher, succeeded by his brother Shahabuddin
1365: In the Ottoman Empire, The Turks defeat a Christian army at the battle of Maritza (Sirp Sindigi)
1365: The Byzantine ruler becomes a vassal of the Turks
1366: Assassination of Abu Zayyan in the Marinids empire
1366: Accession of Abu Faris Abdul Aziz in the Marinids empire
1369: Amir Timur captures power in Transoxiana
1369: End of the rule of the Chughills
1369: In Tunisia, Death of Abu Ishaq
1369: Succession of Abu Baqa Khalid son of of Abu Ishaq Tunisia
1370: In Tunisia, Abu Baqa overthrown by Abul Abbas under whom the state is reunited
1370: In the Sarbadaran empire, Death of Amir Masud, succession of Muhammad Timur
1371: Invasion of Bulgaria by the Ottoman Empire
1371: Bulgarian territory up to the Balkans annexed by the Turks
1372: In the Marinid Empire, Death of Abu Faris, succession of Abu Muhammad
1373: Abu al-Fiḍā ‘Imād Ad-Din Ismā‘īl ibn ‘Umar ibn Kathīr al-Qurashī Al-Damishqī, known as Ibn Kathīr died; he was a highly influential exegete, historian, and scholar during the Mamluk era in Syria; an expert on Tafsir (Quranic exegesis) and Fiqh (jurisprudence); author of several books, including a fourteen-volume universal history titled Al-Bidaya wa'l-Nihaya and Tafsir Ibn Kthir
1374: In the Marinid Empire, Abu Muhammad overthrown by Abul Abbas
1375: In the Sarbadaran Empire, Deposition of Muhammad Aytimur, power captured by Shamsuddin
1375: In the Jalayar empire, Death of Owais, succession by his son Hussain
1376: In Kashmir, Death of Shahabuddin, succeeded by his brother Qutbuddin
1377: In the Bahmanids empire, death of Muhammad Shah, succeeded by his son Mujahid
1378: In the Bahmanids empire, assassination of Mujahid, the throne being seized by his uncle Dawud
1379: Turkomans of the Black Sheep empire, Bairam Khawaja found the Turkomans of the Black Sheep
1379: Bairam Khawaja stablished his capital at Van in Armenia
1379: In the Bahmanids empire, Assassination of Daud; accession of Muhammad Khan
1380: In the Golden Horde empire, Power is captured by Tokhtamysh, a prince of the White Horde of Siberia
1380: In Amir Timur's empire, Amir Timur crosses the Oxus and conquers Khurasan and Herat
1380: Amir Timur invades Persia and subjugates the Muzaffarids and Mazandaran
1381: In Amir Timur's empire, annexation of Sistan, capture of Qandhar
1384: In Amir Timur's empire, conquest of Astrabad, Mazandaran, Rey and Sultaniyah
1384: In the Muzaffarids empire, Death of Shah Shuja, accession of his son Zainul Abdin
1384: In the Marinid Empire, Abul Abbas overthrown by Mustansir
1384: Death of Bairam Khawaja, succession of Qara Muhammad
1386: In Amir Timur's empire, Annexation of Azarbaijan, Georgia overrun
1386: Subjugation of Gilan and Shirvan
1386: Turkomans of the Black Sheep defeated
1386: In the Marinid Empire, Death of Mustansir, succession of Muhammad
1387: In the Marinid Empire, Muhammad overthrown by Abul Abbas who comes to power for the second time
1388: In Algeria, death of Abu Hamuw II, succession of Abu Tashfin
1388: In the Tughluqs empire, Death of Firuz Shah Tughluq, succeeded by his grandson Ghiasuddin Tughluq II
1389: In the Muzaffarid Empire, death of the poet Hafiz Shirazi
1389: In the Tughluqs empire, Death of Ghiasuddin Tughluq II, accession: of Abu Bakr Tughluq Shah
1389: Turkomans of the Black Sheep empire, death of Qara Muhammad
1389: Accession of Qara Yusuf in the Tughluqs empire
1389: In Ottoman Empire Murad I fought the Battle of Kosovo against Christian army from Serbia, Croatia, Bosnia, Hungary and Wallachia
1389: Murad I was assassinated at the end of this battle and Yildirim Beyazid I became the new Sultan
1390: In the Tughluqs empire, Abu Bakr overthrow by Nasiruddin Tughluq
1390: In Bengal, Death of Sikandar Shah, accession of his son Ghiasud
1390: In the Burji Mamluks empire, The rule of the Burji Mamluks rounded by Saifuddin Barquq
1390: In Tunisia, the city of Mahdia is besieged by a French crusader army
1391: Annexation of Far inn Amir Timur's empires
1391: In the Muzaffarid Empire, Annexation of the Muzaffarids by Amir Timur
1391: In Granada, Death of Muhammad V, succession of his son Abu Hallaj Yusuf II
1392: In the Jalayar empire, Death of Hussain, succession of his son Ahmad
1392: In Granada, Death of Abu Hallaj; succession of Muhammad VI
1392: Abū Abdullāh Badr ad-Dīn Mohammed bin Abdullah bin Bahādir az-Zarkashī better known as Az-Zarkashī, died; he was a fourteenth century Islamic scholar; primarily a resident in Mamluk-era Cairo
1393: Amir Timur defeats Tiktomish, the ruler of the Golden Horde
1393: Capture of the Jalayar dominions by Amir Timur
1393: In the Marinid Empire, Death of Abul Abbas; succession of Abu Faris II
1393: Zain ad-Din, Abu al-Faraj, 'Abd ar-Rahman ibn Ahmad ibn 'Abd ar-Rahman ibn al-Hasan ibn Muhammad ibn Abi al-Barakat Mas'ud as-Sulami died; he was al-Baghdadi, al-Hanbali, also known as Ibn Rajab died; he was a Muslim scholar whose nickname was inherited from his grandfather who was born in the month of Rajab
1394: Amir Timur defeats the Duke of Moscow
1394: In the Tughluqs empire, Death of Nasiruddin Tugluq, accession of Alauddin Sikandar Shah
1394: In Kashmir, Death of Qutbuddin
1394: Turkomans of the White Sheep empire, Qara Othman established the rule of the White Sheep Turkomans in Diyarbekr
1395: In the Golden Horde empire, Amir Timur defeated Toktamish and razes Serai to the ground
1395: End of the rule of the Golden Horde
1395: Annexation of Iraq by Amir Timur
1395: In the Tughluqs empire, Death of Sikandar Shah
1395: Accession of Muhammad Shah in the Tughluqs empire
1396: Destruction of Sarai, and of the rule of the Golden Horde in the Amir Timur's empire
1396: In the Sarbadaran empire, Principality annexed by Amir Timur
1396: In Ottoman Empire Sultan Yildirim Beyazid I at the Battle of Nicopoli defeated an army of Christian Crusaders
1397: In the Bahmanids empire, Death of Muhammad Khan
1398: In the Amir Timur's empire, Campaign in India
1398: In the Marinid Empire, Death of Abu Faris II
1398: In the Tughluqs empire, Invasion of Amir Timur, Mahmud Shah escapes from the capital
1398: In Morocco, Death of the Marinid Sultan Abu Faris II; succession of his son Abu Said Othman
1399: In the Amir Timur's empire, Campaign in Iraq and Syria
1399: In the Burji Mamluks empire, Death of Saifuddin Barquq, succession of his son Nasiruddin in Faraj
1400: In Golden Horde Temur Qutlugh dies and is succeeded by Shadi Beg
1407: Shadi Beg is deposed and Edigu installs Pulad Khan as his successor
1400: The Burji Mamluks lose Syria to Tamerlane
1402: Beyazid I is defeated at the Battle of Ankara and taken captive by Tamerlane
1403: An interregnum period begins when the sons of Beyazid I compete for the Ottoman throne
1404: Al-Hafiz Zain al-Din 'Abd al-Rahim al-'Iraqi died; he was from a Kurdish family and born in Iraq who moved to Cairo; one of the leading Shafi'i scholars and scholars of hadith at his time among whose many students was reproted to include Ibn Hajar
1404: Nur al-Din `Ali ibn Abi Bakr ibn Sulayman, Abu al-Hasan al-Haythami died; he was born in the month of Rajab, a Shafi`i Islamic scholar from Cairo, whose father had a shop on a desert road
1405: Tamerlane dies and is succeeded by his son, Shah Rukh
1406: Ibn Khaldun died; he was known as father of sociology, historiography and modern economics, author of Muqaddimah
1410: Pulad Khan is deposed in favor of Timur
1412: Timur is deposed in favor of Jalal ad-Din khan, the first of Tokhtamysh's sons to take power since his death
1413: Jalal ad-Din khan is deposed in favor of his brother, Karim Berdi
1414: Karim Berdi is deposed in favor of Kebek
1416: Kebek Khan is deposed in favor of Yeremferden, the brother of Karim Berdi and Jalal ad-Din khan
1419: Yeremferden is assassinated; control of the Horde is split between Dawlat Berdi and Olugh Mokhammad
1413: Interregnum period ends and Mehmed I becomes Sultan
1419: Edigu is assassinated by Olugh Mokhammad, who assumes his place as Khan, re-uniting it with the Golden Horde
1420: Dawlat Berdi captures Sarai and expands his sphere of influence beyond the Crimean Peninsula
1423: Baraq defeats Dawlat Berdi and Olugh Mokhammad and takes control of the Horde. Olugh Mokhammad flees to Lithuania
1427: With the assistance of Vytautas the Great, Olugh Mokhammad and Dawlat Berdi defeat and kill Baraq
1420: Qara Yusuf dies and is succeeded by his son, Qara Iskander
1420: In Morocco Abu Said Othman is assassinated and succeeded by Abdul Haq, his infant son
1424: In Tunisia The Hafsids come to power
1425: In Uzbekistan Abul Khayr takes control of the Little jüz
1429: Abu al-Khayr Shams al-Din Muhammad ibn Muhammad ibn Muhammad ibn Ali ibn Yusuf al-Jazari died; he was a distinguished and prolific scholar in the field of the qira'at of the Qur'an, whom al-Suyuti regarded as the "ultimate authority on these matters"
1434: Qara Osman dies and is succeeded by Ali Beg
1438: Ali Beg is overthrown by his brother, Hamza
1432: Dawlat Berdi is assassinated and Hacı I Giray conquers the Crimea, founding the Crimean Khanate
1437: Olugh Mokhammad is defeated by Sayid Ahmad I, who takes control of the Horde
1434: Qara Iskandar is deposed in favor of his brother, Jahan Shah
1438: Olugh Mokhammad founds the Khanate of Kazan
1438: Barsbay dies and his son, Jamaluddin Yusuf, is prevented from taking power in a coup orchestrated by Saifuddin Gakmuk
1434: In Tunisia Abdul Faris dies after forty years of rule and is succeeded by Abu Abdullah Muhammad
1435: In Tunisia Abu Abdullah Muhammad is deposed in favor of Abu Umar Othman
1430: In Uzbekistan Abul Khayr occupies Khwarezmia
1440: Hamza is overthrown by Jahangir, a son of Ali Beg
1444: The Anti-Ottoman League of Lezhe in Albania is formed by Scanderbeg
1444: Murad II abdicates from his throne in favor of his son Mehmed II
1446: Murad II reclaims the throne.
1448: The Ottomans are victorious at the Second Battle of Kosovo
1448: Serbia is annexed and Bosnia is made a vassal in the Ottoman Empire
1446: Shah Rukh dies and is succeeded by Ulugh Beg
1449: Ulugh Beg dies and is succeeded by 'Abd al-Latif
1449: In Uzbekistan Abul Khayr captures Farghana
1453: Jahangir dies and is succeeded by his son, Uzun Hassan
1459: Küchük Muhammad dies and is succeeded by his son, Maxmud
1453: Gakmuk dies and is succeeded by his son, Fakhruddin Othman, who is then overthrown by Saifuddin Inal.
1453: Abū Muḥammad Maḥmūd ibn Aḥmad ibn Mūsā Badr al-Din al-'Ayni, often quoted simply as al-'Ayni (romanized: Badr al-'Ayni) died; he was a Islamic scholar of the Hanafi madh'hab
1451: Murad II dies and is succeeded by his son, Mehmed II
1453: Constantinople is captured
1453: Sidi Boushaki or Ibrahim Ibn Faïd Ez-Zaouaoui died; he was a maliki theologian born near the town of Thenia, 54 km east of Algiers
1453: Sidi Boushaki or Ibrahim Ibn Faïd Ez-Zaouaoui died; he was a maliki theologian born near the town of Thenia, 54 km east of Algiers; raised in a very spiritual environment with high Islamic values and ethics
1456: Wallachia is made a vassal
1450: 'Abd al-Latif is assassinated and succeeded by Abu Sa'id
1462: Albania is annexed in Ottoman Empire
1461: Saifuddin Inal died and is succeeded by his son, Shahabuddin Ahmad, who is then overthrown by Saifuddin Khushqadam
1465: In Great Horde Maxmud founds the Astrakhan Khanate after he is deposed by his brother, Akhmat Khan
1467: Jahan Shah is killed in a surprise attack arranged by his rival, Uzun Hasan, leader of Ak Koyunlu
1467: Ak Koyunlu annexes Kara Koyunlu
1465: In Morocco Abdul Haq is assassinated, ending the Marinid dynasty
1465: Sharif Muhammad al Jati assumes power in Morocco
1465: Khushqadam dies and is succeeded by his son, Saifuddin Yel Bey, who is then deposed by Temur Bugha.
1468: Temur Bugha is deposed by Qaitbay
1468: In Uzbekistan Abul Khayr dies and is succeeded by his son Haidar Sultan
1467: Kara Koyunlu is annexed
1468: The Timurids are defeated at the Battle of Qarabagh
1468: Ak Koyunlu then becomes the masters of Persia and Khorasan
1469: Abu Sa'id dies; the Timurid state
1469: Husayn Bayqarah maintains control of Greater Khorasan
1472: In Morocco Sharif Muhammad al Jati is overthrown by Muhammad al Shaikh, establishing the Wattasid dynasty
1473: Mehmed II defeats sultan Uzun Hasan of Ak Koyunlu at the Battle of Otluk Beli
1475: The Khanate of Crimea is conquered and made a vassal state
1475: Venice is defeated and the Ottoman Empire becomes master of the Aegean Sea
1478: Uzun Hasan dies and is succeeded by his son, Khalil ibn Uzun Hasan
1479: Khalil Hasan is overthrown by his uncle, Y‘aqub ibn Uzun Hasan
1479: Abdul-Rahman al-Tha'alibi (Abu Zayd‘Abd al-Raḥmān ibn Makhlūf ath-Tha‘ālibī) died; he was an Arab Scholar, Imam and Sufi Saint; born near the town of Isser 86 km south east of Algiers; raised in a very spiritual environment with high Islamic values and ethics
1497: Shams al-Dīn Muḥammad ibn ‘Abd al-Raḥmān al-Sakhāwi died; he was a reputable Shafi‘i Muslim hadith scholar and historian who was born in Cairo; named Al-Sakhawi" to refer to the village of Sakha in Egypt, where his relatives belonged; a prolific writer that excelled in the knowledge of hadith, tafsir, literature, and history
1449: Ibn Ḥajar al-ʿAsqalānī or Ibn Ḥajar (full name: Shihābud-Dīn Abul-Faḍl Aḥmad ibn Nūrud-Dīn ʿAlī ibn Muḥammad ibn Ḥajar al-ʿAsqalānī al-Kināni) died; he was a classic Islamic scholar and polymath "whose life work constitutes the final summation of the science of Hadith"


^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
Chaotic World 1480 C.E. - 1680 C.E.
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^


1480: In Great Horde Akhmat Khan is assassinated and succeeded by his son, Said Ahmad II
1481: Said Ahmad II is overthrown by his brother Murtada
1481: Mehmed II dies and is succeeded by Beyazid II
1481: Cen Sultan rebels
1488: In Uzbekistan Haider Sultan dies and is succeeded by his nephew, Shaybani Khan
1488: In Tunisia Abu Umar Othman dies and is succeeded by Abu Zikriya Yahya
1489: In Tunisia Abu Zikriya Yahya is overthrown by Abul Mumin
1490: In Tunisia Abul Mumin is overthrown and Abu Zikriya Yahya retakes the throne
1492: Granada is captured by Spain, ending 800 years of Muslim rule in Spain
1493: Y‘aqub ibn Uzun Hasan dies and is succeeded by his son, Baisonqur ibn Y‘aqub
1495: Baisonqur is overthrown by his cousin, Rustam ibn Maqsud
1497: Maqsud is overthrown by his cousin, Ahmad Gövde ibn Muhammad
1496: Qaitbay abdicates and is succeeded by his son, Nasir Muhammad
1498: Nasir Muhammad is deposed and replaced by Zahir Kanauh
1499: In Uzbekistan Shaybani Khan conquers Transoxiana
1499: In Great Horde Murtada dies and is succeeded by Said Ahmad III
1499: The Ottoman fleet defeats the Venetians in the Battle of Zonchio
1501: In Persia Ismail I establishes the Safavid dynasty
1502: The Golden Horde collapses into a number of smaller khanates
1505: Al-Suyuti; aka Jalaluddin died; he was an Egyptian scholar, historian and jurist from a family of Persian origin; described as one of the most prolific writers of the Middle Ages; author of biographical dictionary Bughyat al-wuʻāh fī ṭabaqāt al-lughawīyīn wa-al-nuḥāh with valuable accounts of prominent figures in the early development of Arabic philology
1507: The Kingdom of Portugal under Alfonso d'Albuquerque establishes trading outposts in the Persian Gulf
1508: Ak Koyunlu is absorbed by the Safavids
1511: In Malaysia D'Albuquerque conquers Malacca
1514: Sultan Selim I defeats Safavids at the Battle of Chaldiran
1516: Selim I defeats the Mamluks at the Battle of Merc-i Dabik and kills Sultan Kansu Gavri
1516: Selim I conqurerd Syria
1517: The Ottoman army crosses the Sinai desert, defeats the new Mamluk Sultan Tomanbai at the Battle of Ridaniye and Battle of Cairo and conquers Egypt
1517: The Sharif of Mecca presented keys to the holy cities of Mecca and Medina to Selim I and is declared their hereditary ruler
1517: Al-Mutawakkil, the last Abbasid caliph, formally surrenders the title of caliph to Selim I
1517: Shihāb al-Dīn Abu'l-‘Abbās Aḥmad ibn Muḥammad ibn Abī Bakr al-Qasṭallānī al-Qutaybī al-Shāfi‘ī died; he was also known as Al-Qasṭallānī, an Islamic scholar who specialized in hadith and theology
1527: In South East Asia (Indonesia) Fall of Majapahit empire, the last Hindu stronghold in South East Asia
1527: Demak established as first Islamic sultanate of Java
1520: Selim I dies and the reign of Suleiman I
1521: Suleiman I conquers Belgrade
1522: Suleiman I defeats the Knights Hospitaller and drives them from the island of Rhodes
1526: Suleiman I defeats the Hungarian army at the Battle of Mohács, where Louis II of Hungary dies
1526: Buda and Pest are taken by the Ottomans and Hungary is declared a vassal state of the Ottoman Empire
1529: Unsuccessful Ottoman siege of Vienna
1526: Babur destroys the Delhi Sultanate at the Battle of Panipat, laying the foundation of the Mughal Empire
1527: Babur annihilates the Rajput Confederacy of Rana Sanga at the Battle of Khanwa, ending the most dangerous threat to Muslim rule in India
1528: Babur defeats an Afghan army at the Battle of Kannauj
1529: Babur crushes an Afghan army at the Battle of Ghaghra, ending hopes of a Lodhi restoration
1534: Suleiman I conducts a military campaign against Safavid Shah Tahsmab and conquers Van, Baghdad, and Tabriz
1538: The Ottoman navy under the command of Barbarossa Khayreddin wins a naval victory against a combined Christian fleet at the Battle of Preveza
1533: Barbarossa Khayreddin is appointed the Admiral of the Ottoman fleet and governor of Algeria
1550: The architect Mimar Sinan builds the Suleiman Mosque in Istanbul
1550: The rise of the Muslim kingdom of Aceh in Sumatra
1552: The Khanate is conquered by the Tsardom of Russia
1550: Islam spreads to Java, the Maluku Islands, and Borneo
1556: Mughal dynasty reigns. Akbar founds the Mughal Dynasty in Northern India
1565: The Ottomans are defeated by the Knights Hospitaller during the Siege of Malta
1566: The Ottomans gain control of the Aegean islands
1566: Suleiman I dies and is succeeded by Selim II
1566: Shibab al-Dīn Abū al-ʿAbbās Aḥmad ibn Muḥammad ibn ʿAlī ibn Hajar al-Haytamī al-Makkī al-Ansārī known as Ibn Hajar al-Haytami al-Makki died; he was an Egyptian Arab muhaddith and theologian of Islam from the Banu Sa'd tribe who settled in the Al-Sharqiah province in Egypt
1567: ‘Ala al-Din ‘Ali ibn ‘Abd-al-Malik Husam al-Din al-Muttaqi al-Hindi died; he was a Islamic scholar who is known for writing Kanz al-Ummal
1568: In Spain Moriscos revolt during the Alpujarra uprising
1571: The Ottomans are defeated at the naval Battle of Lepanto
1578: In Morocco The Battle of Alcazarquivir at Alcazarquivir in Morocco
1578: King Sebastian of Portugal is killed
1588: The reign of Abbas I of Safavid begins
1601: Khandesh annexed by the Mughals
1603: Battle of Urmiyah
1603: Persia occupies Tabriz, Mesopotamia, Mosul and Diyarbekr
1603: Death of Mehmed III, accession of Ahmed I
1604: In Dutch Indonesia, death of Alauddin Rayat Shah, Sultan of Acheh, accession of Ali Rayat Shah III
1605: Death of the Mughal emperor Jalal-ud-Din Akbar; accession of Jahangir
1607: Annexation of Ahmadnagar by the Mughals
1609: Annexation of Bidar by the Mughals
1611: Kuch Behar subjugated by the Mughals
1612: Kamrup annexed by the Mughals
1617: Death of Ahmed I; accession of Mustafa I
1617: British East India Company begins trading with Mughal India
1618: Tipperah annexed by the Mughals
1620: In Ottoman Empire, deposition of Mustafa; accession of Osman II
1623: In Ottoman Empire, Mustafa recaptured power
1624: Marʻī ibn Yūsuf ibn Abī Bakr Aḥmad al-Karmī, often referred as Marʻī ibn Yūsuf al-Karmī died; he was a Muslim scholar and one of the most famous Hanbali scholars in Palestine region
1625: In Ottoman Empire, deposition of Mustafa, accession of Murad IV
1627: Death of the Mughal emperor Jahangir, accession of Shah Jahan
1628: Reign of Safavid Sultan Shah Abbas I comes to an end
1629: In Persia, death of Shah Abbas; accession of grandson Safi
1631: Death of Mumtaz Mahal, wife of Mughal Emperor Shah Jahan and the lady of Taj Mahal, Agra
1623: Persians grant capitulations (commercial privileges) to Dutch
1635: Military campaign of Ottoman Sultan Murad IV against Persians and conquest of Erivan castle
1635: Conquest of the castles of Maku, Hoy and Tabriz and destruction of their walls
1637: Death of Iskandar Muda in Indonesia; accession of Iskandar II
1637: Masjid-i Shah Mosque completed in Isfahan, Iran
1637 - 1641: Nuruddin ar-Raniri (Nur al-Din al-Raniri) serves as scribe to court of Aceh, Indonesia, propagating knowledge of Arabic and Persian texts
1638: In Ottoman, military campaign of Sultan Murad IV against Persians and conquest of Baghdad after a siege.
1638: Masjid-i Shah Mosque of Isfahan, Iran, completed
1639: Treaty of Qasr Shirin—permanent borders of Iraq and Iran established
1640: Death of Ottoman Sultan Murad IV, accession of his brother Ibrahim I
1640: Death of Sadr al-Din Shirazi (Mullah Sadra), great Islamic metaphysician
1641: Ottoman vassal state of Khanate of Crimea capture Azov. In Indonesia, death of Iskandar II; accession of the Queen Tajul Alam
1641: Shaykh Manṣūr Ibn Yūnus Al-Buhūtī, better known as al-Buhūtī died; he was an Egyptian Islamic theologian and jurist; espoused the Hanbali school of Islam and is widely considered to be the final editor and commentator ( Khātam-ul-Muḥaqqaqīn) whose legal writings are considered well-researched and concise, and are still studied and highly revered in Hanbali circles in Saudi Arabia, Syria, Qatar, Kuwait, and Egypt
1642: In Persia, death of Shah Safi, accession of Shah Abbas II
1645: Taj Mahal completed
1645: Start of the long-lasting Ottoman-Venetian War for the island of Crete by the landing of the Ottoman forces
1645: The conquest of the castle of Khania
1648: In Ottoman Empire, Ibrahim I deposed; accession of Mehmed IV
1656: In Ottoman Empire Mehmed Kuiprilli appointed the Grand Vizier with special powers
1656: In Ottoman Empire Mehmed Kuiprilli appointed the Grand Vizier with special powers
1658: Deposition of the Mughal emperor Shah Jahan, accession of Aurangzeb
1658 - 1707: Aurangzeb rules Mughal Empire, implementing religious rule of ʿulamaʾ and Islamic basis for character of state and society
1661: Death of Grand Vizier of Ottomans Mehmed Kuiprilli and appointment as the Grand Vizier of his son Ahmed Kuiprilli
1664: ʿAlawi dynasty rules Morocco
1665: Persians ceded capitulations to France
1667: Death of Shah Abbas II; accession of Shah Suleiman
1668: Conquest of the castle of Candia by the Ottomans concludes the long-lasting Ottoman-Venetian War on the island of Crete
1673: The Badshahi Masjid is constructed by Aurangzeb in Lahore, Pakistan
1675: Execution of the Sikh Guru Tegh Bahadur
1675: In Indonesia death of the queen Tajul Alam, accession of the queen Nur ul Alam
1676: Death of the Grand Vizier of Ottomans Ahmad Kuiprilli, appointment of Kara Mustafa
1678: In Indonesia, death of the queen Nur ul Alam, accession of the queen Inayat Zakia
1679: Ibn al-ʿImād died; he was full name ʿAbd al-Ḥayy bin Aḥmad bin Muḥammad ibn al-ʿImād al-ʿAkarī al-Ḥanbalī Abū al-Falāḥ, a Syrian Muslim historian and faqih of the Hanbali school


^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
Apocalyptic World 1680 C.E. - 1922 C.E.
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^


1680: Shivaji Bhonsale I, also referred to as Chhatrapati Shivaji died; he was an Indian ruler and a member of the Bhonsle Maratha clan; carved out an enclave from the declining Adilshahi sultanate of Bijapur that formed the genesis of the Maratha Empire; formally crowned 1674 the Chhatrapati (emperor) of his realm at Raigad
1682: Assam annexed by the Mughals
1682: Aurangzeb shifts the capital to Aurangabad in the Deccan
1683 - 1699: Ottoman–Hapsburg War
1683: The Ottomans put Vienna under siege and are defeated in the Battle of Vienna, marking the end of the Turkish advance into Europe
1683: Grand Vizier Kara Mustafa is executed for the failure of the expedition
1686: Annexation of Bijapur by the Mughals
1687: Kingdom of Golkonda annexed by the Mughals
1687: Second Battle of Mohács
1687: Deposition of Mehmed IV; accession of Suleiman II
1688: In Indonesia, death of Queen Inayat Zakia, accession of the queen Kamalah
1691: Death of the Ottoman Sultan Suleiman II; accession of Ahmed II
1692: Death of the Ottoman Sultan Ahmed II; accession of Mustafa II
1694: In Persia, death of Shah Safi, accession of Sultan Husayn
1696: Russia takes Azov in Crimea
1699: In Indonesia death of Queen Kamalah
1699: Treaty of Carlowitz results in expanded capitulatons by Ottomans to Europeans
1700: Murshid Quli Khan declares the independence of Bengal and establishes his capital at Murshidabad
1701 - 1876: Khoqand Khanate in Central Asia
1701 - 1800: Rise of Neo-Sufism and renewed interest in hadith scholarship as means for moral reconstruction of society
1703: In Nejd Sheikh Al-Islam and the foremost religious reformer Muhammad ibn Abd al Wahhab was born
1703: In Ottoman Empire Ahmed III becomes the Sultan
1705 - 1957: Husaynid dynasty in Tunisia
1707: Death of the Mughal emperor Aurangzeb, accession of his son Bahadur Shah
1711 - 1835: Qaramanli Turkish dynasty in Ottoman Tripolitania, Cyrenaica, and Fezzan
1711: War between Ottoman Empire and Russia (Russo-Turkish War (1710–11))
1711: Russia defeated at the Battle of Pruth and Treaty of the Pruth signed
1712: Death of the Mughal emperor Bahadur Shah I, accession of Jahandar Shah
1713: Jahandar Shah overthrown by his nephew Farrukhsiyar
1715: In Ottoman Empire the peninsula of Morea and other Adriatic fortresses that had been ceded to Venetian Republic are reconquered
1716: Defeat of Ottoman Empire armies by the Austrians under Prince Eugene of Savoy at Battle of Peterwardein and loss of strategic fortress of Temesvar
1718: In the war against Austria, Ottoman Empire for fortress of Belgrade
1718: By the Treaty of Passarowitz, Ottomans ceded Hungary
1719: Deposition of the Mughal emperor Farrukhsiyar
1719: Muhammad Shah ascends the throne
1719: In Sind, the Kalhoras came to power under Nur Muhammad Kalhora
1719: In Ottoman Empire start of a long-period of peace, enlightenment and prosperity that was later named the Tulip period
1722: Afghans seize Isfahan, bringing end to Safavid rule in Iran
1722: Saadat Khan found the independent state of Oudh
1722: Battle of Gulnabad between the Afghans and the Persians
1722: The Persians were defeated and the Afghans under Shah Mahmud became the masters of a greater part of Persia
1722: Shah Hussain taken captive, accession of Shah Tahmasp II
1730: Zanzibar freed from Portuguese rule and occupied by Oreart
1730: In Ottoman Empire Sultan Ahmed III is deposed by Patrona Insurrection which ends the Tulip period
1730: Mahmud I ascends the throne
1735: Start of war between Ottoman Empire and Russia (Russo-Turkish War (1735–39))
1736 - 1795: Afsharids in Persia
1737: Ottomans grant capitulations (commercial privileges) to Sweden
1737: Entry of Austria into (Russo-Turkish War (1735–39)) against Ottoman Empire
1739: Persian ruler Nadir Shah sacks the Mughal capital of Delhi in India
1739: In Ottoman Empire Austria signs the separate Belgrade Treaty and Russia signs the Treaty of Nissa to end Russo-Turkish War (1735–39)
1740: Ottomans grant capitulations (commercial privileges) to Sicily
1744: Al Bu Saʿid dynasty began to rule Oman
1744: Muhammad bin Saud, founder of the al-Saud dynasty, joined forces with the religious leader Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahhab, religion reformist and leader revival movement in Nejd
1747 - 1842: Durranis rule Afghanistan
1747: Ahmed Shah Abdali established Afghan rule in Afghanistan
1744: Muhammad bin Saud, founder of the al-Saud dynasty, joined forces with the religious leader Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahhab in Nejd
1748: Death of Mustafa ibn Kamal al-Din al-Bakri, revivalist of Khalwatiyah Sufi order
1750 - 1794: Zands rule Persia
1750: Muhammad Hayyat al-Sindhi died; he was an Islamic scholar who lived during the period of the Ottoman Empire; a prominent figure in the Naqshbandi order of Sufism
1752: Death of Shah Abdul Latif Bhitai, writer of Sassi Pannu, Sohni Mahinwal and Umer Marvo
1752: Ahmed Shah Durrani captured Punjab, Kashmir and Sind
1754: In Ottoman Empire death of Mahmud I and accession of Osman III
1755: Division of the Mataram Sultanate, Indonesia, the last major independent Muslim state in Java before Dutch colonisation
1756: Ottomans grant capitulation (commercial privileges) to Denmark
1757: In Ottoman Empire death of Osman III and accession of Mustafa III
1761: Death of Shah Waliullah Dehlavi
1761: Battle of Panipat
1761: Ahmed Shah Abdali came to India at the invitation of Shah Waliullah Dehlavi
1761: Ahmed Shah Abdali smashed rising Maratha Empire power in the Third Battle of Panipat
1762: Shah Wali Allah of Delhi, India, leader of Islamic revival in India
1764: Conversion to Islam of Areadi Gaya, ruler of Futa Bandu State in West Sudan
1768: Start of the war between Ottoman Empire-Russia (Russo-Turkish War (1768–74) )
1770: Burning of the Ottoman fleet at Naval Battle of Chesma by a Russian fleet that has come from Baltic Sea
1771: Conquest of the Crimean Peninsula by Russian forces and the end of Ottoman dominance over Khanate of Crimea
1773: Death of Ahmed Shah Abdali
1773: Ottomans grant capitulations to Spain
1774: In Ottoman Empire death of Mustafa III and accession of Abdul Hamid I
1774: Signing of the Treaty of Kuçuk Kainarji to end the Ottoman-Russian war (Russo-Turkish War (1768–74))
1774: Khanate of Crimea nominally gained independence but in fact became a dependency of Russia
1779: Signing of Aynalikavak Accord between Ottoman Empire and Russia
1781: Death of Ma Mingxin, Chinese scholar and member of Naqshbandiyah Sufi order
1783: End of Kalhora rule in Sind
1783: Russia occupies and annexes the Crimean Peninsula and ends the rule of Khanate of Crimea
1785 - 1868: Mangits rule Central Asia
1785 - Present: Naqshbandiyah movement leads anti-Russian resistance in Caucasus
1787: In Ottoman Empire start of war against Austria and Russia (Russo-Turkish War (1787–92))
1787: Death of Sultan Abdulhamid I and accession of Selim III
1789 - 1807: Sultan Selim III rules Ottoman Empire and tries to implement centralizing reforms
1790: Death of Sultan Muhammad ibn Abdallah ruler of Morocco encouraging revival of Islamic scholarship and study of hadith
1791: Signing of the Treaty of Sistova that ends the war between Austria and Ottoman Empire
1792 - 1822: Rule of Mawlay Sulayman in Morocco, Islamic reformer
1792: War between Ottoman Empire and Russia (Russo-Turkish War (1787–92)) ends with signing of the Treaty of Jassy
1792: Beginning of Ottoman reforms
1793: Selim III issues a set of new regulations for the Ottoman Empire
1794 - 1864: Jihad state in area of present-day Mali and Senegal
1796 - 1925: Qajar dynasty rules Persia
1797: Death of Agha Mohammad Khan Qajar, the Shah of Persia
1793: Russia invaded Dagestan
1798: Landing of the armies of French Republic under the command of Napoleon Bonaparte in Ottoman Province of Egypt
1798: Battle of the Pyramids
1798: French occupation of Egypt under Napoleon
1798: French withdrawal from Egypt
1798: Muhammad ʿAli comes to power in Egypt
1799: Defeat of the French expeditionary force from Egypt under Napoleon Bonaparte at Siege of Acre by the Ottoman defenders
1799: Ranjit Singh declared himself Maharajah of Punjab defeating Afghans
1799: Khoqand declared independent Islamic State
1799: Death of Tipu Sultan, the ruler of Kingdom of Mysore in India


^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
Apocalyptic World 1680 - 1922 ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^


1801 - 1900: European imperial expansion in the Muslim world
1801 - 1900: Study of Islam becomes separate field of university study in the West known as Orientalism”
1801 - 1802: Major Shiʿi shrines destroyed in Karbala and Najaf by Muslim coalitions
1803 - 1838: Padri movement in Sumatra
1803: Seikh Abdul Aziz bin Muhammad bin Saud assassinated
1803: Shah Shuja proclaimed King of Afghanistan
1804: Uprising under George Petrovich against Janissary garrison at Belgrade
1804: Othman dan Fodio established Islamic State of Sokoto in Northern Nigeria
1804 - 1805: Jihad in northern Nigeria against Gobir state led by Usuman dan Fodio
1804 - 1813: First Russo-Iranian War
1804 - 1813: Iran loses territory in Georgia, Armenia, and North Azerbaijan
1805 - 1849: Reforms introduced in Egypt by Muhammad ʿAli
1805: Saud bin Abdul Aziz captured Medina defeating the Ottoman Empire garrison
1805: Faraizi movement launched in Bengal
1805: Sultan Selim III appoints Muhammad Ali wāli of Egypt
1806: Khanate of Khiva came into limelight under the rule of Muhammad Rahim Khan
1806 - 1856: Rule of Sultan Saʿid Ibn Sultan of Oman, introduced European technology
1807: Selim III deposed by Janissaries
1807: Darqawi sect revolted against Turkish domination
1807: Tunisia repudiated suzerainty of Algeria
1808 - 1839: Rule of Sultan Mahmud II, founder of Council of Ministers and Council of Judicial Ordinances in Ottoman Empire
1808: Bairakdar, the Ayan of Rusçuk, arrived in Constantinople too late to restore Selim III
1808: Bairakdar installed Mahmud II, the sole surviving member of the Ottoman line
1808: Sanadi-i Ittifaq declared in Ottoman Empire—“Turkish Magna Carta”—first modern contract between Muslim ruler and subjects
1809: Treaty of Dardanelles establishing diplomatic immunity between Britain and the Ottoman Empire
1811: British occupied Indonesia
1811: Muhammad Ali consolidates power in Cairo
1812 - 1903: Sokoto caliphate
1812: Medina fell to Egyptians
1812: Treaty of Bucharest between Ottoman Empire and Russia end a war of 6 years
1813: Treaty of Gulistan ratifies Iran’s territorial losses to Russia in first Russo-Iranian War
1813: Mecca and Taif captured by Egyptian forces in Hejaz
1813: Ottomans recover Mecca and Medina
1814: Iran executed treaty of alliance with the British known as the Definitive Treaty
1814: Death of Saud bin Abdul Aziz
1814: King Othman of Tunisia assassinated by his cousin Mahmud
1814: Iran surrendered to treaty of alliance with the British known as the Definitive Treaty
1815: Death of Ahmad al-Tijani, founder of Tijaniyah Sufi order, major order in Morocco, West and North Africa
1816: British withdrew from Indonesia restoring it to the Dutch
1817: Death of Uthman Dan Fodio, head of Northern Nigerian reformist opposition to Hausa states and leader of Jihad in West Africa
1818: Combined Ottoman–Egyptian force razes al-Dirʾiyya, stronghold of first Saudi dynasty, and brings forcible end to first Saudi state
1818 - 1845: Faraʾidi of Bengal opposes Hindus and British
1819 - 1973: Barakzais in Afghanistan
1820 - 1885: Turco-Egyptian rule over Sudan
1821: Alexander Ypsilantis led Greek insurgents across the river Prut into Danubian Principalities
1821: The Greek War against the Ottoman Empire
1822: Death of Maulay Ismail in Morocco
1822: Greek assembly at Epidauros declared Greek independence from the Ottoman Empire
1825 - 1830: Dipanegara leads revolt in Java
1826: Revolts of Janissaries against Mahmud II
1826: Ottoman Sultan Mahmud II abolishes Janissaries as part of campaign to modernize military
1826 - 1828: Second Russo-Iranian War results in Russian victory and Treaty of Turkomanchai
1827: Malaya became a preserve of the British according to Anglo-Netherland treaty in 1824
1827: Hospital and medical school teaching Medicine opened in Cairo
1828: Russia declared war against Ottoman Empire
1828: Publication of first Turkish-Arabic newspaper in Egypt
1828: Treaty of Turcomanchay expands Russian capitulations to concessions in Persia following major military victory
1829: Treaty of Adrianople ends the war Russo Turkish war 1828
1830: French invade and colonize Algeria
1830: ʿAbd al-Qadir, leader of Qadiriyah tariqah, leads resistance in Algeria against France until 1847 and tries to establish Islamic state
1831: Death of Sayyid Ahmad Barelwi, leader of jihad movement in North India against Sikhs and British
1832: Turks defeated in the battle of Konya by Egyptian forces
1831: Sayyid Said, King of Oman, shifted his capital to Zanzibar
1833: The Convention of Kütahya ended the war between Egypt and the Ottoman Empire
1833: The Ottoman Empire granted the sultan of Egypt all of Syria and Adana
1833: The Treaty of Hünkâr İskelesi established alliance between the Ottoman Empire and Russia
1834: Abdul Qadir of Algeria recognized as ruler of the area under his control by the French
1835: Ottomans occupy Libya to block French expansion in North Africa
1836: Persia grants major economic and political concessions to Britain
1836: Ibn 'Abidin (Ibn ʿᾹbidīn) died; his full name: Muḥammad Amīn ibn ʿUmar ibn ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz ibn Aḥmad in ʿAbd ar-Raḥīm ibn Najmuddīn ibn Muḥammad Ṣalāḥuddin al-Shāmī, known in the Indian subcontinent as al-Shami; a prominent Islamic scholar and Jurist who lived in the city of Damascus in Syria during the Ottoman era
1836: Rashīd Aḥmad ibn Hidāyat Aḥmad Ayyūbī Anṣārī Gangohī died; he was an Indian Deobandi Islamic scholar; a leading figure of the Deobandi jurist and scholar of hadith whosse lineage reaches back to Abu Ayyub al-Ansari
1837: Death of Ahmad ibn Idris, Moroccan Sufi and teacher and founder of Idrisiyah tradition
1838: Treaty of Balta Limani makes permanent Ottoman capitulations to Britain
1839 - 1842: First Anglo-Afghan war
1839: Major reform edict in Ottoman Empire–Hatt-i Serif of Gulhane (Gulhane rescript), beginning Tanzimat (reform) era
1839: In response to threats by Egyptian wāli Muhammad Ali to declare himself independent
1839: Ottoman army began the invasion of Syria from the Euphrates
1839: The battle of Nezib
1839: The Turkish fleet in Egypt surrendered to Muhammad Ali in Alexandria
1839: The Hatt-ı Şerif of Gülhane (Supreme Edict of the Rose House) issued by sultan Abdülmecid I
1839: The Tanzimât reforms of the Ottoman Empire
1840: Quadruple Alliance by the European powers to force Egypt to relinquish Syria
1840: British free occupied Aden in Yemen
1840: Codified penal code promulgated in Ottoman Empire
1840: Hajji Shariʿatullah, founder of East Bengali Faraʾizi reform movement
1841: State of Adamawa established by Adams adjacent to Nigeria
1842: Amir Abdul Qadir, ousted from Algeria by the French
1842: Amir Abdul Qadir crossed over to Morocco
1842: Shah Shuja assassinated ending the Durrani rule in Afghanistan
1847: Amir Abdul Qadir surrendred to France under the condition of safe conduct to a Muslim country of his choice
1849: Death of Muhammad Ali of Egypt
1850: The Báb is executed by the Persian government
1850: Táhirih, a renowned poet and staunch advocate of Bábism also executed
1852: Release of Amir Abdul Qadir by Napoleon III
1852: ʿUmar Tal launches jihad in Senegal
1852: Release of Amir Abdul Qadir by Napoleon III
1852: Amir Abdul Qadir settled in Ottoman Empire
1852: Death of Muhammad ʿUthman al-Mirghani, founder of Khatmiyah Sufi order
1853 - 1856: Crimean War results in greater European influence and interference in Ottoman affairs
1853: Orthodox Christians in Ottoman territories failed to act as protector
1853: Russia occupied the Danubian Principalities of Moldavia and Wallachia in March
1853: The Crimean War took place between the Ottoman Empire and Russia
1853: Great Britain and France would declare war on Russia the following March
1856 - 1873: Yunnan leads rebellion against Chinese rule and tries to establish Muslim state
1856 - 1876: Young Ottomans demand constitutional system
1856: Major reforms (tanzimat)—Hatt-i Humayun declared in Ottoman Empire
1856: Treaty of Paris (March 30) ends Crimean War
1856: Russia ceded the mouths of the Danube and Bessarabia, returned Kurs, relinquished its claim as protector of Christians in the Ottoman Empire
1856: Russia agreed to the neutralization of the Muslim territories in the Black Sea
1857: British captured Delhi and eliminated Mughal rule in India after 332 years
1857: Last Mughal Emperor Bahadur Shah Zafar was exiled to Rangoon in Burma
1857: Failed Indian Mutiny, revolt against British occupation, resulting in formal British colonization of India and dissolution of Mughal Empire
1858: Feudal holdings abolished in the Ottoman Empire
1859: Imam Shamil laid down arms before Russian forces
1859: The Islamic State of Dagestan became a Russian province
1859: Death of Muhammad ibn ʿAli al-Sanusi of Libya, founder of Sanusiyah Tariqah and Islamic state
1860: Maulay Muhammad defeated by Spain
1860: Masjid-e-Abu Hurairah, established in Cardiff, is the first mosque in Britain
1860: Civil War between Syrian Druzes and Marionite Christians erupted
1861: Sultan Abd-ul-Mejid I died and is succeeded by Abdülaziz who reigned (1861-1876)
1861: Overthrow of the Bambara Empire by the Toucouleur Empire
1862 - 1867: Jihad in Senegal led by Ma Ba against French
1862: Faraizi movement fizzled out after the death of Dadu Miyan
1862: Overthrow of the Massina Empire by the Toucouleur Empire
1863: Banque Impériale Ottoamane established to function as Turkey's central bank
1864: ʿUmar Tal, Senegalese Islamic militant leader and thinker
1865: Khanate of Kokand liquidated by Russia
1865: Death of Ahmad al-Bakkaʾi al-Kunti, Sudanese religious and political leader
1867: Foundation of Dar al-Ulum in Deoband, to combine hadith studies and Sufism; as a center of Deobandi Indo-Pakistani reform movement
1869: Jamal al-Din al-Afghani exiled from Afghanistan to Egypt
1869: Suez Canal opens in Egypt
1871: Tunisia recognised suzerainty of Ottoman Empire through a firman
1873 - 1908: ʿUlamaʾ-lead resistance to Dutch occupation of Aceh
1873: Emirate of Bukhara and Khanate of Khiva made protectorates by Russia
1874: Death of Ibrahim al-Rashid, founder of Rashidiyah, Salihiyah, and Dandarawiyah Sufi orders
1876 - 1909: Sultan Abdulhamid II rules Ottoman Empire and pursues pan-Islamic ideal as caliph
1876 - 1909: Rise of Young Turk movement in opposition to Sultan’s rule, calling for destruction of Ottoman Empire
1876: Britain purchased shares of Khediv Ismail in the Suez canal to get involved in Egyptian affairs
1876: Ottoman Empire adopts Ottoman Constitution and codification of some parts of the shariʿah, known as the Ottoman Code of Obligations (Mecelle)
1876: New sultan, Abdulhamid II suspended secular Mecelle constitution
1878 - 1880: Second Anglo-Afghan war
1878: Conference of Berlin
1878: Ottoman Empire ceded territories to Russia or Balkan countries
1878: Ottoman Empire handed over Cyprus to Britain
1879 - 1882: Urabi revolt against European influence in Egypt, leading to British occupation and later rise of nationalism in Egypt
1879 - 1886: Mecelle in Ottoman Empire—basis for codification of law of contracts in Muslim world
1879: Jamal al-Din al-Afghani exiled from Egypt
1879: Treaty of Berlin
1879: Abu 'Abd Allah Muhammad ibn Ishaq ibn al-'Abbas al-Fakihi died; he was an eminent 9th-century historian and hadith scholar of Mecca; a narrator of hadiths from preeminent hadith scholars such as Muhammad Ibn Ismail al-Bukhari, Muslim ibn al-Hajjaj, Abu Hatim al-Razi and Abu Zur'ah Jurjani
1880: Naqshbandiyah Sufi order leads Kurdish uprising, freeing most of Iranian Kurdistan from Iranian control
1881: Mahdist mission declared in Sudan under leadership of Muhammad Ahmad ibn ʿAbdallah as imamate led by Ansar religio-political movement
1881: France invaded Tunisia
1881: The treaty of Bardo
1881: Muhammad Ahmad declared himself Mahdi in northern Sudan
1882: Egypt came under British military occupation
1883: Death of Amir Abdul Qadir in Damascus
1883: Birth of Islamic journalism in Russian Empire with publication of Tercüman by Gasprinski
1883: Death of ʿAbd al-Qadir, leader of Algerian opposition to French imperialism after 1830 and Sufi mystic and poet
1884: Publication of al-Urwa al-Wuthqa, by Jamal al-Din al-Afghani and Muhammad ʿAbduh marks important development of Arabic and Islamic political journalism
1885: Muhammad Ahmad declared free Government of Sudan under his rule
1885: Death of Muhammad Ahmad, Mahdi of Sudan and founder of Islamic state
1889: Ahmadiya founded by Mirza Ghulam Ahmad in India
1889: First mosque established in England
1890: End of the Toucouleur Empire
1890 - c. 1914: First wave of Muslim (largely Arab) immigrants to the United States until World War I
1889: Shah Jahan Mosque opened in Woking (England)
1895: Afghanistan got Wakhan Corridor by an understanding with Russia and British India making Afghan border touch China
1895: Death of Ahmad Cevdet Pasha Shaykh al-Islam of Ottoman Empire
1896: First public cinema screenings in Egypt and Algeria
1897: State of Bagirimi occupied by the French
1897: Death of Jamal al-Din al-Afghani, father of Islamic modernism
1898: Mahdist state of Sudan defeated by British
1898: Rashid Ridda begins publishing al-Manar in Egypt—journal serves as leading mouthpiece of Islamic reformist ideas
1898 - 1955: British control Sudan
1899 - 1920: Muhammad ʿAbdallah Hasan leads resistance to British in Somalia
1899: Fall of Muhammad Ahmad's Mahdi State in Sudan occupied by the British and the Egyptians jointly
1900 - 1912: French and Spanish protectorates established in Morocco
1900: First public cinema screening in Dakar
1900: Foundation of Urdu Defence Association, establishing Urdu as the official language of Hyderabad state in India
1901: Abd al-Aziz Ibn Saud captures Riyadh
1901: French forces occupy Morocco
1901: Persia grants D’Arcy Concession, giving Britain rights over oil industry
1903: Birth of Syed Abul Ala Maududi (Founder of Jamaat-e-Islami)
1903: First public cinema screening in Lagos, Nigeria
1904: Morocco becomes a French protectorate under the Algeciras Conference
1905: First public cinema screening in Tehran and Istanbul
1905 - 1911: Constitutional Revolt in Iran places limits on Shah’s power
1905: The beginning of the Salafiyyah Da'wah in Paris with its main sphere of influence in Egypt
1906: Establishment of All-India Muslim League, vehicle for foundation of Pakistan as homeland for Indian Muslims
1906: Codification of Islamic law of obligations in Tunisia
1907: The beginning of the Young Turks movement in Turkey
1907: Death of Ahmed Lutfi Efendi, one of last official Ottoman court historians
1908: Second phase of Constitutional monarchy in Ottoman Empire (Turkey)
1908 - 1912: Young Turk Constitutional period
1908 - 1918: Young Turk era and rise of Pan-Turanism (Pan-Turkism)
1908: Young Turk revolution in Ottoman Empire
1908: Regrouping of Sudanese Ansar movement as religious order
1908: First public cinema screening in Aleppo
1908: Completion of Hijaz Railway connecting Istanbul to Medina
1908: First modern school of fine arts established in Cairo
1909: First public cinema screening in Baghdad
1909: Ittihad-i Muhammadi Cemiyeti founded as religious and political organization in opposition to Committee of Union and Progress (CUP) in Turkey
1909: Death of Abu al-Huda al-Sayyadi, Syrian Sufi Shaykh and supporter of Ottoman Sultan
1911: War of Tripolli between Ottoman Empire and Italy
1911: Society of Call and Guidance (Jamaʿat al-Daʿwah wa-al-Irshad) founded in Egypt by Muhammad Rashid Rida as cornerstone for Ottoman Pan-Islamic activities
1911 - 1913: Balkan wars set stage for campaigns against Ottoman Empire
1911 - 1943: Libya under Italian rule
1912: Sarekat Islam cooperative founded in Indonesia, part of the Muhammadiyah reform movement
1912: Balkan wars began with the coalition of four Balkan countries against Ottoman Empire (Turkey)
1912: Codification of Islamic law of obligations in Moroccan Code
1912: Nationalist Revolution in China results in virtual control of wide portions of Chinese northwest by Muslim warlords
1912: Foundation of Sarekat Islam, Indonesia’s first mass political party
1912: Death of Nazir Ahmad, pioneer in development of Urdu novel, focusing on social and moral themes and need for female education
1912: Foundation of Putri Mardika (liberated women) in Jakarta as women’s wing of Budi Utomo movement, becomes one of Indonesia’s most influential women’s movements
1912: Treaty of Fez makes Morocco a French and Spanish protectorate, triggering the Fez riots
1912: Morocco placed under French Protectorate
1912: Treaty of Ouchy following War of Tripolli
1912: Muhammadiyah founded in Southeast Asia
1913: Mohammad Ali Jinnah joined All India Muslim League
1913: Quasi-Islamic African-American movement Moorish Science movement founded in New Jersey by Timothy Drew (Noble Drew Ali)
1914: Ottoman capitulations to European countries abolished
1914: World War I begins
1914: The Ottoman Empire enters the war allied with Germany in World War I
1914: Egypt becomes a British protectorate
1914 - 1935: Second major wave of Muslim (largely Arab) immigrants to the United States
1914: Death of Jamal al-Din al-Qasimi, Syrian reformist scholar
1915: Ottoman Empire defeats Allies in Çanakkale (Dardanalles)
1916: Launching of Arab Revolt by the Grand Sharif of Mecca against Ottoman Empire
1916: Secret Sykes–Picot Agreement divides Arab territories between Britain and France following the dissolution of the Ottoman Empire
1916: Arab Revolt against Ottoman rule in Hijaz, Palestine and Syria
1916: Lawrence of Arabia leads attacks on the Hejaz Railway
1916: Muslims and Hindus join together in Lucknow Pact seeking more self-rule in India and other reforms from the British government
1917: British Government issues Balfour Declaration, promising national home to Jewish people in Palestine
1917: Jerusalem falls to British and remains under British mandate until creation of Israel in 1948
1917: Abadi Begum (Bi Amman) pushes boundaries of purdah in India by becoming spokesperson for imprisoned sons
1917 - 1930: Basmachi movement in Central Asia, calling for unity based on Islam in opposition to Bolshevik occupation and control
1918 - 1948: Palestine under British rule
1918: Tripolitanian Republic declares independence from Italian Libya and becomes the first republican government in the Arab world
1919: Jamʿiyatul ʿUlama-i Hind established as organization of Muslim religious scholars of India to participate in Khilafat movement
1919 - 1925: Khilafat movement in India in support of caliphate
1919 - 1928: Muslim National Communist era in Soviet Union
1919: The Ottomans Empire signs the Armistice of Mudros with the Allies on October 30. World War I ends on November 11. Syria becomes a French protectorate
1919: The first revolution in Egypt led by Saad Zaghlul against British occupation
1919: After the Third Anglo-Afghan War ended with the signing of the Treaty of Rawalpindi, King Amanullah Khan declared Afghanistan a sovereign and fully independent state
1920: Ottoman Sultan Mehmed VI signs the Treaty of Sèvres, reducing the Empire to a fraction of its previous size and allowing for the indefinite presence of Allied forces in Turkey
1920: Emirate of Bukhara and Khanate of Khiva conquered by Bolshevik Russia
1920: Turkish War of Independence
1920: Short-lived Hashemite Kingdom of Syria establish, which surrendered to French forces after the Battle of Maysalun
1920: Britain acquires mandate power over Palestine
1920: Destour founded in Tunisia to seek voice in French colonial government through constitution and elected parliament
1921: Abdullah I of Jordan son of the Sharif of Mecca in made King of Transjordan
1921: Faisal I of Iraq, son of the Sharif of Mecca, is made King of Iraq
1921: Emirate of Transjordan established under British mandate and trusteeship
1921: Anticolonial uprising in began in Morocco to pave way for foundation of Istiqlal party seeking independence
1921 - 1926: Rif Rebellion in Morocco, major insurrection against French and Spanish protectorate authorities
1921: Abd al-Karim leads a revolt against colonial rule in Moroccan Rif, and declares the "Republic of the Rif"
1921: Death of Alahazrat Molana Ahmad Raza Khan Barelvi
1921: Treaty of Kars between Soviet Russia and Turkey
1921: Reza Khan Pahlavi stages largely bloodless coup in Persia
1921: Muhammad ʿAbd Allah Hasan, leader of major anti-imperialist holy war against British in Somaliland
1922: Armistice of Mudanya
1922: Turkish nationalists under the leadership of Mustafa Kemal seize control of Turkey and abolish the Ottoman Sultanate
1922: Sultan Mehmed VI flees Turkey
1922: The 600‑year‑old Ottoman Empire officially ceases to exist
1922: Egypt unilaterally granted independence by the United Kingdom
1922: Egypt declares monarchy and new constitution
1922: Death of Enver Pasha, Ottoman Turkish general and commander of Ottoman armies during World War I


^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
Current World 1922 C.E. - 2022 C.E.
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^


1923: Mustafa Kemal secures Allied recognition of Turkey's independence in the Treaty of Lausanne and subsequently declares the Republic of Turkey
1923: Ankara officially replaces Constantinople as Turkish capital
1923: Treaty of Lausanne establishes Turkish independence and permits respect for Islamic family law in Greece
1923: Foundation of Cumhuriyet Halk Partisi (Republican People’s Party) in Turkey
1923: Hadji Ahmad Dahlan, founder of Indonesian Muhammadiyah movement
1924: King Abd al-Aziz Ibn Saud conquers Mecca and Medina, leading to the unification of the Kingdoms of Najd and Hejaz
1924: Ottoman/Turkish caliphate and shariʿah court system abolished by Mustafa Kemal Ataturk
1924: Last Ottoman Sultan, Abdulmecid, sent into exile
1925: Reza Khan seizes the government in Persia and establishes the Pahlavi dynasty
1925 - 1930: Rif Rebellion in Morocco as national liberation struggle led by Sufis
1925 - 1979: Pahlavi dynasty in Iran
1925: Kemal Ataturk abolishes Sufi orders, closes sacred tombs and shrines, and bans wearing fez in Turkey
1925: The Great Syrian Revolt breaks out across the various statelets of Syrian and Lebanon against French rule, which ultimately was put down by force in 1927
1926: Abd al-Aziz Ibn Saud assumes title of King of Najd and Hejaz
1926: Islamic law replaced by Swiss and Italian-based Civil Code in Turkey, resulting in completely secular code of law regulating the family
1926: Central mosque founded in Paris, France
1926: Nahdatul ʿUlamaʾ established in Indonesia as social organization
1926: Lebanon proclaimed a parliamentary republic under French protectorate
1927: Death of Zaghlul, an Egyptian nationalist leader
1927: Tablighi Islam founded by Mawlana Muhammad Ilyas as a major movement of Islamic religious renewal
1927: Turkey adopts Western-inspired family law code
1927: Jamaʿat al-Shubban al-Muslimim founded as Pan-Islamic Egyptian political association in Cairo
1927: Amadu Bamba, founder of the Muridiyah Sufi order in Senegal
1927: Abū Ibrāhīm K͟halīl Aḥmad ibn Majīd ‘Alī Anbahṭawī Sahāranpūrī Muhājir Madanī died; he was a Deobandi Hanafi Islamic scholar from India who authored Badhl al-Majhud, an 18-volume commentary on the hadith collection Sunan Abi Dawud; a Sufi shaykh of the Chishti order; a disciple and successor of Rashid Ahmad Gangohi
1928: Muslim Brotherhood founded in Egypt by Hasan al-Banna
1928: Reference to Islam as religion of state eliminated in Turkey
1928 - 1941: Frontal assault by Soviet authorities against Islam, including closing and/or destruction of mosques
1928: Turkey is declared a secular state
1928: Publication of Our Woman in the Shariʿah and Society by al-Tahir al-Haddad
1929: Militant conflicts between Palestinians parties and Jewish settlers in Jerusalem over access to the Wailing Wall
1929: Timothy Drew (Noble Drew Ali), founder of Moorish Science movement in the United States, quasi-Islamic African-American movement
1930: Nation of Islam founded in Detroit, MI, by W. D. Fard
1930 - 1939: Egypt, Turkey, and Iran develop own radio broadcasting and use it for national integration, government news and information, and state propaganda and ideology
1931: Foundation of Association of Algerian ʿUlamaʾ to promote Arab and Islamic roots of Algerian nation and revive and reform Islam
1931: Muhammad Nejatullah Siddiqi, pioneer Indian Islamic economic theorist
1931: A General Islam Conference held in Jerusalem over the Zionism question with delegates from North Africa, Egypt, the Arabian Peninsula and Mesopotamia issues first Pan Arabic resolution
1931: North Africa, Egypt, the Arabian Peninsula and Mesopotamia issues first Pan Arabic resolution
1931: Death of ʿUmar al-Mukhtar, Libyan Sanusi leader of anti-Italian resistance
1931: Death of Husayn ibn ʿAli, amir and sharif of Mecca and leader of Arab revolt against Ottoman Empire during World War I
1932: Kingdom of Saudi Arabia established as the modern state based on the alliance between the theological tradition of Muhammad ibn ʿAbd al-Wahhab and political rule by the Saʿud family
1932: Khurshid Ahmad, theorist of Islamic economics
1932: Iraq granted independence by League of Nations
1934: War between King Abd al-Aziz Ibn Saud and Imam Yahya of the Yemen
1934: Peace treaty of Taif
1934: Asir becomes part of Saudi Arabia
1934: Neo-Destour founded in Tunisia, leading drive for independence from France
1934 - 1936: Codification of Iranian Civil Code
1935: Muslim Brotherhood opens branch in Syria
1935: Iran establishes secular education beyond elementary school
1935: Death of Shaykh ʿIzz al-Din al-Qassam in Palestine, leader of Palestinian Islamic movement
1935: Muhammad Rashid Rida, co-founder of Salafiyah movement in Egypt and Islamic modernist movement
1936: Increased Jewish immigration leads to the Arab revolt in Palestine
1936: Anglo-Egyptian Treaty, recognizing Egyptian independence from Britain
1936: Iran outlaws the niqab for women and introduced anti-Sunni family law
1936 - 1939: Palestinian “Arab Revolt” against British policy in Palestine, led by al-Hajj Amin al-Husayni, mufti of Jerusalem and president of Supreme Muslim Council in mandatory Palestine
1936: The demonstrations against Zionist state repressied by the British Army
1936: Death of Qarib Allah Abu Salih, Sudanese teacher and member of Sammaniyah Sufi order
1937: Death of Abu Shuʿayb al-Dukkali, Moroccan Salafi theologist
1938: Bahram Bayzai, Persian playwright and cinematographer
1938: In Turkey dictator Mustafa Kemal Atatürk died
1938: İsmet İnönü became second president of Turkey
1939: British White Paper favoured Palestinian demand for national independence with Arab majority
1939: British White Paper decided on policies to restrict Jewish immigration to Palestine as well as land sales to Jews
1939: Split between Muslim Brotherhood and Muhammad’s Youth in Egypt due to internal disputes
1939: Parliament of ex France protectorate Republic of Hatay decides to join Turkey
1939: Start of World War II
1940 - 1943: Foundation of Arab Socialist Baʿth Party in Syria as Arab nationalist ideology
1940: Lahore Resolution passed, committing Muslim League to creation of separate Muslim state for Indian Muslims
1940: ʿAbd al-Hamid ibn Badis, Islamic reformer, national leader, and head of Association of Algerian ʿUlamaʾ
1941: British and Russian forces invade Iran and Reza Shah is forced to abdicate in favor of his son Mohammad Reza Shah
1941: Sayyid Abul Ala Maududi founds Jamaat-e-Islami, the Muslim Brotherhood's South Asian counterpart
1941: Religious instruction banned in schools in Iran
1941: Reign of Muhammad Reza Shah Pahlavi, last Shah of Iran
1942 - 1943: Creation of “special section” of Muslim Brotherhood as secret apparatus inspired by jihad for the defense of Islam and Egyptian society
1942: Muhammed Hamdi Yazır also known as Elmalılı Hamdi Yazır and Elmalılı died; he was a Turkish Maturidi theologian, logician, Qur'an translator, Qur'anic exegesis scholar, Islamic legal academic, philosopher and encyclopedist
1943: National Pact of Lebanon agreed upon, assuring dominance of Christian Arabs in political process based on numerical superiority in 1932 census
1943: Lebanon's National Pact stipulated president of country to be Maronite Christian, prime minister Sunni Muslim, and speaker of chamber of deputies
1943: Istiqlal Party founded in Morocco, seeking independence from France and Spain
1943 - 1962: Istiqlal (Independence Party) as leading Moroccan nationalist party, helping to bring end to French and Spanish protectorates
1944 - 1948: Armed units of Muslim Brotherhood join with Secret Organization of the Free Officers commanded by Gamal Abdel Nasser to oppose Egyptian monarchy
1944: ʿAbd al-Aziz al-Thaʿalibi, founder of the Destour party in Tunisia
1945: Founding of League of Arab States, also known as Arab League
1945: End of World War II
1945: Indonesia declares independence from the Netherlands
1945: Indonesia New leader Sukarno decides not to implement sharia law nationwide
1945: Fidaʾiyan-i Islami founded in Tehran as religio-political organization
1945: Republican party formed in Sudan to oppose establishment of Mahdist monarchy and unification of Sudan with Egypt
1945: Sudanese Ummah party founded by pro-independence nationalists
1945: Third wave of Muslim immigrants to the United States, composed increasingly of both Arabs and South Asians
1946: Transjordan wins independence and becomes Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan
1946: Jordan, Lebanon, and Syria wins independence from Britain and France
1946: Jamiʿyatul ʿUlama-i Islam branches off from Jamiʿyatul ʿUlama-i Hind in India due to Indian nationalist stance
1946: Jamiʿyatul ʿUlama-i Hind declared opposition to creation of separate homeland for Indian Muslims
1946: Muslim Brotherhood create branches in Palestine
1946: Founding of United Malays National Organization
1947: India gains independence from Britain
1947: Pakistan is created from the region's Muslim-majority areas under the Leadership of Muhammad Ali Jinnah
1947: Disputes over the status of Kashmir leads to the first Indo-Pakistani War
1947: Kashmir is divided between India and Pakistan
1947: UN Resolution 181 passed, recommending partition of Palestine into two states, one Arab and one Jewish
1948: Arab countries attack the new state of Israel and suffer defeat in war with Israel
1948: Hundreds of thousands of Palestinians are displaced
1948: Quaid-e-Azam Mohammad Ali Jinnah dies in Karachi
1948: State of Israel declared
1948: Jordan claims mandate for Jerusalem
1948: Jamiʿyatul ʿUlama-i Pakistan established as largest Barelwi ʿUlamaʾ party in Pakistan
1949: Hasan al-Banna, leader of the Muslim Brotherhood, is assassinated by Egyptian security forces
1949: Foundation of Awami League in East Pakistan (later Bangladesh)
1949: Codification of Egyptian Civil Code
1949: Attempted assassination of Shah of Iran
1949: Second East Turkestan Republic overthrown and re-incorporated into Xinjiang
1950: Religious education mandatory in Turkish schools unless parents object
1950: Mevlevi Sufi order permitted to resume ceremonial practices
1951: Libya gains independence
1951: Idris ibn al-Mahdi, grandson of Muhammad ibn ʿAli al-Sanusi, becomes king of newly created Libya
1951: Sanusiyah Tariqah gains influence in leadership and nationalistic roles of Libya
1951: Mohammed Mossadegh appointed prime minister of Iran
1951: Formation of Partai Islam Se-Malaysia (PAS) as independent Islamic political party in Malaysia
1951: Jordan reforms law of family rights to restrict polygyny and divorce and expand women’s right to divorce on certain grounds
1952: Gamal Abdel Nasser and Free Officers seize power in Egypt under banner of pan-Arabism and Arab socialism
1952: King Faruq of Egypt forced to abdicate by the free officers led by Gamal Abdel Nasser
1953: Backed by American and British intelligence agencies, General Zahedi leads a coup against Mohammed Mossadegh, returning the Shah to power
1953: Death of King Abd al-Aziz Ibn Saud of Saudi Arabia
1953: The foundation stone is laid to enlarge the Prophet's mosque in Medina
1953: Shah of Iran restored to power in coup overthrowing Mossadegh regime with assistance of US Central Intelligence Agency, establishing paradigm of distrust of the CIA and concerns about potential American imperialism in the Middle East
1953: Foundation of Hizb al-Tahrir al-Islami in Jerusalem as Islamic political party seeking revival of Islamic caliphate
1953: Muslim Brotherhood opens branch in Jordan
1953: Benazir Bhutto becomes female Prime Minister of Muslim-majority country
1954 - 1962: Algerian war for independence from France
1954: Gamal Abdel Nasser bans the Muslim Brotherhood
1956: Morocco wins independence
1956: Tunisia gains independence
1956 - 1972: Sudan achieves independence, descends into civil war
1956: Pakistan adopts constitution declaring itself an Islamic Republic with a Muslim head of state and based upon Islamic principles; Islamic research center deemed necessary for reconstruction of Muslim society on Islamic basis
1956: Tunisia and Morocco achieve independence and France
1956: Jordanian martial law forbids secular political parties, creating opportunity for Muslim Brotherhood to build societal support
1956: Tripartite Aggression in Egypt caused by nationalization of the Suez Canal
1957: The Bey of Tunisia is deposed, and Bourguiba becomes president
1957: Enlargement of the Haram in Mecca begins
1957: The Federation of Malaya, later renamed Malaysia, gains independence from Britain
1957: Husain Ahmad Madani, president of Jamiʿyatul ʿUlama-i Hind
1958: President Iskander Mirza declares Martial Law
1958: General Ayub Khan assumes the powers as Chief Martial Law Administrator
1958: "Free Officers" of the army overthrow Hashemite monarchy of Iraq in 14 July Revolution
1960: Higher Council of Islamic Affairs founded in Cairo to promote daʿwah (propagation of Islam)
1960 - 1969: Organization of Islamic Action founded in Karbala, Iraq, as major Shiʿi opposition movement to Baʿthist regime
1960 - 1969: PERKIM (Pertubuhan Kebajikan Islam SeMalaysia, or All-Malaysia Muslim Welfare Association) founded in Malaysia as religious and social welfare organization
1960: Mali and Senegal become independent
1960: Nigeria becomes independent, with some national leaders descendants of founders of Sokoto caliphate
1961: Israeli Knesset ratifies Qadis Law, stipulating that qadis in Israel must be selected by committee with Muslim majority, appointed by president of Israel, and dispense justice in accordance with Israeli laws
1961: Foundation of Liberation Movement of Iran
1960: Military coup in Turkey purges executive, military, judiciary branches and university
1960: Malcolm X (Malcolm Little, El-Hajj Malik El-Shabazz, became powerful voice and visionary of Nation of Islam, Pan-Africanist, Pan-Islamist, and civil and human rights advocate
1961: Kuwait becomes independent as British mandate
1961: Kuwait becomes the first Gulf country with a written constitution and parliament
1961: Ahmad bin Muhammad bin al-Siddiq al-Ghumari died; he was a Muslim traditionist and scholar of Hadith from Morocco
1962 - 1972: Conflict in Yemen between Zaydi Imams in north and Republicans in south
1962: Algeria wins independence from France
1962: Muslim World League founded in Saudi Arabia
1962: United Kingdom Islamic mission founded in London
1962: al-Azhar University in Cairo opens college for girls for advanced religious studies
1962: End of Zaydi Imamate in Yemen
1962: North Yemen Civil War begins
1962: Death of Zaydi Imam of Yemen (Ahmad)
1962: Death of Sukarmadji Maridjan Kartosuwiryo, leader of Dar ul Islam’s military forces in Indonesia
1962: In Yemen Crown Prince Bahr succeeds him and takes the title Imam Mansur Bi-Llah Muhammad
1962: Muslim World League is founded in Mecca
1962: North Yemen Civil War begins
1963: Clerical opposition to Shah’s government in Iran increases, particularly in Shiʿi educational city of Qom, resulting in government crackdown
1963: Baʿth Party seizes power in Syria
1963: Death of Mahmud Shaltut, reformer of al-Azhar
1963: ʿAbd El-Krim, Moroccan leader of Rif Rebellion and Islamic reformer
1964: Foundation of Mujahidin-i Khalq, an Iranian religious but anti-clerical organization, opposition to the Islamic Republic established by Khumayni
1964: American Muslim leader Malcolm X (Malcolm Little, El-Hajj Malik El-Shabazz) converts to orthodox Sunni Islam
1965: American Muslim leader Malcolm X is assassinated
1965: The second Indo-Pakistani War results in a stalemate
1965: Malaysia grants independence to Singapore
1965: In Indonesia, anti-communist witch-hunts give political Islamists an advantage over Communists
1965: Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) formed as recognized representative of the Palestinian people
1965: Foundation of Islamic Pact in Saudi Arabia
1965: Israeli Succession Law abolishes exclusive jurisdiction of Shariʿah courts in succession matters
1965: Formation of Jammu and Kashmir Liberation Front calling for secular, independent Kashmir
1965: Zaytunah in Tunisia abolished as independent educational institution and absorbed into University of Tunis as School of Theology and Islamic Studies
1966: Execution of Sayyid Qutb, prominent writer for Muslim Brotherhood who gave movement radical, militant tone, by Nasser in Egypt
1966: Singapore’s Administration of Muslim Law Act permits Malay custom to modify application of Islamic law
1966 - 1976: Cultural Revolution in China leads to Muslims become focus of antireligious and anti-ethnic nationalist critiques, resulting in widespread persecution of Muslims and closure of mosques
1966: Sayyid Ibrahim Husayn Shadhili Qutb died; he was known popularly as Sayyid Qutb; an Egyptian author, educator, revolutionary, Islamic theorist, poet, and a leading member of the Egyptian Muslim Brotherhood in the 1950s and 1960s; convicted of plotting the assassination of Egyptian President Gamal Abdel Nasser and was executed by hanging
1966: Ahmadu Ibrahim Bello, Sardauna of Sokoto died; he was knighted as Sir Ahmadu Bello; a conservative Nigerian statesman who masterminded Northern Nigeria through the independence of Nigeria in 1960; Northern Nigeria's first and only premier from 1954 until his assassination, in which capacity he dominated national affairs for over a decade
1966: Abubakar Tafawa Balewa, KBE PC died; he was a Nigerian politician who was the first and only Prime Minister of Nigeria
1967: In the Six-Day War between Israel and Egypt, Syria and Jordan, Israel seizes control of Jerusalem, the West Bank, Gaza Strip, the Sinai Peninsula, and the Golan Heights
1967: More Palestinians are displaced
1967: Beginning of Infitah policy in Egypt as Sadat moves away from Soviet Union in wake of Six-Day War
1967: People's Republic of South Yemen becomes independent
1967: Biafra attempts to secede from Nigeria triggering Nigerian Civil War
1968: The enlargement of the Haram in Mecca is completed
1968: Israel begins building Jewish settlements in Palestinian territories occupied during the Six-day war
1968: Dar ul Arqam founded in Malaysia as voluntary, nongovernmental, grassroots Islamic daʿwah movment
1968: Saddam Hussein comes to power in Iraq in Baʿth Revolution
1968: Patani United Liberation Organization founded in Thailand as Muslim separatist organization
1968: ʿAli al-Mirghani, leader of Sufi brotherhood in Sudan and active patron of nationalist parties
1969: King Idris of Libya is ousted by a coup led by Colonel Qadhdhafi
1969: Colonel Muʿammar al-Qadhdhafi becomes head of government i Libya
1969: Al-Qadhdhafi announces in Libya own version of Islamic state as “Third Universal Alternative”
1969: Jaʿfar al-Numayri seizes power in the Sudan
1969: Minbar in al-Aqsa Mosque in Jerusalem burned, leading King Faisal of Saudi Arabia to call for jihad against Israel and to organize an Islamic summit conference combining pan-Islamism with Arabism
1969: Moro National Liberation Front founded in the Philippines
1969: Republican party in Sudan changes name to Republican Brothers or New Islamic Mission
1969: Ethnic riots in Malaysia
1969: Muhammad ibn Ibrahim Al ash-Sheikh died; he was the Grand Mufti of Saudi Arabia, or highest religious authority in the country, from 1953 to his death; recognised as being amongst the forefront of Salafi theologians in history
1970 - 1977: Zulfiqar ʿAli Bhutto Prime Minister of Pakistan, marking period of constitution and compromise with Islamic groups
1970: Death of Gamal Abdel Nasser, Anwar Sadat becomes president of Egypt
1970: Anwar Sadat continues preparation of the army for the next war with Israel
1971: Bengalis in East Pakistan under the leadership of Sheikh Mujibur Rahman begin campaigning for independence from West Pakistan
1971: India enters conflict in East Pakistan, causing the third Indo-Pakistani War which culminates in the creation of Bangladesh
1971: Organization of the Islamic Conference founded—first official pan-Islamic institution for cooperation among Islamic governments
1971: Libya adopts Shariʿah
1971: Kareem Abdul-Jabbar becomes first Muslim American to be named Most Valuable Player by the National Basketball Association (NBA) and to win an NBA Championship
1971: Muslim Youth Movement of Malaysia (ABIM) founded
1971: Mujahidin-i Khalq launches guerrilla struggle against the Shah’s regime in Iran
1971: Death of ʿAbd al-Razzaq al-Sanhuri, Egyptian jurist, legal scholar and architect of civil codes in several Arab countries
1972: During the Summer Olympic Games in Munich, West Germany, eleven members of the Israeli Olympic team were taken hostage by Palestinians
1972: National Salvation Party founded in Turkey by Necmettin Erbakan with goal of Islamic state and Islamization of Turkish life
1972: ABIM (Angkatan Belia Islam Malaysia, or Malaysian League of Muslim Youth) founded in Malaysia as mission movement and political party
1972: Council of Muslims Communities founded in Canada
1972: World Assembly of Muslim Youth (WAMY) established in Saudi Arabia
1972: Islamic Call Society founded in Libya to carry out missionary work
1972: Violence between Muslims and Christians erupts in the Philippines, leading to declaration of martial law
1972: Ḥassan al-Kettani died; he was a Muslim preacher and former political prisoner from Morocco
1973: King Zahir Shah of Afghanistan is overthrown
1973: “Operation Badr” or October War between Arabs and Israel, with Egypt recovering some of territory lost to Israel in 1967 war
1973: Arab oil embargo against West enhances Arabs economic power in world affairs
1973: Islamic Council of Europe established to address status of Muslim minorities
1973: Suleymanli movement begins to found Islamic Cultural Centers in Germany to organize labor migrants from Turkey and meet their religious needs
1973: Libyan leader Muʿammar al-Qadhdhafi publishes The Green Book, outlining his “Third Universal Theory” defining socio-political system based on Islam
1973: Syria declares secular constitution
1973: Partai Persatuan Pembangunan founded as Islamic political party in Indonesia
1973: Yom Kippur War, also known as 1973 Arab-Israeli War, amounting to a failed attempt to recapture the Sinai peninsula and Golan Heights by Egypt and Syria from Israel
1973: Death of Muhammad Allal al-Fasi, Moroccan intellectual, historian, and founder of Istiqlal Party
1974: Beginning of Infitah policy in Egypt, announced by Sadat in an "October paper," representing a move away from Nasser-era socialism
1974: Organisation of Islamic Cooperation conference held in Lahore
1974: Ahmadis declared kafir (non-Muslim) in Islamic Republic of Pakistan
1974: Belgium officially recognizes Islam, opening door to Islamic religious activities receiving financial aid
1974: Turkey launched a military invasion on Cyprus 1974 following the coup d'état engineered by the Greek junta
1974: Death of Shaykh Taqi al-Din al-Nabhani, Palestinian founder of Islamic Liberation Party in Jordan
1974: Death of Messali al-Hajj, first Algerian nationalist leader in the twentieth century
1974: Death of al-Hajj Amin al-Husayni, mufti of Jerusalem and nationalist leader during British rule over Palestine
1975 - 1990: Lebanese civil war
1975: Indonesia invades and occupies East Timor
1975: King Faisal of Saudi Arabia is assassinated by his half-brother's son Faisal bin Musa'id
1975: Death of Elijah Muhammad, leader of Nation of Islam among African Americans in North America
1975: Warith Deen Muhammad assumes leadership of Nation of Islam and shifts movement toward Islamic Orthodoxy
1975: Nation of Islam was renamed it American Muslim Mission
1975: World Council of Mosques established as counterpart to World Council of Churches
1975: Foundation of Indonesian Council of ʿUlamaʾ
1975: Foundation of Hizb-i Islami Afghanistan as Islamic resistance movement
1975: Sectarian civil war begins in Lebanon with more than 100,000 killed and a million refugees left Lebanon
1976: King Faisal Foundation established to promote charitable work, research, and Islamic studies
1976: Murtala Muhammed assassinated; he was a Nigerian general who led the Northern counter-coup forces in overthrowing the Republic of Nigeria; featured prominently during the Nigerian Civil War; ruled over Nigeria from 30 July 1975 until his assassination
1977: General Zia ul-Haq topples Prime Minister Bhutto in bloodless coup
1977: Zia committed himself to a policy of "Islamization" of Pakistan
1977: Foundation of Faysal Islamic Banks in Egypt and Sudan and Kuwait Finance House
1977: Central Mosque and Islamic Cultural Centre opened in London, England
1977: Egyptian president Anwar al-Sadat visits Jerusalem
1977: Philippines adopts Code of Muslim Personal Laws and establishes new shariʿah courts to apply it
1977: Muhammad Taqi al-Din bin Ibrahim bin Mustafah bin Ismail bin Yusuf al-Nabhani died; he was an Islamic scholar from Jerusalem; founder of the Islamist political party Hizb ut-Tahrir
1977: Modibo Keïta died; he was the first President of Mali (1960–1968) and the Prime Minister of the Mali Federation; espoused a form of African socialism; involved in various associations; claimed a direct descent from the Keita dynasty, the founders of the Muslim medieval Mali Empire
1978: As part of the Camp David Accords, Egypt becomes the first Arab nation to recognize Israel
1978: Israel returns the Sinai Peninsula to Egypt
1978: Communist People's Democratic Party of Afghanistan seized power in Afghanistan in the Saur Revolution
1978: Israel invades Lebanon
1978: Pakistan announces creation of Shariʿah courts
1978: Signing of Camp David Accords, establishing “cold peace” between Egypt and Israel
1978: Israeli Arabs given right to perform Hajj on Israeli passports
1978: Labor Party founded in Egypt as only legal Islamist party
1978: Communist coup in Afghanistan creates circumstances opening the door to the Soviet invasion of 1979
1978 - 1979: Khomeini's Iranian Revolution—Islamic Republic of Iran founded, Shah abdicates and goes into exile
1978: Civil war ensues in Afghanistan
1979: Seizure of Grand Mosque of Mecca by Shia terrorists led by Juhayman al-Utaybi and Muhammad al-Qahtani (declared the Mahdi) in Saudi Arabia
1979: The seizure of the Haram of Mecca was brought to an end
1979: The Soviet Union invades Afghanistan
1979: Death of Sayyid Abul al-Aʿla Mawdudi, founder of Jamaʿat-i Islami in Pakistan
1979: American Embassy in Tehran seized by militant supporters of Khomeini protesting US ties to Shah, Sipah-i Pasdaran-i Inqilab-i Islami (Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps) established to protect revolution
1979: Shiʿi riots in Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia, calling for chaos and destruction supported by Iranian Khomeini terror regime
1979: Soviet Union invades Afghanistan, sparking 10-year war resulting in collapse of Afghan society and bringing mujahidin to power
1979: Pakistani Abdus-Salam becomes first Muslim to win the Nobel Prize for science in shared award for physics
1979: Pakistan implements Hudood Ordinances as part of Islamization of politics and former Prime Minister Zulfikar ʿAli Bhutto is executed by military regime
1979: Groupement Islamique en France founded to expand Islamic preaching to immigrant workers
1979: Iranian Hizbullah founded
1979: Islamic Jihad Community formed in Egypt by Muhammad ʿAbd al-Salam Faraj
1980: Iraq-Iran tensions lead to beginning the 8-year Iran–Iraq War
1980 - 1983: Foundation of Harakat al-Tawhid al-Islami as militant Sunni movement in Lebanon
1980: Islamic Jihad founded in Palestine by Muslim Brotherhood
1980: Abol-Hasan Bani Sadr elected first president of Iran
1980: Regional Islamic Daʿwah Council of Southeast Asia and the Pacific (RISEAP) formed
1980: General Evren deposes Turkish prime minister in a coup in which 500,000 were arrested
1980 - 1988: Iran–Iraq War
1980: Death of Mai Tatsine (Muhammadu Marwa), leader of separatist sect in Kano, Nigeria
1980: Death of Muhammad Reza Shah Pahlavi, last ruling monarch of the Pahlavi dynasty of Iran
1981: American Embassy taken hostages bu Iran freed after 444 days in captivity
1981: Iranian President Bani Sadr removed by Ayatollah Khomeini
1981: - 1985: Iran’s “Reign of Terror”
1981: Egyptian president Anwar Sadat is assassinated by militants opposed to his autocratic policies and recognition of Israel
1981: Muhammad Hosni Mubarak became president in Egypt
1981: The 444-day Iranian hostage crisis comes to an end
1982: Hafiz al-Asad of Syria levels city of Hama in a genocide to put down opposition movement led by Muslim Brotherhood
1982: Israel invades southern Lebanon for second time
1982: Massacre of inhabitants in Palestinian camps of Sabra and Shatilla in Lebanon
1982: World Council for Islamic Call founded in Libya by Muʿammar al-Qadhdhafi
1982: Islamic Society of North America (ISNA) formed as umbrella organization for Muslim professional groups
1982: Hizbullah organization established in Lebanon
1983: September Laws passed in Sudan for implementation of shariʿah
1983: Union des Organisations Islamiques de France founded as umbrella organization for Islamization
1983: Second civil war in Sudan
1983: Refah Partisi, Turkish Islamist party also known as Welfare Party, founded as heir to National Order Party (MNP) and National Salvation Party (MSP)
1983: Council of Masajid of Canada established
1984: Muslim Brotherhood permitted to participate in Egyptian elections
1984: Hizbullah hijacks Kuwaiti airliner
1984: Prince Sultan bin Salman bin Abdulaziz Al Saud becomes first Muslim and Arab astronaut, flying with Discovery mission
1985: Israel withdraws from most of Lebanon, remaining in “security perimeter”
1985: Foundation of Federation Nationale des Musulmans de France to facilitate practice of Islam in France
1985: Hizbullah hijacks US airliner to demand that Israel free Lebanese Shiʿi prisoners
1985: International Islamic University at Islamabad founded in Pakistan as central institution for the coordination of the Islamization process
1985: Execution in Sudan of Mahmud Muhammad Taha for apostasy
1986: Sobhi R. Mahmassani died; he was a Lebanese legal scholar, practising lawyer, judge, and political figure helped to build the legal and civic foundations of the then-nascent country of Lebanon, and whose writings on Islamic jurisprudence remain authoritative works on this topic for legal scholars and researchers
1986: Muhammad Salih al-Farfur, also Mohammed Saleh al-Farfour (romanized: Muḥammad Ṣāliḥ al-Farfūr) died; he was born 1901 in Damascus during Ottoman Empire; was an influential Islamic scholar and Founder of the Maʿhad al-Fatḥ Institute
1987: First Intifada begins in Palestine
1987: HAMAS founded at beginning of Palestinian intifada
1987: Muslim Brotherhood permitted to participate in Egyptian elections
1987: Qazi Husain Ahmad becomes amir of Jamaʿat-i Islami in Pakistan
1987: National Islamic Front publishes its charter in Sudan, explaining its Islamization program
1988: The Iran–Iraq War comes to an end following much loss of life
1988: First Nagorno-Karabakh War, an ethnic conflict between ethnic Armenians in the southeast of Azerbaijan
1988: President Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq of Pakistan is killed in a plane crash caused by a mysterious mid-air explosion
1988: "October riots," mainly by young people in Algeria
1988: Benazir Bhutto elected Prime Minister of Pakistan, first elected female head of state in Muslim world
1988: MTI (Mouvement de la Tendance Islamique) becomes Tunisia’s leading opposition group, changes name to Hizb al-Nahdah (Renaissance Party)
1988: Naguib Mahfouz becomes first Muslim and first Arab to win the Nobel Prize for Literature
1989: Iran's Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini made fatwā calling on people to kill Salman Rushdie for his blasphemous Satanic Verses
1989: June Ayatollas Kohmeini dies and is succeeded by Ali Khamenei as the Supreme Leader of Iran
1989: Hashemi Rafsanjani elected president of Iran
1989: Lieutenant-General Omar Hassan al-Bashir seizes power in Sudan—tied to National Islamic Front
1989: Tunisia refuses to allow Islamist Party, Nahdah Party (formerly MTI, or Mouvement de la Tendance Islamique) to participate in elections
1989: Liberation of Afghanistan from occupation by Soviet Union, largely due to efforts of mujahidin
1989: Taʾif Accord brings end to Lebanese civil war
1989: Foundation of Conseil National des Francais Musulmans (CNFM)
1989: Islamic representatives participate in Israeli municipal elections and win nearly 30% of total seats
1989: Jordan lifts martial law and grants political freedom to all parties; subsequent parliamentary elections result in Islamists winning 40% of seats in lower house
1989: Establishment of Al-Khoie Benevolent Foundation as humanitarian and Islamic educational organization
1989 - 1992: Series of terrorist attacks by Kurdish rebels in Turkey in quest to win independence for Kurdistan
1990: Iraq invades Kuwait
1990: FIS (Islamic Salvation Front) wins municipal and communal elections in Algeria, coming to power through democratic process, rather than revolution
1990: Conseil Religieux de l’Islam en France (CORIF) founded in France to represent French Muslims to the government
1990: Organization of the Islamic Conference issues Cairo Declaration on Human Rights in Islam
1990: Emergence of Islamic Renaissance Party in the Soviet Union under Tatar Islamic leadership
1990: Assassination of Egyptian People’s Assembly speaker Rifʾat al-Mahjub
1990: North Yemen and South Yemen reunite
1991: A coalition of United States-led forces attacks Iraq and reverses its attempted military annexation of Kuwait
1991: US-backed economic sanctions are imposed on Iraq
1991: The Soviet Union collapses - predominantly Muslim republics Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan all become independent
1991: Armenian military occupies one-sixth of Azerbaijani territory expelling over 800,000 ethnic Azerbaijanis from the occupied lands and Armenia proper
1991: United Somali Congress topples regime of military dictator Siad Barre
1991: In the Horn of Africa, the national military forces disband and form regional militias as part of Somali Civil War
1991: In Algeria Islamic party Islamic Salvation Front (Front Islamique du Salut (FIS)), which supported state implementation of sharia laws, wins substantial majority of first stage of parliamentary elections
1991: A military coup takes place in Algeria
1991: The Islamic Salvation Front (Front Islamique du Salut (FIS)) in Algeria is banned and leaders imprisoned
1991: Algerian Civil War begins after Islamic party Islamic Salvation Front (Front Islamique du Salut (FIS)) was banned
1991: FIS (Islamic Salvation Front) wins parliamentary elections in Algeria and is poised to take leadership of country
1991: Right of religious worship restored to Albania, including first legal Muslim prayer service since Albania was declared an officially atheistic state in 1967
1991: AMAL disarms in Lebanon
1991: Last American and British hostages held by Hizbullah freed
1991: Sectarian violence between Muslims and Christians erupts in several cities in Upper Egypt
1991: Leading Jordanian Muslim Brotherhood figure form cabinet, heading important ministries
1991: Peace negotiations for Israeli–Palestinian conflict begin in Madrid
1991: United States encourages popular uprising against Saddam Hussein regime in Iraq
1991: Khaleda Zia becomes first female Prime Minister of Bangladesh
1992: The 400-year-old Babri Masjid in Ayodhya, India is destroyed by Hindu extremists, sparking widespread religious rioting across India
1992: United Nations Forces, mainly Americans, enter Somalia
1992: All mosques in Egypt placed under government control via anti-terrorism law
1992: Military prevents FIS (Islamic Salvation Front) from coming to power in Algeria, cancelling results of democratic parliamentary elections
1992: Algerian government crack-down on FIS, leading to civil war which claimed over 100,000 lives in the following decade
1992: Destruction of Babri Masjid mosque near Lucknow, India, by Hindu extremists
1992: Hizbullah participates in first Lebanese elections in 20 years, sweeping Shiʿi vote and winning 8 parliamentary seats
1992: Islamic coalition government founded in Afghanistan
1992: Last German hostages held by Hizbullah freed
1992: Spain officially recognizes Judaism and Islam as religions enjoying religious liberty and cooperative relationship with state
1992: Outbreak of civil war between Serbia, Croatia and Bosnia resulting in use of rape as weapon of war and ethnic cleansing of Bosnian Muslims
1992: Pakistan wins World Cup in cricket for the first time
1992: Saudi Arabia establishes Majlis al-Shura as consultative council with appointed membership
1992: Release of internationally acclaimed film, Malcolm X, by Spike Lee
1992: Abubakar Mahmud Gumi died; he was an outspoken Islamic scholar and Grand Khadi of the Northern Region of Nigeria (1962–1967), a position which made him a central authority in the interpretation of the Sharia legal system in the region; a close associate of Ahmadu Bello, the premier of the Northern region in the 1950s and 1960s
1992: Adam Abdullah Al-Ilory died; he was a leading Benin-Nigerian Islamic scholar; born into the family of late Sheikh Abdul Baqi al-Ilory who was the son of Abdullah; a Maliki scholar and the author of several books in the Arabic language; a Sufi ascetic in the Qadiriyya order; founded the Arabic and Islamic Training Centre in Agege Lagos, Nigeria, in 1952
1993: Oslo I Accord between Israel and PLO signed
1993: Anwar Ibrahim becomes Deputy Prime Minister of Malaysia
1993: Pakistan holds elections in which Jamaʿat-i Islamiyah is permitted to participate
1993: Jordan holds elections in which Islamic Action Front participates
1993: Islamic representatives increase power in Israeli municipal elections
1993: Muslim Brotherhood remains largest single organized bloc following Jordanian parliamentary elections
1993: Tansu Ciller becomes first female Prime Minister of Turkey
1993: February Bombing of World Trade Center in New York City, tied to Shaykh ʿUmar ʿAbd al-Rahman and Ramzi Yousef
1993: Abu al-Fadl Abdullah bin Muhammad bin al-Siddiq al-Ghumari died; he was a Muslim preacher, scholar of hadith, jurist and theologian from Morocco
1994: Nigerian-American Muslim Hakeem Olajuwon becomes the only player in NBA history to win an NBA Championship, Championship Series Most Valuable Player Award, and NBA Defensive Player of the Year Award simultaneously
1994: 25 February Baruch Goldstein (Jewish settler) kills 29 worshippers at Mosque of the Patriarch in Hebron, provoking suicide bombings by Qassam Brigade (military wing of HAMAS)
1994: Islamist part, Refah (Welfare) Party wins mayoral elections in more than a dozen major cities in Turkey, including Ankara and Istanbul
1994: Oussama Cherribi becomes first Muslim elected to Dutch parliament
1994: Jordan becomes the second of Israel's Arab neighbors to recognize Israel
1994: First war between Russia and Chechen Republic begins
1995: Israel Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin assassinated by right-wing orthodox Jew over Oslo Accord
1995: Islmaist party, Refah (Welfare) Party wins enough seats in National Assembly to make its leader, Necmettin Erbakan, Turkey’s first Islamist prime minister
1996: Taliban forces seize control of most of Afghanistan and declare the Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan
1996: After leading his Welfare Party to a surprise victory in the 1995 general elections, Necmettin Erbakan becomes the first pro-Islamic Prime Minister of modern Turkey
1996: Al Jazeera Satellite Channel with loan from the Emir of Qatar launches Arab language satellite news service
1996: Abdal-Hamid Kishk died; he was an Egyptian preacher, scholar of Islam, activist, and author; a graduate of the prestigious Al-Azhar University in Cairo and was known for his humour, popular sermons, and for his outspoken stance against music, restrictions on polygamy, and injustice and oppression in the Muslim world
1997: Mohammad Khatami elected president of Iran, opening door to United States for cultural, scholarly, and economic exchanges
1997: Algeria resumes parliamentary elections, although FIS (Islamic Salvation Front) barred from participating
1997: November Attack against tourists in Luxor, Egypt
1997: Abdu-l-Fattaah Aboo Ghuddah Ansari died; he was a Syrian Muslim Brotherhood leader and Sunni Hanafi Muslim scholar; born in 1917 in Aleppo; the third Supreme Guide of the Syrian Muslim Brotherhood, taking over from Issam al-Attar in 1973
1998: Pakistan becomes the first Islamic republic to have the nuclear power as it successfully conducted five nuclear tests on May 28
1998: Amidst growing criticism of his economic policies, longtime Indonesian leader General Suharto resigns after over thirty years in power
1998: Islamist party, Refah Party in Turkey declared unconstitutional and banned from political activity and assets seized by state
1998: Deputy Prime Minister and leader of ABIM, Anwar Ibrahim, removed from power in Malaysia
1998: Bangladeshi-born Baroness Pola Manzila Uddin becomes first Muslim and first Asian woman to serve in the British House of Lords
1998: Led by Muslim captain Zinedine Zidane, France wins the World Cup in soccer for the first time
1998: Former deputy prime minister of Malaysia Anwar Ibrahim, a vocal critic of prime minister Mahathir Mohamad, is arrested and imprisoned on charges of sodomy
1998: Bombing of US Embassies in Nairobi and Dar es Salaam engineered by Al-Qaeda
1998: Muhammad Metwalli al-Sha'rawi died; he was a Islamic scholar, former Egyptian minister of Endowments and Muslim jurist; called one of Egypt's most popular and successful Islamic preachers, and "one of the most-prominent symbols of popular Egyptian culture" in the 1970s, 1980s and 1990s
1998: Moshood Kashimawo Olawale Abiola, also known as M. K. O. Abiola died; he was a Nigerian businessman, publisher, and politician; decorated as the Aare Ona Kankafo XIV of Yorubaland and an aristocrat of the Egba clan; ran for the presidency in 1993, for which the election results were annulled by the preceding military president Ibrahim Babangida
1999: Abd al-Aziz ibn Abdullah ibn Baz (ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz ibn ʿAbdullāh ibn Baz) died; he was also known as Sheikh Bin Baz; a Saudi Arabian Islamic scholar; the Grand Mufti of Saudi Arabia from 1993 until his death
1999: Kargil war breaks out between Pakistan and India
1999: Death of Jordan's King Hussein
1999: King Hussein's son Abdullah is declared king of Jordan
1999: Indonesia relinquishes control of East Timor, which is granted independence under a UN-sponsored act of self-determination
1999: Bangladeshi-American M. Osman Siddique becomes first Muslim to be appointed as a US Ambassador
1999: al-Jazeera expands to 24-hour news coverage and broadcasts first interview with Osama bin Ladin
1999: Merve Kavakci sparks debate about religious freedom in Turkey when she is prevented from taking her elected in seat in the Turkish parliament because she is wearing a headscarf
1999: Twenty Saudi women attend a session of the Majlis al-Shura (Consultative Council) for the first time
1999: Abdurrahman Wahid becomes first elected president of Indonesia
1999: General Pervez Musharraf seizes control of Pakistan after a military coup against the government of Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif
1999: Muḥammad Nāṣir al-Dīn al-Albanī, an Albanian Islamic scholar and watchmaker died; he was a famous hadith scholar; a major figure of and influence in the Salafi Da'wah of Islam who established his reputation in Syria, where his family had moved and where he was educated as a child
2000: Palestinians in the West Bank and Gaza Strip begin the Al-Aqsa Intifada, prompted by Ariel Sharon's visit to a disputed religious site holy to both Jews and Muslims
2000: President Hafez al-Assad of Syria dies of a heart attack. His son Bashar al-Assad is elected President by Syria's Majlis Al Shaa'b (Parliament)
2000: Russia occupies Grozny, the capital of Chechnya, in Second Chechen War
2000: General Parvez Musharraf overthrows the democratically elected government of Nawaz Sharif in Pakistan
2000: Adoption of Sharia by several northern states in Nigeria leads to deadly clashes between Muslims and Christians
2000: Attack against USS Cole attributed to al-Qaʿida
2001: Abu 'Abd Allah Muhammad ibn Saalih ibn Muhammad ibn Sulayman ibn Abd Al Rahman Al Uthaymeen Al Tamimi died; he was a Saudi Arabian scholar; described as a "giant of Islam"; considered to be one of the greatest Muhaddith and Faqīh of the modern era
2001: First Damascus Spring was brought to an end by the arrest of 10 civil society activists who were sentenced to between two and 10 years
2001: Damascus arrests 10 civil society activists and sentenced them to between two and 10 years
2001: The Taliban began the systematic shelling and dynamiting of two giant sixth century Buddhas carved into the side of a cliff in the Banyam valley in central Afghanistan
2001: On September 11 the United States was attacked by hijacking commercial airliners and flying them into the World Trade Center in New York City and the Pentagon in Arlington County, Virginia, killing upwards of three thousand
2001: The United States government declares a War of terror, beginning with the invasion of Afghanistan
2001: The 7.7 Mw  Gujarat earthquake shakes Western India with a maximum Mercalli intensity of X (Extreme), leaving some 20,023 dead and about 166,800 injured
2001: Muqbil bin Hadi bin Muqbil bin Qa’idah al-Hamdani al-Wadi’i al-Khallali died; he was an Islamic scholar and considered to be the reviver of Salafism in Yemen; the founder of a Madrasa in Dammaj which was known as a centre for Salafi Da'wah and its multi-national student population
2002: General elections in Pakistan are held after the 1999 military takeover
2002: In Pakistan, PML (Q) led by Mian Muhammad Azhar, a pro-military party, gains majority throughout Pakistan
2002: Mir Zafrullah Khan Jamali became the Prime Minister of Pakistan
2002: The riots between Hindus and Muslims in Gujarat, India. More than 5000 reported killed, most of them Muslims
2002: Chechen rebels take 800 hostages in the Moscow theater hostage crisis
2002: 100 people killed in Lagos, Nigeria, in clashes between Muslim Hausas and Christian Yorubas
2003: Parliamentary elections in Kuwait result in strong win for Islamists candidates
2003: Thousands of students protest clerical establishment in Tehran, Iran
2003: The United States leads the invasion of Iraq, starting the second Iraq War
2003: March United States overthrows Saddam Hussein regime
2003: On April 5 Israel conducts the Ain es Saheb airstrike near Damascus, claiming the site was a militant training facility for members of Paletinian Islamic Jihad
2003: Truck bombings in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia kill 34
2004: The second-largest earthquake ever recorded occurs in the Indian Ocean, triggering the Asian tsunami
2004: Indonesia suffers the heaviest damage of the Asian tsunami with 167,736 dead, 37,063 missing and over 500,000 displaced
2004: Pursuant to UN Security Council Resolution coalition forces hand over sovereignty of Iraq to caretaker government
2004: Israel assassinates Dr. ʿAbd al-Aziz al-Rantisi, head of HAMAS
2004: Photos and documentation reveal extensive torture and abuse of prisoners by US military personnel at Abu Ghraib
2004: US troops assault the Iraqi city of Fallujah
2004: Abdul-Qader Arnaout died; he was born Kadri Sokoli, an Albanian Islamic scholar who specialised in the fields of hadith and fiqh and taught many Arab foreign scholars in Damascus institutions and mosques
2005: Local body elections are held in Pakistan on non-party basis
2005: Saudi Arabia's King Fahd dies
2005: Crown Prince Abdullah bin Abdul-Aziz becomes king of Saudi Arabia
2005: A powerful, 7.6-magnitude earthquake hits the Azad Kashmir region of Pakistan, killing upwards of 73,000 people
2005: Indonesian court finds Muslim cleric Abu Bakar Ba’asyir found guilty of conspiracy in 2002 Bali night club bombings
2005: Qatar establishes first written constitution
2005: On October an earthquake in Pakistan kills thousands and leaves families homeless in Khyber-Pakhunkha/Hazara region. Multi story apartment building in Islamabad also collapsed
2005: Israel removes Jewish settlers and military personnel from the Gaza Strip in August 2005, but continues control of its borders
2006: Israel invades part of Lebanon in pursuit of Hezbollah
2006: HAMAS comes to power over Palestinian territories following election victory, resulting in cutting of financial aid to Palestinians from Europe and the United States
2006: Keith Ellison becomes first Muslim American to be elected to the House of Representatives, representing the state of Minnesota
2006: One Million Signatures campaign launched by women activists in Iran seeking expanded women’s rights and reforms to family law
2006: Morocco launches Mourchidat program, appointing women in mosques to serve
2006: First national elections by hand-picked voters in United Arab Emirates
2006: Religious violence flares in Nigeria
2006: Death in plane crash of Nigerian Muslim spiritual leader, the Sultan of Sokoto
2006: 7 June Abu Musab al-Zarqawi, leader of al-Qaʿida in Iraq, killed by US forces
2006: Execution by hanging of former Iraqi President Saddam Hussein
2007: Lebanese army launches attacks on Palestinian refugee camp in northern Lebanon
2007: Al-Qaida establishes parallel government in Iraq, including Council of Ministers
2007: Turkey re-elects Prime Minister Erdogan and Justice and Development Party in parliamentary elections
2007: Capture of Zarkasih, alleged head of military group Jemaah Islamiah, in Indonesia
2007: Anwar Ibrahim’s Parti Keadilan Rakyat loses bitterly contested election in Malaysia
2007: Dozens in Algeria killed in run-up to parliamentary elections
2007: Pakistani leader Benazir Bhutto returns to Pakistan after 10 years of self-imposed exile
2007: Death of Benazir Bhutto in an attack by terrorist at Liaqat Bagh, Rawalpindi
2008: King Abdullah of Saudi Arabia convenes a conference in Mecca of major Muslim leaders
2008: Pervez Musharraf resigns as president of Pakistan, opening the way for restoration of civilian government
2008: Arrest of Malaysian opposition leader Anwar Ibrahim on allegations of sodomy, exacerbating political tensions
2008: Bahrain appoints Houda Nonoo, a Jewish woman, as ambassador to the US, marking first Jewish ambassador for Arab world
2008: At least 200 people killed in Muslim-Christian violence in Jos, Nigeria
2008: Military courts in Egypt sentence 25 leading members of Muslim Brotherhood to jail
2008: More than 800 Muslim Brothers arrested in Egypt, leading to Muslim Brotherhood boycott of elections
2008: Despite protests by thousands in Turkey against allowing women to wear headscarves at universities, parliament approves constitutional amendments
2008: Members of moderate Islamist opposition party join Mauritanian government for the first time
2008: 17 February Kosovo declares its independence from Serbia, receiving recognition from the United States, the United Kingdom, and several European countries
2008: November Millitants take over luxury hotels and other locations in Mumbai, India, resulting in nearly 200 deaths and hundreds of people injured
2008: Bakr Abu Zayd from the tribe of Banu Zayd of Quda'a died; he was a Saudi Arabian Islamic scholar, a leading proponent of the Salafi form of Islam and a member of both the Saudi Council of Senior Scholars and the Permanent Committee for Islamic Research and Issuing Fatwas
2008: Abdullah ibn Muhammad ibn Yusuf Al-Harariyy died; he was considered a muhaddith and scholar of Islamic jurisprudence; lived and taught in Beirut, Lebanon; the founder of Al-Ahbash, a Sufi religious movement
2009: Popular protests follow contested results of presidential elections in Iran, nicknamed the “Twitter Revolution”
2009: Death of Neda in Iran becomes symbol of regime violence against youth, heightening demands for political change and greater levels of freedom
2009: Four Kuwaiti women–Massouma al-Mubarak, Rola Dashti, Salwa al-Jassar, and Aseel al-Awadhi–win parliamentary elections
2009: First interpretation of the Qur’an (tafsir) written by a woman, Kariman Hamzah, approved by Al-Azhar in Egypt
2009: Clashes between police and Copts in Egypt
2009: Major government reshuffle in Saudi Arabia results in sacking of ultra-conservative heads of religious police (mutawwa’), judiciary and central bank
2009: First female minister, Norah Al-Fayes, appointed as Saudi Vice-Minister for Women’s Education
2009: Renewed offensive by government against Shii terrorists in north in Yemen
2009: Yemen-based branch of Al-Qaida claims responsibility for failed attack on US airliner
2009: Pakistani government agrees to implement Sharia law in North-West Swat Valley in order to assure permanent ceasefire with Islamic militants
2009: President Barack Obama delivers an address at Cairo University promising "A New Beginning" in US-Muslim relations
2009: June U.S. troops withdraw from Iraq's urban areas
2009: Ibn Ǧibrīn or Abdullah ibn Abdulrahman ibn Jibreen died; he was a Salafi Saudi-based cleric and a member of the powerful Senior Clerics Association and Permanent Committee for Islamic Research and Issuing Fatwas in Saudi Arabia
2010: Last US combat troops leave Iraq
2010: Increased religious tensions in Malaysia following court decision allowing non-Muslims to use word Allah to refer to God
2010: Three Malay women flogged for extra-marital sex in first case of such an “Islamic” punishment being implemented for this crime in Malaysia
2010: Malaysia appoints first women Islamic court judges
2010: President Saleh of Yemen tries to open talks with Al-Qaida and signs ceasefire with northern rebels
2010: Launch of Yemeni government offensive against southern separatists
2010: Global terror alert after Saudi intelligence uncovers bomb plot involving packages containing explosives originating in Yemen on cargo planes bound for US
2010: At least 149 people killed in Muslim-Christian violence in January and another 120 in March in Nigeria, followed by Christmas Eve bombing that kills 80 more and another 200 in subsequent reprisals
2010: Clashes between police and Copts in Egypt after sectarian shooting outside church; additional clashes ensue over construction of church
2010: Iranian opposition leader, Mir Hossein Mousavi, calls for ongoing peaceful struggle against government
2010: Wide-ranging constitutional reforms approved by parliament in Pakistan, including transfer of key powers from president to prime minister; rise in political killings in Pakistan
2010: Abdullah ibn Abdur-Rahman al-Ghudayyan died; he was a Saudi Arabian Islamic scholar, a leading proponent of the Salafi form of Islam and a member of the Saudi Council of Senior Scholars
2010: Muhammad Sayyid Tantawy, also referred to as Tantawi died; he was an influential Islamic scholar in Egypt; the grand Mufti of Egypt from 1986 to 1996; appointed as the Grand Imam of Al-Azhar 1996
2010: Shawkiy Abu Khalil died; he was a Syria-based Palestinian author and researcher, who wrote many works, most famous of which is his book al-Islam fi Qafass al-'Itiham; born in City of Beisan in 1941; completed his university studies at the Faculty of Arts, Department of History at Damascus University in 1965, then went to Azerbaijan to obtain a PhD in History from the Academy of Sciences
2010: Umaru Musa Yar'Adua died; he was a Nigerian politician who was the President of Nigeria from 2007 to 2010; declared the winner of the Nigerian presidential election held on 21 April 2007, and was sworn in on 29 May 2007; previously served as the Governor of Katsina state from 1999 to 2007; left for Saudi Arabia in 2009 to receive treatment for pericarditis and returned to Nigeria on 24 February 2010, where he died in May
2011: Turkey re-elects Prime Minister Erdogan for third term in office
2011: Self-immolation of vegetable vendor in Tunisia and police murder of Egyptian civilian spark Arab Spring
2011: Tunisian Revolution, an intensive campaign of civil disobedience and protests begun in December 2010, ousts long-time President Zine El Abidine Ben Ali
2011: The first of a series of upheavals known as Arab Spring
2011: January 25 Revolution, a series of demonstrations and strikes in Egyptian urban areas, part of the Arab Spring movement, resulted in the resignation of President Hosni Mubarak
2011: End of January power in Egypt was turned over to a Supreme Council of the Armed Forces
2011: In Syria atttacks on peaceful protests inspired by Arab Spring leads to Syrian Civil War
2011: Militant uprising of the professional class, defecting soldiers and Islamists to topple administration of Muammar Gaddafi
2011: Libyan leader Muammar Gaddafi was captured and executed following military assaults on Libya by French, British and US
2011: Power in Libya was assumed by the rebels' organization the National Transitional Council
2011: Al-Qaeda leader Osama bin Laden killed by US Special Forces inside Pakistan
2011: Ayman Az-Zawahiri becomes leader of Al-Qaeda
2011: President Ali al-Saleh of Yemen forced to leave for Saudi Arabia following serious injuries in bombing
2011: Outbreak of Muslim-Christian violence in Nigeria
2011: France bans burqa and niqab in public places, assigning either fine wearing niqab
2012: Mohamed Morsi, a leading member of the Muslim Brotherhood, becomes the first elected president in Egypt
2012: July The Red Cross officially declares the Syrian uprising a civil war
2012: Umar Sulaiman Al-Ashqar died; he was a Salafi Muslim Brotherhood scholar who served as a professor in the Faculty of Islamic Law at the University of Jordan and was also the Dean of the Faculty of Islamic Law at al-Zarqa’ University, also in Jordan
2013: June Egyptian protests, a mass public demonstration against the administration of Mohamed Morsi, followed by a military coup d'état
2013: Elected presidet Mohamed Morsi was deposed and arrested
2013: The Muslim Brotherhood was officially banned by the Egyptian military junta
2013: Jihadist group Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL or ISIS) adopted the name
2013: ISIL or ISIS expanded its territorial control in Syria and began to do so in Iraq
2013: Mohammed Said Ramadan Al-Bouti (romanized: Muḥammad Saʿīd Ramaḍān al-Būṭī) died; he was a notable Muslim scholar who was also known as "Shaykh of the Levant"; killed during the Syrian civil war, reportedly in a bomb explosion, though "many questions about the death" have been raised by videos of the scene
2014: ISIL or ISIS captures Northern Iraq
2014: ISIL or ISIS captures extensive territory in Western Iraq in the Anbar campaign
2014: Raqqa in Syria became headquarters for Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL or ISIS)
2014: June ISIL or ISIS proclaimed a "worldwide caliphate"
2014: June ISIL or ISIS shortened its name to just "Islamic State" (IS)
2014: In northern Nigerian, Islamic extremist group Boko Haram kidnapped 276 female students
2014: Yemeni president Abdrabbuh Mansur Hadi was ousted by the Iranian backed terrorist Houthi movement
2014: Yemen's Abdrabbuh Mansur Hadi arrived in Saudi Arabia
2015: Saudi Arabian-led intervention in Yemen in response to calls from the Yemeni president Abdrabbuh Mansur Hadi
2015: Turkish biochemist Aziz Sancar becomes the second Turkish Nobel laureate and the first Muslim to be awarded Nobel prize in Chemistry
2015: A human stampede, referred to as the Mina Stampede, causes the death of at least 2,236 pilgrims while participating in Hajj, becoming the deadliest Hajj disaster in history
2015: Mauritania elects its first female president, Ameenah Fakim, a highly Muslim acclaimed scientist turned politician
2015: Russia intervenes in Syria, ostensibly to join the fight against the Islamic State, but its planes often attack rebels fighting to topple Syrian President Bashar al-Assad
2015: July The Iran nuclear deal framework established between the Khomeini regime and a group of world powers, which is upheld by its supporters as the key to ensuring that Iran doesn't acquire or produce nuclear weapons
2015: September A collapsed crane causes the death of 107 at the Grand Mosque in Saudi Arabia
2016: A faction of the Turkish military attempts a failed coup d'état against the Turkish government, citing concerns with the erosion of secularism
2016: June American Muhammad Ali, renown boxer, civil rights activist and Muslim convert, dies at age 74
2016: Shuaib Al Arnaout died; he was a well known Albanian scholar of Hadith in the Islamic World; famous for his works on Hadith Methodology, Manuscript Investigation and Research and Hadith Criticism


**The timeline classifications and most clarifications here in Common Era (C.E.) are based upon and in line with models of Sheikh Dr. Abdul-Fattah Adelabu in his 1998 "Spread Of Islam" and other books, especially, The Hadith Commentaries on (the two columes) Biography Tatmmah (Epilogue) by his teacher Sheikh Abdul-Qadir Al-Arnaout for Jami' Al-Usool of Imam Ibn Athir viz:
Best Generation 570 C.E. - 800 C.E. | Prime Generation 800 C.E. - 900 C.E. | Golden Age 900 C.E. - 1000 C.E. | Serene Age 1000 C.E. - 1200 C.E. | Deficient Time 1200 C.E. - 1330 C.E. | Exigent Time 1330 C.E. - 1480 C.E. | Chaotic World 1480 C.E. - 1680 C.E. | Apocalyptic World 1680 C.E. - 1922 C.E. | excluding later part of section of Current World 1922 C.E. - 2022 C.E.